Q. 19. Your friend wants to purchase jam. What instruction will you give to her ?
Ans : I will tell my friend about the inadequate and misleading labels.
Imitation of the popular brands is so clearly done that it is difficult to differentiate between the genuine and misleading labels. An alert consumer will be able to notice the misleading label. A good label should give you information as regards the composition, method of using, date of manufacture and expiry. It should have standard mark and price also.
Q. 20. Name different types of design and their principles.
Ans : Two types of design are important in dressmaking :
(i) Structural Design — These are made by joining pieces together. The garment is made by joining pieces, i.e., yoke, collar, cuff, pleats, etc.
(ii) Decoratvie Design — It is made after the dress is stitched, e.g., by putting buttons, frills or lace, etc., by embroidering with different colour, patch work or dyeing in different colours.
Principles of Design Balance — Proportion — Rhythm — Emphasis — Harmony
Q. 21. What points would you keep in mind whileselecting clothes for children ? Discuss in detail.
Ans : Growin g ch ildr en are vigorous and full of strength, so they generally use vivid coloured dresses with simple lines. Children’s clothing should be made up of strong, durable and easily washable fabric. These clothes should have enough margin to cater to their growing needs.
At the same time, there clothes should not be too loose as it will cause inconvenience in playing. Very tight clothes are not good for general growth. Dull colours should not be selected for children, rather bright and gaudy colours are good for them.
Q. 22. What is the criteria of judging the readymade garments ?
Ans : Many people are going in for radymade garments these days. Hence, following points of workmanship should be looked before purchasing readymade garment.
Workmanship : Fabric — Drape — Placket — Design and Plates — Seams — Fasteners — Hem — Trimming
Q. 23. Name occupations you can choose after getting trained in food and nutrition.
Ans : (i) Owning a bakery. (ii) Contract catering service. (iii) Mobile catering van. (iv) Organising hobby classes. (v) Supplying packed lunch boxes in offices. (vi) Working in hotel industry. (vii) Preparing home-made preserves and bakery products and selling them.
Q. 24. Give four suggestions from the area of Nutrition / Textiles to justify that knowledge of Home Science can lead to self-employment.
Ans : Nutrition : (i) Can provide lunch in offices. (ii) Can prepare self-preserved foods. (iii) Can prepare and sell papad, pickle etc. (iv) Can run diet counselling centre. (v) Can run helath centre.
Textile : (i) Can become a freelance dress designer. (ii) Can open a boutique. (iii) Can stitch clothes. (iv) Can export readymade garments.
Q. 25. Trace the intellectual process among early adolescents.
Ans. The intellectual process among early adolescents is based on three domains, i.e. quantitative, qualitative and affective.
Quantitatively, the logic of the concrete operational child remains restricted to simple combinations of one or two relations/factors, whereas the adolescent is open to a synthesis of number of factors.
Qualitatively, the adolescent possesses a higher ability to reason out the situations in novel ways.
On the affective domain, the child below eleven years of age is less certain of the thought processes than the adolescents. Hence, the younger children are more susceptible to suggestions than the formal operational adolescent.
Q.26. What is fat ? What are its functions ?
Ans. Fats are concentrated forms of energy in the diet. Each gram of fat gives 9 calories and hence provides great amount of satisfaction. These are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in different proportions.
Fats are also referred to as lipids. They are highly complex compounds soluble in ether, benzene, carbon tetrachloride and alcohol etc.
The general formula of fat is R—COOH where R is hydrogen group or group of hydrogen and carbon atoms.
Fats in the diet take longer to digest. Hence a feeling of prolonged satisfaction and retarding of hunger is there.
Fried foods are digested slowly. Carbohydrates are necessary for the oxidation of fats.
Functions of Fats : Fats/lipids are a reservoir of calories. Each gram of fat gives 9 calories. They have higher safety value than proteins and carbohydrates.
Fats supply the essential vitamins – A, D, E and K.
Fats also aid in the absorption of these vitamins.
Fats provide fatty layer below the skin that checks the loss of heat from the body. It helps in maintaining body temperature. It is an insulation between the external environment and internal environment of the body.
Fats, when taken in right quantities have a protein sparing action.
