Q. 18. Write briefly about General Provident Fund Scheme ?
Ans : General provident fund scheme is for Government employees. In this scheme, every employee has to pay a minium of 10% of his basic pay per month. There is no upper limit in this scheme. The amount is deduced every month from the salary. After retirement or in case of death, this amount along with interest is paid to the employee or to his nominee after his death. This money is exempted from income tax.
Q. 19. What are the rights of consumer ? Write briefly about the .
Ans : (i) Right to basic needs — Every individual has a right for fulfillment of needs like food, shelter, electricity, safe water, etc. not only to service but also to lead a dignified life.
(ii) Right to safety — The consumer can demand a ban on the sale of goods injurious to health like electric appliances without safety devices, inferior medicines etc.
(iii) Right to information — A consumer can demand detailed information about any item to make a wise choice.
(iv) Right to choice — The consumer must be given adequate number of alternatives of reasonable quality and price so that they can select the most appropriate item.
(v) Right to be heard — A consumer has the right to bring to the notice of the manufacturer or the seller any defect found in the goods purchased by him.
(vi) Right to consumer education — This refers to the right to acquire knowledge and abilities encouraging and assisting in wise selection of goods and services.
(vii) Right to redressal — This indicates the right to fair settlement and compensation for faulty goods and services.
Q. 20. How neckline in a dress enhances or subdues the features of face and neck ?
Ans : Neckline helps in highlighting the special features of the face and neck and subduing the defects of the face, neck and shoulders.
V- shape neckline gives a slendering look to face and neck.
The o neckline gives broaden look to the face and shoulder.
The ¢ neckline gives an illusion of roundness.
Round and long collars subdue the drooping and slender defect of the shoulder.
Q. 21. How do you judge the quality in fabric ?
Ans : Before purchasing any fabric, one should see that the fabric does not :
(i) Shrink or fade during winter.
(iii) rub off colour on other garments
(iv) Show yarn slippage.
(v) wrinkle excessively
(vi) it should be ironed well and with ease.
Q. 22. List four checks related to workmanship which you will keep in mind while purchasing a pant.
Ans : (i) Seams — Should be fr ench seams. They are strong. They should also be interlocked to avoid fraying.
(ii) Buttons — Should be secur ely stitch ed with matching thread. Button hole should be of the correct length to fit well over the buttons.
(iii) Zippers — They should slide well. Loose threads which could be caught in the zip should be trimmed and the seam should be finished properly. (iv) Hemline — Should be finished neatly with strong matching thread. Machining should be done to finish the hemline.
Q. 23. Home management-related occupation.
Ans : (i) Working as interior decorator. (ii) Working in hotels. (iii) Conducting classes on flower arrangement and floor decoration. (iv) Selling artistic handicraft like decorated boxes, diyas,thalis, etc. Wall hangings may also be sold. (v) Personnel managements (in Industry). (vi) Becoming agent of saving institution. (vii) Teaching.
Q. 24. Keeping in mind the milestones of physical motor development of two infants aged three months and twelve months’ state for each child two typical behaviour when given a rattle, the motor milestone achieved and typical physical characteristics.
Ans : Keeping in mind the milestones of physical motor development of two infants aged three months and twelve months.
(i) Typical behaviour when given a rattle. 3 months old — Suck, hold and focus eyes on rattle. 12 months old — Shake and throw rattle.
(ii) Motor milestone achieved. 3 months old — Lift chest up and takes a turn. 12 months old — Able to walk with help, crawls hence child becomes mobile.
(iii) Typical physical characteristic. 3 months — Weight is double the birth weight, Height increases by 20”-22”. 12 months — Weight is triple the birth weight, Height increases by 28”-30”
Q. 25. Is Adolescence a Period of Stress ? What are the factors causing stress and storm ?
Ans. Adolescence is a stunning short period of dramatic phyiscal, sexual, mental and emotional development. For a few the swtich over to adulthood is a cool transition. In fact, for most it is a period of ‘stress and storm’. The adolescent is struggling to keep the psychological balance in the phase of fast pubertal changes and growth.
Various factors causing stress and storm are :
(i) Physical changes. These changes are taking place at a very fast pace. Growth is much faster than the adolescent can cope with. The individual is worried about having early puberty. On the other hand, a late maturer’s worry is profound.
