Q.18. What is fixed deposit account ?
Ans : This type of account is also known as “ Term Account”. Here the money is deposited for a fixed period of time. This period normally varies from 46 days to 5 years. The longer the term of deposit the higher, is the rate of interest. If a depositor wants to withdraw money before the expiry of the fixed period, he will not get the full amount of interest.
Q.19. Write short notes on False Advertisement and Delayed and inadequate consumer services ?
Ans : (i) False Advertisement — Advertisement is a very forceful tool to persuading and influencing the consumer’s judgement. The advertisement gives details of quality of product and method of use to the consumer.
Manufacturer gives an exaggerated account of his products. Such advertisements lure consumer in buying these products. After the purchase, the consumer realises that it does not match with what has been claimed in the advertisement. Such misleading advertisements cheat the consumer.
(ii) Delayed and inadequate consumer services — Consumer services like electricity, telephones, health, water, etc. are available to large number of householders. Poor maintenance of these services causes inconvenience to the consumer. Sometimes the people connected with these services do not render the services efficiently
Q.20. How Rhythm can be created in a dress ?
Ans : Rhythm refers to a feeling of movement. The eyes should travel without effort from one part ot the other. Rhythm can be achieved in the following ways :
(i) Repetition — Of lines, colours and shapes. It can be done by making pleats, pockets, putting buttons, lace trimmings, etc.
(ii) Alteration — Of shape between pleats, ruffles and tucks produces interesting rhythm.
(iii) Radiation — There is rhythm in radiating lines, as can be seen, in gathers around a yoke or in a skirt.
(iv) Opposition — Th e opposing lines join ed by curved lines are pleasing to the eyes because there is rhythm of transition.
(v) Gradation — Refers to gradual changes in colour and the width and height of lines grading in the size and pattern can also produce rhythm.
Q.21. Which points would you keep in mind while selecting clothes for your mother ?
Ans : Points to be kept in mind while selecting clothes for my mother are :—
(i) Clothes sh ould be comfor table an d soothing which can absorb sweat.
(ii) Clothes should not be too tight or loose, they should allow free movement of the body.
(iii) They should be according to likes and personality of my mother.
(iv) Th ey sh ould be easily washable an d upkeep should be simple.
(v) Clothes should not be very expensive as they have to be worn at home.
Q. 22. Which six points you would inspect from quality point of view in purchasing a readymade salwar kameez ?
(i) Fabric — It should be cut in the correct way and along the grai
(ii) Drape — The slawar kameej should drape and fit well. You should try the garment in trial room and take a critical look in the mirror.
(iii) Design — It should be the latest and suit the wearer.
(iv) Seams — They should be neat, durable and not bulky. Seams should be interlocked to protect the edges from fraying.
(v) Hemline — It should be finished with neat hemming. Matching thread should be use
(vi) Matching Stitches — Stitches should be smooth, even, neat. Matching thread should be used.
Q.23. Textile and clothing-related occupation.
Ans : (i) Dress designing (ii) Fashion designing (iii) Open a boutique (iv) Working in an export house. (v) Working in a garment industry (vi) By preparing fabrics dyed by tie and dye, block printing, etc., and selling them.
Q.24. A six month old, a one year and three yaer old want to go out of the home. Write how each child will communicate his desire to go out and the stage of lanugage development each one is at ?
Ans : A six month old child babbles Ba-Ba and uses gestures indicating outside by hands to tell his/her mother that he/she want to go out. Stage — Babbling stage.
One year old will use one word — Bahar and gestures by hands indicating his/ her desire to go out.
Stage — One word stage of language development.
Three year old will use multi-word sentence (complete/imcomplete) — I want to go out/Bahar.
Stage — Multi-word stage of language development.
Q. 25. What are the changes the congnitive development among adolescents brings out ?
(i) Adolescen ts develop analytical ways of perceiving the world around them. And this affects their personal, social and emotional status. Because of the resultant critical ability they start noticing the drawbacks of parents and all authority figures. This often leads to parent child conflicts. Indian parents do not tolerate criticism by growing adolescents. This further causes more friction in their relationship.