Fatty layers/adipose tissues provide protection to the delicate internal organs of the body.
Fats lubricate digestive tract and facilitate evacuation of wastes from the body.
Fats like butter and ghee provide taste and flavour to the food, thereby increasing its probability. Soft fats like butter, cream, egg, yolk are also easy to digest.
Q.27. What are the contributions of fruits and vegetables in our life ?
Ans. Fruits enjoy a special place in our diets. There are varities of fruit in enjoyable flavour and tastes.
Fruits like ripe mangoes, papayas and peaches are particularly rich in carotene. Organes, citrus fruits and fresh fruit juice are rich sources of Vitamin C. These are known for healthy teeth, gums, healing of woudns and clean complexion.
Bananas are rich sources of carbohydrates. African children consuming large amounts of bananas have been known to suffer from Kwashiorkor.
Fruits provide fruit sugar levulose important to food industry. They also provide some roughage necessary for regulation of the body processes. Fruits like apple and plums contain high amounts of pectin and are used for making jams and jellies.
Variety in vegetables is quite like the fruits. The vegetables vary in appearance, taste, flavour and nutrient contents. Different vegetables grow in different climatic conditions. Different parts of the plant are eaten as vegetables.
Leaves : Spinach, amaranth, lettuce, mint, coriander and methi etc.
Roots and tuber : Onions, turnips, radish, carrots, tubers potatoes, sweet potato and yam.
Fruits of : Brinjals, ladyfinger, snakegourd. Vegetables: cucumber and all other gourds.
Flowers : Cauliflower, kachnar and banana flowers.
Green leafy vegetables are rich in calcium, iron and vitamin A. Most. leafy vegetables are rich in riboflavin and are known to reduce the incidence of angular stomatitis (cracking of lips at the corner of mouth). Green leafy vegetables because of their high fibre content are known to have a mild laxative effect. High concentration of oxalates present in green leafy vegetables interferes with the absorption of iron, calcium, copper and magnesium.
Root vegetable are rich in carbohydrate and carotene (carrots) content. Vegetables (carrots, tomatoes) eaten as salads provide vitamin C. Carrots, beets, turnips and pumpkins provide vitamin A. Cereals and pulses lack vitamin A and C. Vegetables taken together with cereals and pulses improve the dietary nutrient content.
Fungi-like mushrooms and ‘dhengri’ are gaining popularity in menus. Fungi are luxury foods available freely to the poor man as they grow wild in rainy season.
It is important to eat only the edible variety of fungi.
They add to the elegance and attractiveness of a meal.
Non-edible fungi cause poisoning due to the presence of toxins. It is characterised by abdominal pain, nausea, retching, vomitting and loose stools accompanied by mucous and blood.
Vegetables provide variety and add to the elegance and attractiveness of a meal.
Q.28. Discuss briefly the properties of Silk.
Ans. Physical Properties : Silk is a protein fibre. It is made of protein called “Fibroin”. The silk fibre is rod shaped and transparent. Sometimes it appears rough and irregular due to the presence of gum. Wild silk is more uneven and dark when compared to the cultivated silk.
Silk filaments vary from 1000-1200 metres in length with a width of 9-11 microns. Silk has natural sheen and the colour varies from off white to cream. Wild silk has less lustre than cultivated silk.
It is sensitive to sunlight. The sunlight deteriorates the silk quality.
It is a strong fibre. The fibre increases slightly in length when it is wet. It is weaker when wet and hence needs careful handling when washed. It is little more elastic than cotton.
Silk is a good absorbent of water. This property makes silk suitable for dyes and finishes. Wild silk has lesser affinity for dyes than cultivated silk.
Silk is warmer than cotton and hence generally worn in better weather and winter.
Thermal Properties : Silk burns easily but extinguishes itself after being removed from fire. It leaves crisp-brittle ash having smell of burning hair.
It is poor conductor of heat.
Silk stretches with ironing. The finish is better, when steam-pressed.
It scorches easily in contact with hot iron.
Chemical Properties : Silk gets damaged by alkalis.
It gets dissolved in hot caustic soda. But it is slightly more resistant to alkalis than wool.