Stress can be defined as an internal state which can be caused by physical demands on the body or by environmental and social situations which are potentially harmful and uncontrollable. The stress is more than the adolescent can cope with. The factors leading to stress cause depression and are called stressors.
The origin of stress can be seen in the following distress chart. It also shows the immediate and long term effects the stress has on adolescents. Stormy experiences of the growing physique and physical maturity push the teenager close to an adult in stature. The boys grow by 3”-5”/year and the girls grow by 2”-4”/year. in peak years of their growth. The girls attain physical growth earlier than the boys. However, the boys in the long run have bigger frame and better muscular strength.
(ii) Sexual changes : These bring about total turmoil in the lives of the adolescents. They are concerned and often stressed on account of the way they feel. They search for answer to questions like: Why this sudden attraction for the opposite sex? Is it normal? Is it common for all peers and companions? Are the people around him aware of his turbulent emotional state?
(iii) Educational and Vocational : Th e present competitive situation is far more stormy now than ever before. The adolescents want the freedom to choose their careers. At the same time they want adult support for the fear of making wrong choice. They often feel interested in a number of vocational pursuits at a time. They feel stressed when they cannot pinpoint a single definite profession, because making a choice means jetting go of other opportunities.
However adolescents have a unique capacity of accepting challenges and forging ahead to maturity and adulthood with high hopes.
(iv) Achieving identity : Added to all the stress and storm is the quest for ‘identity’ for the adolescent.
According to Erikson. “Identity is feeling of being at home in one’s body, a sense of knowing where one is going and inner assurance of anticipated reognition from those who matter.”
Pressure of competitions have adverse effect on some individuals. These pupils fall short in all that is expected of them by the individuals (parents, friends and teachers etc) who matter in their life. The adolescents will rebel against adults, and the associated issue. They may behave in ways neither accepted nor appreciated and get branded for having a “NegatIve Identity”.
Q. 26. What are the functions and source of Vitamin d?
Ans. Functions of Vitamin D : Vitamin D promotes the absorption of calcium and phosphorus from the small intestine.
Favours calcification of calcium and phosphorus. The process of calcification is regulated by calcitonin and para-thyroid hormones.
Promotes tubular absorption of phosphorus in the kidney. Onset of rickets can be detected early in human beings as they will show increased phosphorus excretion in urine and a decline in the plasma phosphorus level.
Brings about mineralisation of bones and their normal growth.
Sources of Vitamin D It is present in small amounts in butter, egg yolk, liver and fish. Fish liver oils are particularly rich in this vitamin.
Fortified fats have fair amounts of vitamin D. This vitamin is stable to aging and heat, but gets destroyed on exposure to ultra violet rays.
Q. 27. How do you make arrangements for the storage of fruit and vegetables?
Ans. It is wise to buy fresh and seasonal fruits and vegetables. Only the required quantities should be purchased because these are perishable foods. Citrus fruits and green leafy vegetables should be bought for 1-2 days only. Other vegetables and fruits can be purchased once/ twice in a week. Cost of fruits and vegetables depends on the size, quality and the market you purchase them from.
Selection and Storage : Fruits and vegetables being perishable should be purchased at retail stores/shops with a quick turn over. The food purchased should be firm and healthy. They can be cleaned and trimmed, put in poly-bags with air holes and stored in the vegetable tray in the fridge. Allow for sufficient air circulation. Avoid cutting and keeping vegetables as it exposes more surface area for oxidation, drying and spoilage. Fruits and vegetables can be kept cool with moist gunny in a cool airy place. Ginger remains fresh in wet sand. Onions, garlic and potatoes can be kept in wire baskets.
Q. 28. Write a short notes on Felt Fabrics.
Ans. Felt fabrics have no warp or filling yarns like the woven fabrics. They are also different from the knitted fabrics. Felted fabrics were used much before weaving started. These early textiles were made from wool, hair or fur. Nowadays blends of wool and fibres from different animals are also used. Felt ‘Namdas’ from Kashmir are embroidered with intricate designs in vivid colours.
Felt fabrics are produced from new, reprocessed or reused wool fibres, physically interlocked with mechanical effort, chemical action, moisture and heat bonding without the use of adhesive. Wool has the ability to coil, interlock and shrink, when it is subjected to moist heat coupled with friction and agitation. Felt is suited for floor coverings and for industrial uses. It is sound absorbent and a good insulator. It can be cut into any shape. The edges require no finish. Thin felts have considerable flexibility and hence suitable for jackets. Rough felts have been used for making felt hats. The quality of felts can be improved by making them moth proof, water repellent, fire resistant and mildew resistant.