(ii) Idealistic Rebellion sets in towards the later part of adolescent period., Adolescents during this period do not like subrodination to adults. They want to be considered as their equal. Because of their developing critical abilities and idealism, they visualize themselves as major reformers of the world around them. Adolescents feel adults are not fair and just to them. Consequently they become idealistic rebels. As cognition proceeds and adolescent comes to terms with ways of life and living, the rebellion in him vanishes.
(iii) Cognition leads to unique language development.
They come up with words and phrases that are very well understood by all friends e.g. a strict teacher will be called “Hitler”, “I am going crazy” etc. The most common phrase is “It is Ok.”
(iv) Adolescents are self conscious of their looks.
Due to their limited understanding, they feel, they are being watched by all. This makes them stand in front of the mirror for long time. Adolescents perceive that all people are watching them. They are concerned of how the imaginery audience will like their looks. As the cognition improves, the imaginery audience and self consciousness get replaced by more mature reality.
(v) Most adolescents have a unique ability to do things differently. This means adolescents are creative.
They should be encouraged to develop their creative potential. Creativity improves with cognition. The environment should be flexible and friendly for creativity to improve and develop. Often children loose their creativity when they are prevented from exploiting their talents.
(vi) The adolescents have improved visual imagery due to the growing cognition. Their imagination becomes more positive as they grow. Adolescent at this stage is not scared of failures in dreams; for they now have the ability to deal with negative experiences. Day dreaming provides opportunity to the adolescent to test the alternatives and find solution to the problems through imagination.
(vii) With cognition comes the establishment of longterm values. To start with, the children are ego-centric.
Gradually egocentrism declines and reasoning, values and attitudes develop. Increasing cognition enables one individual to establish long-term values of self reliance, competence and independence.
Q.26. What are the effects and symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency? What should we take to avoid it ?
Ans. Deficiency of Vitamin A over a long period causes Night blindness. Vitamin A rich foods like milk, butter, cream and fats etc. are expensive and thus beyond the reach of many in India. This leads to dietary deficiency of vitamin A. Radish, turnip and knolkhol leaves that are rich in vitamin A, are often discarded. Colostrum (thick milk soon after child birth) is a rich source of vitamins and antibodies. Ignorant mothers often think that this milk is not suitable for their infants and thus deprive them of essential nutrients.
Chronic nephritis (kidney disease) causes retinol deficiency. Disease of the alimentary canal interferes with the absorption of vitamin A.
Initial deficiency symptoms of vitamin A are burning, itching, dryness and inflammation of eyes followed by ‘nyctolopia’ night blindness.
Deficiency leads to reduced secretions of the mucus membrane thus causing dryness of eyes, nasal passages, ears, pharynx, respiratory passages and mouth.
Impairment of epithelial function reduces the tear gland secretion. This causes dryness of conjuctiva called ‘xerophthalmia’. As the condition progresses there is softening of cornea, called ‘keratomalcia’ which ultimately causes ulceration, infection and clouding of eyes resulting in blindness.
The sclera (white of eye) gets patchy-white and the condition is called ‘Bitot – spot’.
Follicular keratosis occurs on upper arms, thighs, shoulder and buttocks. The skin gets horny plugs and loses the ability to shed off dead cells. The skin looks similar to ‘toad skin’.
Dryness of epithelial cells in the urinogenital passage often causes stone formation.
Deficiency of vitamin A results in poor skeleton formation. Brain and spinal cord may get affected if the deficiency involves skull and vertebral column.
Vitamin A requirements are expressed in terms of International Units (IU) or in ug. Carotenes are not as efficiently utilized as the retinol present in animal foods.
It is because of the limited utilization of carotenes that 1 ug of retinol is considered equivalent to 4 ug of Bcarotenes. ICMR recommends 600 ug retinol/2400 ug. of Carotenes for adults. Lactating mothers require 950 ug retinol/3800 ug of B-carotenes.