Mineral acids bring about contraction and discolouration in silk. Silk is less resistant to acids than wool.Mild bleaches, hydrogen peroxide and spot removing agents can be used without much fear of damage to the fabric It is poor conductor of electricity.
Silk gets easily destroyed by carpet beetles.
Unlike cotton it is resistant to mildew.
Use and Care of Silk :Silk is best dry cleaned. At home the silk can be washed gently with mild detergent and followed by thorough rinsing. Avoid squeezing. Water can be removed by pressing it in a thick turkish towel.
Hand in dry place but away from sunlight. Steam press for good results.
Q.29. Discuss the factors which affect the language development.
Ans. (i) Body : The physical organs which are responsible for speech affects the development of speech.If these organs develop properly the child learns better language and their pronunciation is also correct.
(ii) Health : Children who are healthy and their sense organs are properly developed, they receive correct stimuli from the environment and they learn better language quickly. Child with poor health is not able to learn language properly.
(iii) Intelligence : Intelligence of the child affects the language development of the child. Comprehension of the intelligent child is good so he learns faster and better. They make less grammatical mistakes.
(iv) Sex : It has been seen that girls learns I language earlier than boys. Their sentences are long and their pronunciation is nearly correct.
(v) Family : The language of family members affect the language development of the child. How they communicate with him ? How much opportunity the child gets to speak, their encouragement etc. affects the child’s language development. Children from joint families learn language faster than children from nuclear family. The vocabulary of children of joint families is more than the vocabulary of children of nuclear families. (vi) Economic status of the family : It has been seen that children from higher income group have a better language development. They get better environment, better opportunities, better school and teachers, so automatically their language development is good. They speak correctly and they have a rich vocabulary. They make sentences choosing better words.
(vii) Emotional Stability : Children who live in tense atmosphere, are not able to develop their language properly as they get scared and develop inferiority complex. They suffer from language disorders also.
Q.30. What are the substitute of mother’s milk ?
Ans. Generally cow’s milk is given as a substitute. Out of various animal milks available, Cow’s milk is the best and the most suitable for the child. It is on account of its similarity in the nutritional composition with that of mother’s milk. Water can be added to dilute this milk to make it more easily digestible. This diluted milk is low in calories, so sugar is added to make up the deficiency.
The child should be given boiled milk because all the harmful bacterias are destroyed in boiling. Disinfect the utensils in boiling water. How much milk should be given to an infant ? It largely depends upon the infant and varies from infant to infant.
Canned milk can be given to an infant in case mother’s milk or pure animal milk is not available like dried milk, evaporated milk, vitamin D, enriched milk etc.
Dried Milk Powders : Milk powder is prepared by drying animal milk scientifically, Its composition is similar to that of mother’s milk and an infant can easily digest it.
Advantages of dried milk powder – It is easily available.
It can not be adulterated easily.
These are of different types and can be purchased according to requirement of the infant.
These can be preserved for a long time.
Weaning or Supplementary Feeding : Breast milk alone is sufficient until the infant is 4-6 months old. After that some foods in addition to milk are required for the baby.
“The process of introducing supplementary foods along with the mother’s milk to an infant is known as weaning or supplementary feeding.
This is a gradual process. It starts the very moment when supplementary foods are introduced to the child and continuous until the child stops taking breast milk altogether. Any other food except mother’s milk is known as supplementary food.
Q.31. Discuss unfair means of measurement. What the government has done to prevent it ? What the consumer should do ?
Ans. Incorrect measurement is another problem in addition to adulteration. Often standard weights and measurements are not used in the market. Spurious, under weights or stones, bricks etc. are used in place of standard weights. Sometimes the seller weighs packings along with the goods. The seller tries to deceive the consumer by not using standard scales, specially under weighs goods with the hand weighing scales. Boxes or bottles that are used in packed goods are generally of such a shape as would give lesser quantity to the consumer. For example a bottle with heavy base and sleek bottle gives an impression that the quantity of goods is more but in reality it is less. For measuring milk, measures with raised bottom are used.
To prevent unfair means of measurements, government has passed certain acts from time to time.
In 1956, government has passed a standard measurement act.