Q. 29. Discuss the prevention and cure of Cholera.
(i) Inform Health Officer Immediately
(ii) Patient Should be kept in a separate room
(iii) Excretion like spit and vomit should be kept in a bowl having 30% bleaching powder.
(iv) The nurse or the person who attends the patient should clean his hands with soap.
(v) Room should be mopped with Phenyle.
(vi) Toilet should be cleaned with Phenyle.
(vii) Boiled water should be given to the patient.
(viii) Food should always be covered.
(ix) Outside eating should be avoided during the epidemic.
(x) Hygienic practices should be followed during the fairs and festival organisation.
(xi) Cholera vaccine should be given.
(a) Patient should be given full rest.
(b) Patient should be kept warm.
(c) Patient should be given boiled an cooled ORS solution, in order to supplement the deficiency of electrolyte after every 1 or 2 hrs.
(d) As soon as possible doctor should be consulted.
Q. 30. What should be the meal planning of the adults ?
Ans. To make the meal nutritionally sufficient and balanced, one food each from all the five food groups should be included in the diet. Daily diet of an adult must have the I following foods in it : Cereals like wheat, rice, bajra, jowar or the staple cereal of that particular region.
One or more pulses (particularly with cereals).
Some amount of milk and milk products.
Minimum one serving of green vegetable.
Meat, fish, chicken, eggs etc. if non-vegetarian.
Routine activities of the adult affect his meal-pattern.
His meal times, number of meals and type of meal should be determined according to the working hours.
Q. 31. Write short notes on (1) ISI (2) Agmark (3) FPO.
Ans. (1) Indian Standard Institute : (ISI) Indian Standard Institute (IS1) is now known as Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS). The standard mark of this bureau is ISI.
Under the ISI act of 1957, Bureau of Indian Standard has the right to set standards for any product or procedure.
This includes almost all food-products, electrical appliances, utensils and cosmetics. The manufacturer gets ISI mark only if the product is manufactured on the standardised set up by the BIS. Food processing unit gets ISI mark only if the processing environment is hygienic and has facilities for. The testing of the products. It depends upon the manufacturer whether he wants ISI mark for his products or not. But under the PFA act, it is essential for the manufacturer to use same ISI mark ingredients only.
For example food colours cannot be sold without using this mark.
BIS has number of laboratories for testing products.
IS1 protects the rights of consumer in many ways. Therefore we must look for this mark on the products. Some food products with ISI mark are baby milk powder, powdered milk, coco powder, coffee powder, ice-cream, biscuits, arraroot, baking powder; yeast; ordinary salt, custard powder, rum, beer, brandy whisky, cheese, wafers, vermicilli, macroni, speghatti, drinking, chocolate, condensed milk, yeast, infant milk food.
Appliances with ISI marks are electrical fans, press, kettle, switches, mixies, gas stoves, pressure cookers etc.
2. Agmark : This mark is set up by the Directorate of Marketing and Inspection, Government of India to cover various quality levels of agricultural commodities.
Agmark certificate categorises commodities into various grades depending on the degree of their purity. First Agmark standard was fixed for Desi Ghee’. Some of the food products certified by’ Agmark are black pepper, turmeric, jeera, groundnuts, coriander, mustard oil, tobacco, ghee, butter edible oil, rice, pulses, ground spices, wheat flour,
bura, jaggery, tea leaves, besan, honey. egg etc.
Agmark helps the consumer in the selection of food products. Consumer comes to know about the quality of the product on the basis of various grades. Agmark ensures proper quality, packing and purity of the product.
3. Food Product Order (FPO) : Making pickles and Chutney etc. is an old Indian tradition and has acquired the status of industry around 1930. In 1955 Food Product Order was issued to control this industry.
According to this order, to prepare any preserved food product one has to seek licence. This act ensures a healthy and hygienic environment in the factory where food products are preserved.
This order sets minimum standards for the quality and facilities for preservation of vegetables and fruits. The products prepared according to these standards are given FPO mark.
FPO is given to the following food products :
Sqaushes and soups
Dry fruits and vegetables Preserved vegetables
Jam and Jelly
Pickle chutney, murabba, sherbat, carbonated drinks.
