Q. 1. State two reasons why the drinking water which looked clear, was declared unsafe. How will you use chlorine tablets to make this water potable ? Suggest three precautions to be taken while storing clean water.
Ans : The drinking water which looked clear, was declared unsafe because it had objectionable taste. It also had harmful bacteria in it. Use of chlorine is the cheapest, simple, effective method to disinfect water. Put 4-5 tablets in 20 liters of water. Precautions to be taken while storing clean water are :
(i) Water should be stored in clean containers.
(ii) Water once stored should not be shifted from one container to another.
(iii) The source of water should be away from privies.
Q. 2. Sita is not sure whether her son is suffering from cholera and diarrhoea. Identify three symptoms of each.
Ans : Sita can identify the disease by looking for the following symptoms :
Symptoms of - Cholera
(i) Loose watery motions that look like rice water accompanied with vomiting.
(ii) Patient gets cramps and feels extremely thirsty.
(iii) Suppression of urine leads to the accumulation of toxic materials in the body.
Symptoms of - Diarrhoea
(i) Frequent passing of stools accompanied by stomachache.
(ii) The child feels weak and thirsty.
(iii) Due to frequent passing of stool the child sufferes from dehydration.
Q. 3. Give six advantages of investing in Post Office schemes.
Ans : Advantages of investing in Post Office schemes are :
(i) Procedures for investment are kept very simple at the post office.
(ii) The interest earned is exempted from income tax.
(iii) Money invested in National Saving Scheme can be withdrawn at the time of emergency.
(iv) Money invested in Kisan Vikas Patra gets double in 7 years
(v) In Post Office Recur ring deposit account the money can be deposited in small amount at regular intervals. (vi) Even an illiterate person can invest his/her money in Post Office :after gaining a little knowledge.
Q. 4. Knowledge of child development can lead to both self nad wage employment. Give two opportunities each.
Ans : Knowledge of child development can lead to self and wage employment e.g. :-Self employment
1. Run a day care centre.
2. Run a play school.
3. Do baby sitting at home.
1. One can work as counsellor or nursery teacher
2. One can work as supervisor in a day care centre / creche.
Q. 5. Radha is a tall and thin girl. Mention four features she would avoid while choosing her dresses.
Ans : Radha is a tall and thin girl. Four features she should avoid while choosing her dresses are :-
(i) She should not select vertical lines for herself.
They will make her look taller.
(ii) She should not wear single colour dress. This will make her look taller and thinner.
(iii) Small prints should be avoided.
(iv) Chiffon and any ohter thin material that clings to the body should be avoided.
Q. 6. List four conditins when PFA can declare mutton sold in the meat shop as adulterated.
(i) If it is obtained from sick or diseased animal.
(ii) If it does not satisfy the prescribed standards laid down by PFA authorities.
(iii) If mutton is infested with insects and worms.
(iv) If it is packed and stored under insanitary conditions.
Q. 7. State four points to justify that the selection of clothes is influenced by age and occupation of a person.
(i) Select pastel shades for infants.
(ii) Adolescent would prefer latest fashion clothes.
(iii) Select simple, sober colours for elderly person.
(iv) Clothing is associated with profession. Working people should wear formal clothes. They should be simple, neat and clean.
Some profession demand uniforms like Forces, Police, Nurses, Airlines, etc.
Q. 8. Why do you need to take care of your woollen clothes ? Describe the process of storing them for summers.
Ans : We should take care of woollen clothes as they are made by interlacing of loops so there are chances of loop breaking and the entire row may fall down. This is called laddering. Wool is also attacked by moth and silver fish so they are to be stored properly.
Storing — They should be stored carefully, otherwise they can be attacked by moth or silver fish. Woollen should be drycleaned before storing them. Woolens should be kept wrapped in newspapers.
Q. 9. Suggest three modifications in the following menu for a pregnant women in first trimester. Give one reason for each of your selection :— Chapati, Spicy potato curry, fried rice, dal fried, boondi raita, onion and tomato salad.
Ans : Chapati — Give paushtik roti comprising of besan, palak, atta. This will become rich in iron, vitamin A, proteins, etc.
Dal Fried — Give boiled dal because in first trimester it is difficult to digest oil and spices.
Fried Rice — Give mix vegetable pulao with no oil and spices as it is easy to digest.
