Q. 18. What is a saving account ?
Ans : This account is meant for those who deposit small amounts. In most of the banks, this account can be opened with an initial deposit of Rs. 500/-. In this type of account, the depositor can deposit an amount any number of times.
Q. 19. What is the importance of consumer education ?
Ans : Consumers education enables an individual to :
(i) Have proper knowledge and information about goods and services needed in day-to-day life.
(ii) Making better use of their money, thus improving the standard of living.
(iii) Drive maximum satisfaction from the goods and services used.
(iv) Make better choices an d be well prepared for everyday living.
Q. 20. What is the importance of texture of cloth is subduing body defects ?
Ans : Body defects can be subdued by using cloth with appropriate texture. Different type of textures have varied effects.
Glossy texture — Reflects light and gives an illusion of increased size.
Dull texture — Absorbs light and reduces the size.
Coarse and thick texture — Gives an illusion of increased size.
Fine and soft texture — Reveals the body shape.
Q. 21. Which four points would you keep in mind while selecting clothes for a working girl ? Give reasons.
Ans : While selecting clothes for a working girl, following points should be kept in mind.
(i) The clothes should be comfortable as it is to be worn for whole day.
(ii) The fabric should be strong and durable.
(iii) Colour, design and style should be according to the personality of the wearer so that it enhances the personality and disguises the figure flaws. (iv) Dress should be easily washable and maintainable so that she does not waste her time and money on the upkeep of the dress.
Q. 22. Why do you think better to buy a readymade dress ?
(i) Life is very busy the se days. Purcha se of ready made garment saves time, energy.
(ii) Readymade garments are available in latest and fashionable design.
(iii) They are comparatively cheaper as they are made in bulk.
(iv) They can be tried for fitting before purchase. You can select a dress, a suitable design and colour out of so many available.
(v) Another r eason for the in cr eased demand of readymade garments is that they are prepared as per the requirement of the consumer. The desired qualities of garments is prepared by using new fibres and finishes.
(vi) Consumer prefers readymade garments as these are easy to wear, wash and maintain.
Q. 23. Name occupation you can choose after getting trained in child development.
Ans : (i) Wor kin g in a creche. (ii) Working in a organisation for disabled children. (iii) Opening a creche/ day care centre. (iv) Opening preparatory school.
Q. 24. What role do grandparents play in the rearing of a child particularly when the mother goes out to work ?
Ans : Grandparents play a very important role in rearing of a child when mother is not at home. They :
(i) Attend to emotional needs of the child
(ii) Give love and affection.
(iii) Can discipline the child.
(iv) Teach family values to the child.
(v) Can put the child to sleep.
(vi) Can attend to toilet needs of the child.
Q.25. How the teachers should use the formal operations with the adolescence ?
1. Continue to use many of the teaching strategies and materials appropriate for students at the concrete operatioal stage.
2. Give Students an opportunity to explore many hypothetical questions.
3. Encourage students to explain how they solve problems.
4. Whenever possible, teach broad concepts, not just facts, using materials and ideas relevant to the students.
5. Use visual aids such as charts and illustrations, as well a simple but somewhat more sophisticated graphs and diagrams.
6. Use well-organized materials that offer step by step explanations.
7. Provide students opportunities to discuss social issues.
8. Provide consideration of hypothetical “other worlds”.
9. Ask students to work in pairs with one student acting as the problem solver, thinking aloud while tackling a problem, while the other student acting as the listener, checking to see that all steps are mentioned and that
everything seems logical.
10. Make sure that at least some of the tests you give ask for more than rote memory or one final answer; essay questions, for example, might ask students to justify two different positions on an issue.
11. While discussing a topic such as the war of indeperdence, consider what other issues have divided the country since then.
Q.26. What are the functions of Vitamin A ? What are its sources ?
Ans. Vitamin A is required for the normal functioning of :
Eyes : Retinol has rhodopsin (also known as visual purple), which gets bleached in the presence of light. It is due to the bleaching of the visual purple that one sees at night. Individuals deficient in Vitamin-A often complain of poor vision at night (night blindness).
Epithelial cells. Reduced epithelial secretion due to deficiency causes dryness.
Cornea. The sclera conjunctiva of the eye becomes dry when there is shortage of vitamin A. This leads to Xero-ophthalmia (dryness of eyes). This condition adversely affects cornea leading to blindness.
Sweat glands. Shortage of Vitamin A results in the sweat glands getting blocked by horny plugs of keratin causing ‘follicular keratosis” or ‘toad skin’.