Q. 32. What are the common principle of storing occasional wearing clothes ?
Ans. Dryclean the clothes before storing them.
Clothes should be properly folded.
Mothballs should be kept in woollen, clothes to avoid insects.
Don’t store starched clothes.
Neem leaves or cloves are kept in silken sarees to avoid insects and to protect the brocade work.
Clothes with brocade work should be stored after wrapping them in muslin cloth to protect its lustre.
Leather garments should be stored after wrapping them in newspaper. After rainy season, these should be exposed to air to avoid fungus.
Moth proof finish should be applied on woollen and silken clothes.
Labelled boxes are convenient.
Moist clothes should not be stored.
Q. 33. Outline the necessary steps for developing a test for the measurement of scientific aptitude or intelligence.
Ans : For developin g a test for measuring intelligence, following steps are required.
(1) make a conceptual definition of intelligence clearly
outlining various dimensions of intelligence.
(2) operationally define intelligence and devise operational procedures for the measurement of the different dimensions of intelligence.
(3) construct items on the various dimensions of the intelligence with the help of eminent experts. It should be done to ensure the face validity of the items.
(4) frame the schedule of questionnaire on the basis of which the above mentioned items were to be constructed and arranged in the test according to the schedule.
(5) after performing the above mentioned steps, go for pilot-testing.
(6) administer the test on a sample for population collect the scores and analyse the data.
(7) while analysing the data, item-analysis should be done in such a manner that those items which have a low discriminative index are eliminated.
(8) establish the reliability of the test by any of the possible methods, viz, split half method, test retest method. It is always better to measure the reliability by ascertaining the Cronbach-alpha coefficient.
(9) develop norms of the scale on the basis of which other individuals were to be evaluated and to test the significance their scores on the intelligence test.
With this final step, the test is required for getting administered on any other sample of population. Apart from other mentioned steps, the researcher should also take into account the general principles adhered to scale construction.
Q. 34. What should be the preparation for a successful marriage ?
Ans. The success of married life depends upon several factors. The boys and girls who plan to get married need to be made aware of the needs problems and the requirements of this complex relationship. In order to make the youngsters aware of the responsibilities of married life, their training and preparation before marriage should lay emphasis on the necessary requirements of a successful married life. They should prepare for marriage in the following manner:
(i) Mental preparation for marriage - Learning to behave in socially approved manner is a long and slow process. After marriage both the partners must make adjustments to line together. They must develop sympathetic and co-operative attitude for success of marriage. For this they must prepare their minds for devotion and understanding between themselves to have
happy married life.
(ii) Housing facility - A house is important as it provide shelter, comfort and protection. This is a basic need for a family. Since different individuals reside together and the chances of disputes, conflicts, confusions and misunderstandings are more. Therefore in order to lead a happy married life, couples prefer to, have independent house. It provides pleasant atmosphere for the couples, to make a beginning of their family life. (iii) Economic stability - Money is back bone of family. All desires can be fulfilled with the help of money.
Family need enough money for initial establishment. It will also help in maintaining healthy & peaceful atmosphere of the home. Financial contribution to the home make it possible for the family to line more comfortably. Lack of funds for the children and parents lead to a deterioration in family relationship.
(iv) Medical Fitness - It is most important to develop a happy outlook of life. Changes in body size and proportions may lead some internal hormonal disturbances. Rapid growth is almost always accompanied by awkwardness. For marriage medical fitness is compulsory. Some people may have serious diseases like AIDS. It will be dangerous for both the partners and offspring. So Through medical examination we can check the health and fitness of both the partners for marriage.
(v) Family Planning – Different parents have different reasons for wanting to limit the size of their family. Some young parents may decide to delay having any children until they have worked and saved enough so that they can afford to care for them well. Some young parents may decide to delay having any children until they have worked and saved enough so that they can afford to care for them well. Some parents may decide that a small number of children are enough and they never want more. Other may want to keep space their children several years apart so that both the children and their mother will be healthier.
(vi) Prepare for child care - Good health which is vital to the child’s development and happiness is totally dependent on parents. Nutritional requirement are greatest during childhood. During this period children who are not getting enough nourishment of the right kind for their growth needs become tired and irritable. They show little interest in school work or play and generally make poor social adjustments. So proper child care is needed to prevent him from diseases and his growth & development.