In 1962, decimal and metric system of measurement was introduced. This system has following units of measurement :
l. Unit of length – Metre
2. Unit of weight– Gram
3. Unit for measuring liquids – Litre.
In 1976, Standard Weight and Measurement Act was passed. Under this act use of any other method except decimal and metric system is illegal. For weighing and measuring, the use of standard weights and measures is compulsory.
In 1977, certain rules were fixed for packed products.
Under these rules, weighing of the products alongwith the weight of the packing is illegal.
The consumer should take the following steps in order to avoid such malpractices :
(a) The fruit and vegetable vendor should not be allowed to weigh by stone or brick in place of standard weights.
(b) The bar of the hand weighing scale should be checked before hands. In case if weighing scale, ensure that the needle is at zero.
(c) Check the weights and ensure that the weights are not hollow or with false bottom.
(d) The shopkeeper should not be allowed to weigh the goods along with packing.
(e) Before purchasing packed goods, check the weight on the label.
(f) If the consumer feels that the shopkeeper is using malpractices in weights and measures, he should immediately lodge a complaint with Weights and Measure Bureau.
Q.32. Show the method of washing silk clothes.
Ans. Silk clothes is a delicate cloth. It should be washed very carefully. Most of the time it is advisable to get it drycleaned. Soap and water makes its fibres weak. They should not be rubbed as it spoils its colour and texture.
(a) Preparation : (i) Repairing should be done. (ii) Stains should be removed when fresh. Dilute solutions should be used. It is better to use petrol, benzene etc.
(b) Washing : Mix detergent and very luke warm water should be used to clean silk clothes. Ritha and Shikakai solutions are suitable to wash such clothes. They should not be rubbed. Light pressure should be applied on silk clothes.
(c) Rinsing : They should be rinsed many times from water till all the detergent is removed. But they should not be squeezed. Water should be removed by pressing between palms. Vinegar should be added in final rinse for shine.
(d) Starching : Gum starch should be applied to silk clothes.
(e) Drying : Silk should be dried in shade otherwise they lose their lustre and colour also gets faded.
(f) Finishing : Ironing should be done when the clothes are slightly moist. If the clothes are embroidered, ironing should be done from reverse side.
Q. 33. How do socio-economic disadvantages adversely affect the cognitive development of children in early years of growth?
Ans : Socio-economic disadvantage in India implies those socio-economic factors which prevent the growth of the inner potentialities of the child. Disadvantaged groups in India are therefore, those who have low socioeconomic status, low income, residence in rural areas, or impoverished localities belonging to lower castes or lower level towns. Psychologists like D. Sinha and G. Misra hold that the concept of ‘disadvantage group’ in India is primarily economic in nature. The concept of disadvantaged group they hold, should be defined in terms of income or consumption level. Those falling below the poverty should form the disadvantaged group. Poverty has direct and visible impact on the child. During the initial period of his life in his childhood he has malnourished mother they get born without proper prenatal as well as postnatal care. He is malnourished, underweight and suffers from many illness. This parents are often unemployed or underemployed. The child becomes a victim of number of disabilities.
Q. 34. Discuss disaster preparedness.
Ans. 1. Curriculum Planning : Understanding the hazards of nuclear attack, shock waves, radioactivity, food and water shortage, panic and other chaos requires long range curriculum planning. These can be done by setting
(i) education objectives
(ii) selecting methods and teaching materials
(iii) making allocations to various areas and levels of hazards.
2. Sale Survival Training : The skills which the individual will need for survival shall be taught. These includes
(i) First aid.
(ii) Home nursing.
(iii) Emergency cooking.
(iv) Fire fighting.
(v) Civil defence signals and warnings
(vi) Protections of valuables. (vii) Protection of property.
(viii) Wise use of water and mutual aids.
3. Home preparedness : Home preparedness must include
(i) Provision for safe shelter.
(ii) Provision for water and food.
(iii) Provision for waste disposal.
(iv) Provision for radio and lights.
(v) Reading and educational matter for children and civil defence manuals.
4. Community prepare dne ss : C omm u n it y preparedness includes the emergency use of all facilities which are necessary for living and survival i.e. industrial plants, banks, food sources etc. must all be considered.
Evacuation procedures must be developed, tested and practical. This includes
(i) When to evacuate (ii) Where to go (iii) Whom to take
(a) Schoolchildren (b) Children at home (c) Handicapped people at home and work
(iv) What to take with you.