Q.27. How do you storage meat, fish and their product ?
Ans. These should always be purchased from a reputed shop. The meat and fish should be medically cleared and stamped for safe consumption. Cost of meat varies according to the portion required, leg or breat piece or the whold bird.
Meat and Fish are rich in A grade proteins, vitamins, iron and fat.
Fish : One can choose from river and sea water fish.
Other sea foods like crabs, prawns and lobsters should be purchased and consumed only after ensuring their freshness. Select fish that has little odour if any. The gills should be red in case the fish is fresh. The scales should be shiny and clinging firmly to the body. It should be firm to touch and should leave no depression when pressed. Stale fish is soft and slippery to touch.
Selection and Storage : Select carefully the meat and fish needed by the family. It is a perishable food, so buy only the quantity needed. It should be stored in cool place, preferably in fridge. Cover meat with foil or cling film or use container with tight fitting lid. This will prevent the flavour being imparted to other foods stored in the fridge.
Fish should be fresh for safe consumption. The choice of fish depends upon the dish to be prepared. Baked fish and fish fillets are made from fish which has less bones.
Fish curries will be delicious when made from rohu fish.
A wide variety of meat and fish convenience products are available in the market these days. One must buy only the quantity needed and all foods of this category are to be stored under proper refrigeration.
Q.28. Discuss the properties of terylene and its uses and care.
Ans. When viewed under the microscope, the fibre is rod like, partially transparent, smooth with a uniform diameter. It can be made in any length and thickness depending upon the purpose the fibre has to serve
The strength varies with different polyesters. Some are strong like nylon while others are less strong than rayon. There is no change in the strength of fibre when wet.
It is warm to touch.
Polyester fibre is generally ‘heat set’, a treatment that will not let the fibre shrink or stretch during use.
Hence polyester fibres find immediate consumer acceptance because they have excellent crease resistance and are easy to maintain.
It is resistant to abrasion: 2- 4 times better than cotton.
It builds up static electricity.
It has low absorbency. Hence the stains lie on surface and are easily removed.
Terylene has the ‘wicking effect’. Wicking is the ability of the fabric to pick moisture from skin of the wearer. It evaporates to produce cooling effect on the skin.
Polyester burns producing dark smoke having aromatic odour.
It requires little ironing.
When the fabric is ‘heat set’ it will hold crease and pleats for a long time.
It is not affected by weak alkalis but has little resistance to strong ones.
Acids in general have no effect on the fabric at room temperature. Strong acids and high temperature destroy polyester fibre.
It is resistant to organic solvents, bleaches and stain removers.
Direct sunlight weakens polyester. It has good resistance when put behind the glass. It is thus quite suitable for curtains and drapes.
Polyester is equally resistant to micro-organisms and insects. If the insects are trapped they will cut through the fabric to escape.
It is not affected by mildew or moths.
Use and Care of Polyester
It is very popular with consumer because it requires minimum care in washing and ironing, Acids, alkalis and organic solvents hardly affect the fibre. Even a heavily solid fibre goes through the rigcurs of cleaning without any problem.
It is best drip dried. “Polyester is widely used as furnishing, upholstery, floor coverings, industrial items such as conveyor belts, water hoses, ropes, fishing nets and automobile tyres.
They are all known for their strength. Polyester is being used for surgical implants, blood vessels in cardiac surgery without any physiological reactions. In recent years Terylene is being used in non-woven mats for roofing, erosion control aod stabilisation of roads.
Q.29. Discuss the causes and sources of spread of cholera.
Ans. It is highly infectious disease. In this disease, the digestive system of the person is affected. Generally it spread during summer. If not treated properly its mortality rate can go upto 70%. People who ignore hygienic practices are more prone to this disease.
Causes : It is spread by a germ called Cholera Vibrio.