Kidney. Deficiency among animals is known to cause stones.
Skeleton and teeth : Irregular development of skeleton and teeth is noticed amongst animals with low level of Vitamin A.
Foetal tissue : Deficiency of Vitamin A is known to cause infertility among women. Deficiency may cause premature birth and still birth.
Sources of Vitamin A
Vitamin A in the form of retinol and B-carotene is founds both in animal and vegetable foods.
The following foods are rich in Vitamin A.
Milk and milk products like cream, butter, cheese, egg yolk, and fatty fish.
Carrots, pumpkin, ripe papaya and mangoes have particularly large quantities of B-Carotene. Green leafy vegetables with chlorophyll also supply this vitamin. Darker the green leafy vegetable better the vitamin A content.
Q.27. Write a notes on Semi Perishable and nonperishable foods.
Ans. Semi perishable foods last a little longer for their moisture content is low. These can remain in good form at room temperature for a couple of weeks. These could be purchased in quantities slightly larger than the perishable foods. Some of the semiperishable foods are :
Powedered cereals and pulses. Suji, flour and rice flakes.
Powdered spices, chat masala and curry powder etc.
Bread, buns, kulcha, pizza bases and rolls etc.
Butter, cheese spread, cheese slices and sauces etc.
Potato, sweet potato, arbi, onion, ginger, garlic can all be kept at room temperature for 8-10 days depending upon weather conditions.
Non-Perishable Foods Non-perishable foods have a lower moisture content, retain nutrients for a longer time before perishing. Nonperishable foods have very low moisture content. There is hardly any microbial activity in the absence of moisture.
Hence such foods retain their quality and nutrients over long periods of time. Some nonperishable foods are: Cereals, grains and pulses keep for a fairly long time, e.g. wheat, rice, rajmah, dry peas, kidney beans etc.
Sugar, honey, tea, coffee, cocoa etc.
Oil, ghee, oil seeds like groundnuts, mustard seeds and sesame seeds etc.
Salt and all whole spices like cinnamon, cardamom, cloves etc.
Tea and coffee. Walnuts, almonds, cashewnuts, raisin and dry dates.
Q.28. Discuss briefly the properties of Nylon and its use and care.
Ans. Physical Properties : Longitudinal sections of nylon fibre when viewed under the microscope are transparent, uniform in diameter with a slight speckled appearance. Nylon fibres have natural translucency.
It can be made into very shear, transparent and lustrous fabrics. Lustrous nylon fabric was made opaque by printing it with resin containing white pigment.
Scientific advancement today has led to the development of opaque nylon. Length and width of the fibres vary considerably depending upon what it is to be used for.
Nylon is strongest of the man-made fibres.
It retains most of its elasticity and strength when wet. Hence it does not require special attention during washing. Moisture spreads quickly and hastens evaporation.
Nylon fibres are long and strong. They have a tendency of cutting through other kinds of fibres. It tends to snag. Unlike weaker fibres, nylon does not break but pulls. This gives a puckered look to the fabric in due course.
Nylon fabrics are resistant to perspiration. However, coloured nylon gets affected by perspiration.
Thermal Properties : Nylon melts away from flame, forming a tan coloured gummy ash that hardens on
Nylon is given ‘heat setting treatment’. Most nylons can withstand temperature upto do 140°C for a fairly long period without damage. It is important to avoid temperature that might exceed the one used in the heat setting treatment.
Sunlight is destructive to nylon. Prolonged exposure to sun makes it weak, brittle and easy to crack.
Chemical Properties : Nylon is not affected by alkalis. However, all acids have a damaging effect on the fibre.
Stain removers and bleaching agents can be used without the fear of much damage.
Biological Properties : Nylon is resistant to mildew.
It is not affected by micro-organism and bacteria.
Ants, crickets and cockroaches if trapped in nylon will eat it to get out.
Use and Care of Nylon : Nylon is easy to wash and care. It can be washed in cold or hot water, drip dried or dried in a dryer. It is better to do cold water wash to avoid wrinkling. Nylon tends to attract colour and dirt from other clothes to when washed together. This brings about grayness and yellowing that is difficult to remove.
Hence immediate spot cleaning of nylon is a must.
It is used for apparel, furnishing and lingeries. It is blended with other fibres to increase its versatality.
Q.29. Write the important points to be considered before immunisation.
(i) Make an immunisation chart with the help of a doctor.
(ii) If the time of any doze is lapsed then it should be given as early as possible.
(iii) During diarrhoea, polio drops have no effect on the child, so avoid it.