Q. 35. What should be the Health Care During Disaster ?
Ans. Good health requires certain efforts and can not be purchased. Health is a prime concern for individuals as well as for the community at large. Cleanliness inside and outside the house along with proper sanitation helps in keeping the environment disease free. Knowledge of first aid can be great help in saving a victim’s life in case of an emergency.
Steps Taken for Health Care During Disaster :
1. Regular and free medical examination camps around affected area.
2. People should be given protective devices for their hands, feet and head, to ‘prevent them from injuries and infections.
3. It is necessary to monitor the living sites to avoid.
Respiratory and cardio vascular problems, coughs, colds fever and eye problems.
4. Programme to provide iodised salt and food to maintain good, health.
5. Cautions use of insecticides and pesticides at the affected area to kill mosquitoes and other infections bacterias and virus which spread various diseases.
6. People must be advised to take cooked food and boiled water. To protect them from water born diseases like Jaundice, polio, cholera, typhoid, diarrhoea, dysentery and worm infestations.
7. Provision of safe places like sheds.
8. Provision of alternate, easily available fuel.
Q. 36. Define Human Reproduction and Menstruation.
Ans. Reproduction : Reproduction is the process by which a living organism is able to produce more of its own kind. The continuity of the life on earth, from its origin to the present day, has been possible only because of reproduction. It is one of the most important characteristic of the living organism. Reproduction is one of the fundamental properties of living organism by which every kind of living organism multiplies to from new individuals of their own species. It is indispensable condition for preserving the species and is necessary to make up the losses that occur due to competition, predation, disease, starvation and other causes of death.
Purpose of reproduction : It maintains the continuity of the race.
Process of Reproduction : If the ovum receives sperm it is in the fallopian tube, the two unite to form a ygote.
Fertilization occurs in the fallopian tube. The zygote immediately beings to divide and forms a mass of cells
called morula, which passes down to the uterus and fixes itself to the wall of the uterus (known as implantation).
Menstruation does not occur and the female is said to be pregnant. It is believed that a woman’s period of fertility last only a day or two after ovulation.
If the ovum is fertilized, it becomes implanted in the endometrium. Implantation usually takes place 3 to 4 days after the young embryo reaches the uterus, six or seven days after the egg was fertilized.
The developing young one or the foetus is attached to the uterus by a issue called placenta. Placenta supplied oxygen and nourishment from the maternal blood to the foetus. It also transports carbon dioxide and excretory waste from the foetal blood to the maternal blood.
Placenta also produces two hormones progesterone and estrogen. Under the influence of these hormones neither ovulation nor menstruation take place till pregnancy continues.
Menstrual Cycle in Human Females
The beginning of the menstrual cycle makes the onset of puberty in females. In human females the cycle usually lasts about 28 days. Menstruation begins about 15 days after ovulation and lasts about 2 to 4 days. It is considered as periodic preparation for fertilization of he ovum and pregnancy. The period of life during which a female has he capacity to produce young ones is called fertility period. It extends from about 12-13 years (Puberty) up to 45-50 years (monopause).
1. Proliferative phase – This phase is also called follicular phase or stage of repair and proliferation. This is mainly influenced by oestrogens secreted. During this phase functional living reappeared in the uterus to receive the fertilized ovum. This phase starts from the end of menstruation to ovulation. This phase generally involves 10 days.
2. Ovulatory Phase – It occurs midway between two menstrual periods. During this phase ovulation takes place and body temperature rises. Conspicuous changes does not occur in the uterus endometrium during this period.
3. Secretary phase – This phase is under the control of the hormones. This phase prepares the endometrium for pregnancy and implantation. It is also called premenstrual phase. This phase last for about 13 to 14 days.
4. Menstrual Phase – This phase is also called destruction phase and lasts about 4 days. In this phase bleeding takes place due to rapture of blood vessels. This happen only when fertilization is not accompanied.
All these phases of menstrual cycle are due to shifting balance of the hormones. If the ovum does not receive any sperm during this period it starts degenerating. At the end of the 28th day this ovum is rejected. This makes the start of slow disintegration and the next menstrual