They enter the body of the victim through contaminated water or food. Flies pick-up these germs from the spit, vomit and stools of infected persons and leave them on uncovered food and water. A person get infected of this disease on consumption of such a food. These microorganism survive in dark places or dry saliva for many months. The moment they get favourable conditions they start multiplying. They grow in summer so the spread of this disease is during March and April.
Sources of Spread :
(i) Water : Polluted rivers, public places of drinking water; where the bacteria of cholera is present. Drinking such water cause cholera.
(ii) Milk : If the child drinks polluted milk or milk from such animals which are infected with polluted food.
Milk man adds water to milk. If that. water is polluted the milk also gets polluted.
(iii) Food : When food is polluted and is taken by a person or if the person is taking food alongwith a patient, the saliva of a patient cause infection.
(iv) Flies : Flies sit on dirty places and pick up those micro-organisms. They leave them on food or anything, they come in contact with. These microbes remain alive for 10 to 15 days. It is between any person comes in contact will also catch cholera.
(v) Man : A person when comes in contact with other infected person also gets this infection.
Incubation Period : Incubation period for this disease is from 1-2 hrs to 5 days.
Symptoms : (i) Loose motions, (ii) Vomiting and pain in legs, (iii) Excessive thirst, dry tongue, (iv) Less urine formation, (v) Possibility of dehydration, (vi) Listlessness, (vii) Patient suffers from low blood pressure, (viii) If not treated early the patient may die.
Q.30. How supplementary food should be given ?
Ans. While introducing new foods to infant’s diet, keep in mind the following points :
1. Introduce one food at a time. The second food should be introduced only when the infant gets used to the first food.
2. Serve only that much amount of food the child that he may eat easily. Do not force him to eat.
3. If the child does not accept a new food, try it when he is hungry.
4. If the child dislikes a particular food, try it again by changing its form.
5. Introduce different foods to the child so that he maybe able to accept those foods later on.
6. Do not give rich and spicy food to the child.
7. Give sufficient amount of liquids to the child along with the supplementary foods.
8. Give boiled, baked or steamed food to the child. 9. Utensils used by the infant should be neat and clean.
Q.31. What are the importance of consumer education ?
Ans. Consumer education helps the consumer in many ways in protecting himself from the malpractices of the seller and in making judicious purchases. Let us see what are the advantages of consumer education.
Consumer education helps a person in making proper purchases. It enables the consumer in making right selection.
Consumer education familiarises the, consumer with the problems which he faces while making purchases.
This education inculcate in him the logical viewpoint.
Consumer education provides the consumer full information of marketing conditions like various sources of purchasing a particular commodity, from where to get cheap and best goods, the shops providing additional facilities and to latest products. All these information enables him in taking right decision regarding shopping.
Consumer education familiarises the consumer with various standards of standardisation and their markings.
One of the most important use of consumer education is that it familiarises the consumer about the various acts enacted by the Government from time to time.
Consumer education helps the consumer in getting maximum satisfaction by proper utilisation of his money and lead a better living standard.
Q.32. What are the common principle of storing daily wearing clothes ?
Ans. Clothes should be sorted out. Handkerchiefs, socks, vests etc. should be kept in small drawers.
Clothes like shirts, pants, sarees etc. should be put on hangers. This helps in retaining their crease.
Insecticides like odonil should be kept in almirah.
Expensive brocade sarees should be kept in dust proof bags.
Used and sweated clothes should not be hanged in the same almirah where washed clothes are kept.
Coats etc. should be hanged after brushing.Shoes should be kept in separate lower block.
Ties, scarfs, etc. should be kept separately.
Raincoats, long coats should be kept in separate block of the almirah.
Clean the, almirah at least once a month.
Q. 33. Discuss how achievement motivation depends on socio-economic and personality factors. Can achievement motivation be improved and strengthened?
Ans : The ter m achievemen t motivation s was coined by the famous psychologist McClelland. He pointed out that the achievement motivation plays a crucial role in the economic development of a nation.