(iv) Sometimes the child suffers from milk fever or swelling after immunisation. Some medicines to control the fever should be given.
(v) Pregnant women should get herself immunised for tetanus in 1st month, before one booster of tetanus should be given.
Q.30. When weaning should be started ?
Ans. The appropriate time to introduce supplementary food to the infant is four to six months. It may lead to diarrhoea if introduced at an early stage and to malnutrition if delayed. Normally a change in form and liquidity of supplementary food can be brought about in the following manner :
1. During 4–6 months give liquid supplements, e.g., fruit juices, vegetable soup etc. The amount of juice should be increased gradually.
2. At the age of about 6-8 months semi solid to solid foods, which are properly cooked and mashed should be given to an infant. e.g. mashed potato, sweet potato, carrot, green leafy vegetables, banana, papaya, mango, dal, egg, yolk, porridge of staple food etc.
3. At 9-11 months of age, an infant should be given finely chopped and solid supplementary foods like biscuits, carrot, cucumber, apple, banana, mango, papaya etc.
4. At the age of one year, infant should be given all those foods that are cooked for the family.
In addition to all these foods, mother’s milk should also be given to the infant. But in case the mother stops lactating, half a litre of artificial milk as such or in the form of curd, cheese, kheer, porridge etc. should be given to the infant everyday.
Q.31. What are the rights of a consumer ?
(a) Right to Safety : The consumer can demand a ban on the sale of goods injurious to health like harmful food products, inferior medicines, electric appliances without safety.
(b) Right to Information : Consumer can demand any information about the quality, purity, price, weight etc. of any product.
(c) Right to Select : If a product is produced by more than one manufacturer, or some other alternatives are available, then the consumer has a right to inspect the products of various manufacturers so that the consumer may purchase a quality product at appropriate price after making comparative study.
(d) Right to be Heard : A consumer has the right to bring to the notice of the manufacturer or the seller any defect found in the goods purchased by him. In case they do not pay any heed to the consumer’s complaint, he can approach the concerned authorities.
(e) Right of Compensation : A consumer can demand compensation for the loss he suffered on the purchase of faulty goods or services.
(f) Right to Consumer Education : A consumer has the right to knowledge for the proper information and selection of the goods.
Q.32. How the synthetic fibres made clothes are washed and calendered ?
Ans. (a) Preparation : It is easy to wash synthetic clothes.
(i) Repair clothes.
(ii) Remove stains.
(b) Washing : Good detergent should be selected to wash these clothes. Cuffs and Collars should be rubbed before hand. They should be brushed lightly and washed with soap or detergent.
(c) Rinsing : They should be rinsed 2 to 3 times till
all the soap is removed. They should not be squeezed hard.
(d) Drying : They should be dried in sun hanged in hangers.
(e) Finishing : These clothes should be ironed at a very low temperature.
Drying : Often, clothes are dried on a rope or wire in the courtyard of the house. Clippers are used for hold fasting of clothes. Woollen clothes are not dried by hanging as the garment will become shapeless. These clothes should be dried on a cot or on a levelled surface. In western countries, drying cabinet is used where these clothes are dried electrically.
Finishing-Ironing : The clothes are finished after drying. These are ironed. Small quantity of water is sprinkled on clothes before ironing them. These days many type of irons are available in the market. Different temperatures are required to iron different type of clothes.
Now the irons are fitted with thermostat to control temperature. Cotton clothes are ironed at high temperature.
Ironing should be done along the direction of the fibre.
This helps in giving added lustre to the clothes. Embossed embroidery and monograms should be ironed on the wrong side on a pad. Sleeve board is also used for ironing sleeves. Wooden plank which is called ironing board is used for ironing clothes which can be folded.
Calendering : Clothes are finished by calenderin, also. Sarees and dupattas are given finishing by it. Clothes are starched and stretched without applying any pressure and dried. Clothes are pressed in two metal-lic revolving rollers. It helps in drying and ironing the clothes.
Q.33. Role of education and propaganda media in fostering national integration.
Ans : The role of education in fostering national integration has been long recongnised. Based on their findings, various psychologists have pointed out that education helps an individual to think more rationally about the various issues rather than responding to them in an emotional and impulsive way. It also makes the individual more scientific and secular in his outlook.
For having and effective education and propaganda program for fostering national integration, one needs to begin with a careful planning of the programme. The programmes should be made after keeping in mind the abilities of the recipient population. It should be framed in the language of the general audience so that the messages are easily comprehensible.