Q. 10. Your friend wants to invest Rs. 10,000 for 5 years and you have suggested her to invest in a bank.
Present your argument to convince her.
(i) Money is safe.
(ii) She can earn good rate of interest from schemes.
(iii) Mode of opening and operating on account is very simple
(iv) Loans can be taken in case there is a need.
Q. 11. Differentiate between indirect and psychic income.
Ans : Indirect real income — refers to the commodities and facilities which are available to a family with the use of money or in exchange of goods, e.g., services of paid workers.
Psychic Income—refers to the satisfaction that is obtained from the money income and real income e.g., one
may find satisfaction by investing is property other may find in purchasing gold.
Q. 12. Give two points of difference between Balwadi and Anganwadi.
Ans : Balwadi — It is an organisation which renders service to age group of 0-6 years regarding health, nutrition, education, etc.
Anganwadis — They were started with an aim to establish link with elementary school so that the child moves to these schools with proper preparation.
Q. 13. Explain the factors responsible for spreading infection.
Ans : Air — Disease causing micro-organism can enter any healthy person’s body by his breath. Tuberculosis, diptheria, measles reach by this way.
Water — Consumption of contaminated wate leads to onset of the diseases, e.g., cholera, diarrhoea, typhoid etc.
Contact — Direct contact with the patient also results in the entry of disease organism in a healthy body, e.g., Diptheria, Scabies, Eczema.
Food — Consumption of contaminated food leads to many diseases like Cholera, Jaundice, Diarrhoea, etc.
Insects & Rodents — Some insects and rodents become carrier of a disease by biting sick persons and then by biting a healthy person, e.g., Malaria and Filaria.
Q. 14. What are the different types of test to detect hearing defects ?
Ans : Tests to detect hearing defects are :—
(i) Distraction Test — This test can be carried at the age of 6-9 months. The test involves child’s turning towards the different sounds, indicating that the child can hear.
(ii) Co-operative Test — This test is carried out when the child is 18 months old. The person carrying on the test sits at a distance of three feet from the child. Simple instruction like “give you, teddy bear” if followed, indicates that the child can hear.
(iii) Performance Test — This test can be applied to children between the ages of 2½ -3 years. Simple instructions are issued over the head phone and the child is expected to perform.
(iv) Pure Tone Audiometer Test — This test can be taken by a child over three year of age. A sound of different frequencies is spoken over the audiometer and the child indicates if he/she can hear.
Q. 15. How does occupation and activity affect meal planning ?
Ans : Occupation and activity greatly influence the food intake. Everyone needs calories over and above one’s BMR. BMR is Basic Metabolic Rate. We need additional calories to perform different life activities. Different occupations call for varying caloric intakes.
(i) Sedentary of light work — Persons doing desk jobs need 70 calories/hour over and above BMR.
Housewives having energy saving equipments need lower rate of calories.
(ii) Moderate Work — Persons performing moderate activity require 100-200 calories/hour over and above, salesman, school teacher and students by and large fall in his category.
(iii) Heavy Work — It is performed by labourers, farmers and athletes. These individuals quantitatively eat more to meet the high calorie requirements.
Q. 16. Write a note on nutritional requirement in lactating period.
Ans : Requirement of energy, protein, calcium, vitamin A, C and B-complex are increased significantly during lactation.
(i) Energy needs increase substantially during lactation. Additional energy of 550 kcal should be taken by mother.
(ii) Protein needs also increase by 25 gm/day. Protein rich foods should be included in the diet, e.g., milk, egg, soya beans etc. Protein is essential for the secretion of milk.
(iii) The requirement of vitamins and minerals is also increased so that they may be secreted in milk in sufficient amount. Requirement of vitamin C is doubled during lactation than in normal times. So, good amount of vitamin C rich foods should be included in the diet.
Q. 17. Give five rules of hygienic handling of food.
(i) Wash hands before starting work in the kitchen.
This ensures that no dirt and disease germs get into the food.
(ii) Do not leave the food uncovered. Dust, dirt and flies can spoil your food.
(iii) It is unhygienic to cough and sneeze on food and do not handle the food with boils on your hand.
(iv) It is a good practice to subject the food to visual inspection.
(v) Cook food thoroughly and for a sufficient time to ensure destruction of most bacteria.
(vi) The left-over food should be stored in a clean container in the fridge. Make sure to reheat the food to 740C.