Later on, this concept was tested by Indian psychologists in India settings to see whether it is crucial component in our national development or not. The answer was affirmative and psychologists found that one of the basic reasons behind the attested economic growth in India was low need of achievement prevalent among its masses.
Like McClelland (1961), Indian psychologists such as Srivastava and Tiwari (1967), Sinha and Chaube (1972) and others found that achievement motivation is linked to various socio-economic and personality factors. The main socioeconomic cause they delineated was relative deprivation of the masses. Srivastava and Tiwari (1967) found that individuals belonging to the lower classes and minimum need for achievement. Similarly, Choudhery (1971) also found positive relationship between social classes and need for achievement. Ojha and jha (1979) also found that the highest need for achievement was found in the people hailing from middle class with a nuclear family status.
Achievement motivation has also been found to be linked to various personality factor. Shanmugaham (1957) found that people who have high anxiety levels, exhibit low need for achievement. Sharma (1971) found that the scheduled caste children display high level of anxiety which makes them low achievement motivators. Similarly Rath (1974) found people from low socioeconomic status and who have low need for achievement to be high on neuroticism and insecurity than those who has high need for achievement. Sinha (1977) also found that tribals who usually have low need for achievement were more introvert and anxious than the non tribals. These findings led to the conclusion that personality factors play an important role in achievement motivation.
Achievement motivation can be improved and strengthen primarily by taking certain socio-economic measures. The most important is the indication of poverty.
It is usually poverty which plays the most important role in adversely affecting achievement motivation level. Apart from it, There should be a proper emphasis on special compensatory educational and training programmes for the children from the disadvantaged group during the initial years of their life so that they develop a positive self control and more towards higher levels of achievement motivation.
Q. 34. Discuss the problems associated with Premarital sex and teenage pregnancies.
Ans. Growing up is never easy, particularly when high-spirited young people reach the age of twelve or
thirteen years. Up till this point someone else has always made most of the decisions for them. But suddenly the whole situation changes, for these are years when girls and boys begin to grow rapidly. This is also the time when their minds are beginning to expand rapidly and each becomes an Individual in his own right. Now they begin to put away childish things and become . grown up, but such a transition is never simple.
Such striking changes always raise serious problems for parents and teenagers alike ate often confused and uncertain what to do. The young person feels quite able to handle things for himself, and yet most of the time he longs instinctively for the protection of home and the guidance of older, wises minds. At the same time he does not want to shown such “weakness”. So he begins to boost loudly and often becomes defiant and unreasonable, especially toward older members of his own family.
Parents must not be too distressed about this, for he is only trying to move out into the adult world for himself.
In spite of his attitude, we really knows he is not ready for adult life.
Some major problems are as follows :
1. During the teen-age years all normal young people suddenly become conscious of sex. Striking changes are now taking place with in the body, producing new reactions that are often followed by deep feeling of guilt.
2. Bad company and a lack of proper guidance may lead to a life of sorrow and tragedy.
3. Parental Age - Before 21 years of age the female reproductive apparatus is not fully mature and the hormones needed for reproduction have not reached their optimum levels.
4. Emotional Factor - For many women, pregnancy is a time of depression, anxiety and worry about child birth, having a deformed child or her adequacy for mother hood.
5. Nausea or vomiting – Normally, this is worse in the morning. It helps to cat something dry, like crackers or dry bread before you get out of bed in the morning.
Do not eat large meals and avoid greasy foods.
6. Bleeding – If a woman begins to bleed during pregnancy, even a little this is danger sign. She is probably having a miscarriage. Try to get her to a hospital at once.
7. Severe anemia – The women is weak, tired and has pale or transparent skin. If not treated she might die from blood loss at child birth.
8. Swelling – Swelling of feet, hands and face with headache, dizziness and some times blurred vision, are sign for Toxemia or poisoning of pregnancy. Sudden weight gain, high blood pressure and a lot of protein in the urine are other important signs.
9. Low back pain – This is common in pregnancy.
It can be helped by exercise and taking care to sit with back straight.