The message should emphasize upon the roles of national integration. It should resort to persuasive communication to bring intended changes in attitude. It can make use of fear arousing appeals by vividly portratying the dangers of rising communalism, linguism and regionalism and the havoc they will bring the country if they are left unchecked and unrestrained.
The programme should specially concentrate on undereducated ones. In this regard the Satellite. Television Instructional Experiment (SITE) played an important role in spreading educational and informative messages to the hitherto untouched villages of India. Satellite, television as well as radio broadcasting of such programmes will really go a long way in curing the evils of ethnic and communal prejudice in India due to its extensive coverage and quality of programmes based on the principles of psychology.
Q. 34. Discuss Conceptional and Prenatal Care.
Ans. Planning for a baby is such a lovely experience for both parents. It is part of the real fulfilment of marriage. These nine months of waiting should be a joyful time, a time happy planning for the future family. This is the time when nature is doing most remarkable job and you must do your part to keep yourself strong and healthy.
Some special care is needed during this period. We should keep following point in our mind:-
1. Periodical Medical Checkups – You should see your doctor at least every two weeks until the baby comes.
Each time your urine should be examined to make sure your kidneys are operating well. It is natural that you should be a bit shy about your medical examinations. Try to forget these feeling for, after all, you are not different from other women. Just relax and all will go well.
2. Regular Exercises – Light exercise is important during pregnancy, but you must not become too tired.
House work is beneficial, but avoid lifting heavy thing.
Stop and rest for a while whenever you become overly tired. In later pregnancy it is well to lie down and rest for a few min. in the morning and in the afternoon. Walking will serve as an excellent tonic for your whole system.
3. Smoking – Cigarate smoking is not wise during pregnancy not for that matter at any other time in life.
The smoke from even one cigarate may increase the speed of your baby’s heart as much as 25% above its previous rate. Tobacco smoke contains certain poisons such as nicotine. These find their way into the blood stream and effect the baby. If you are in habit of smoking, it would be wise for you to stop.
4. Alcohol – Alcohol in any form places an added strain on your kidneys and liver, especially during pregnancy. There is a little evidence that use of alcohol by a pregnant woman will damage her unborn child. If used frequently and heavily, it is likely to damage the child’s physical and mental development.
5. Avoid taking medicines – Avoid taking medicines if at all possible. Some medicines can harm the developing baby. As a rule, only take medicines recommended by a health worker or doctor. You can take aspirin or antacids
once in a while if you need them.
6. X-ray and Radium – There is a medical evidence, that use of X-ray and radium for therapeutic purposes in pregnant women tends to be damaging to the unborn child. This damage may take the form of birth defects, miscarriages or still births.
7. Mother’s health – Maternal health conditions that are known or believed or to have the greatest effect on the unborn child include endocrine disorders, infectious diseases (especially rubella and the venereal diseases) prolonged or wasting diseases and pronounced under and over weight. 8. Mother’s psychological conditions – In mild maternal stress, fetal activity and fetal heart rate increase.
Severe and prolonged maternal stress bad to “bloodborne anxieties” which affect postnatal as well as prenatal development.
9. Dental Care – Dental decay is common during pregnancy, particularly if your diet is lacking in calcium. be sure to see a good dentist early in pregnancy and have needed repair made on your teeth. Tooth extractions should be done under local anaestheatic. Good dental care will save your teeth.
10. Clothing – Never wea r an yth in g tigh t or uncomfortable during pregnancy. Your clothes should hang from the shoulders. Avoid tight bands around the waist or legs at this time. Comfortable low-heeled shoes are best.
11. Bathing – Take your usual daily bath. A shower as a sponge bath are equally good. In later pregnancy a shower may be more practical. Be careful not to slip.
12. Nutrition – The unborn child’s nourishment comes from the maternal blood stream through the placenta. The mother’s diet must contain sufficient proteins, fats and carbohydrates to keep the child healthy.
(a) Use iodized salt – Use iodized salt to increase the chances that child will be born alive and not be retarded, but to avoid swelling of the feet and other problems. Do not use very much salt.
(b) Vitamin – Deficiency of vitamin C, B-6, B-12, D, E and K is especially likely to interfere with the normal pattern of prenatal development. Vitamin and iron pills are often helpful and do not harm when taken in the right dosage.
(c) Diet – Many women in rural areas are anemic even before they pregnant and become more anemic during pregnancy. To make a healthy baby, a woman needs food rich in protein and iron. She can get this by eating beans, groundnuts, chicken, milk, cheese, egg, meat, fish and dark green leafy vegetables.