Q.18. Write short notes on Contributory Provident fund and Public Provident fund ?
(i) Contributory Provident Fund — This is for Non-Government or Semi-Governmental employees. In this scheme, each employee contributes a minimum of 8% of his basic pay. An equal amount is contributed by the employer. This amount along with interest is paid to the employee at the time of retirement.
(ii) Public Provident Fund — A person can open an account in State Bank of India under this scheme. Minimum of Rs. 100/- per annum is to be deposited in this scheme. One cannot have more than 12 deposits per year in this account. Money is to be deposited for 15 years.
After expirty of this period, the person gets full amount along with the interest. The total amount received on the maturity is exempted from income tax.
Q.19. What are the duties or responsibilities of the consumer ?
Ans : Apart from rights, there are certain duties of consumer. The Consumer should be conscious of these duties.
(i) It is consumer ’s duty to use the information while purchasing, acquiring and using the various goods and materials.
(ii) The consumer must choose wisely. The ultimate responsibility to choose lies with the consumer.
(iii) The consumer should use the product as per the instructions of the manufacturer.
(iv) One should buy only quality goods that are not hazardous.
(v) Seek redressal in case of dissatisfaction. The responsibility for reporting malpractices lies with the consumer.
Q.20. What is meant by design in a dress ?
Ans : Designs are formed by stitching together different pieces like collar, cuffs, yoke, etc. Designs are also made by free flowing lines and shapes that do not resemble real objects but the pleasing to the eye. The size of the design determines the surface area on which it can be applied for creating beautiful effect. The best result in design can be obtained by using various principles of design with the elements of line, form, colour and texture.
Q.21. How does the fabric give comfort to the wearer ?
Ans : Experienced buyers do not always demand expensive materials even if their budgets permit them to do so. Their choice is based on the comfort provided by the fabric. Fabrics that are cool. Light weight, good in appearance, pleasant to touch provide comfort to the wearer. The experience of comfort will be different for different seasons and uses. Woollen tweed coat will be comfortable for winters but not for summers. Same soft texture of knitted fabric will be comfortable for undergarments.
Q.22. Give six points you will check as regards the workmanship of your school blazer. Give reason.
(i) Seams — Should be strong and flat.
(ii) Buttons — Should be secur ely stitch ed with matching thread. Extra buttons should be provided to be used in case a button is lost/damaged.
(iii) Lining — Should be smooth and comfortably fitted. In blazers, there is an “Inner-lining”. It should be tacked securely in place to the side seams.
Shoulder seams and around arm holes. It should be light in weight otherwise blazer will become heavy.
(iv) Padding — Should be soft and light weight, but fit enough to hold good shape.
(v) Collar — Should be lined with an inner-facing that is soft and pliable for comfort.
(vi) Stitches — Hemming stitches should be invisible on the right side.
Q.23. State two changes in the life of a 2-3 years old, when a sister or a brother is born. Mention one negative emotion felt by the child and state the reason for this emotion.
Ans : Changes in the life of a 2-3 years old when a sister or a brother is born are :
(i) His/her sleeping arrangement is changed because his/her brother or sister will now sleep with mother.
(ii) Mother gives more attention to his/her brother/ sister.
(iii) Older child gets less time to spend with mother.
Negative emotion felt by the child in jealousy. Cause of jealousy is Insecurity.
Q.24. Following meal is prepared for the family : Moong dal, Spinach potato bhujia, Dahi Vada. Suggest two modification in the above menu to suit a patient suffering from diarrhoea and give reasons for your suggestins.
Ans : The above menu cannot be given as it is. Some
modificatinos are to be done to suit diarrhoea patient. They are :
(i) Moong dal — Without ‘Tadka’ because tadka makes it heavy for system to digest.
(ii) Potatoes without spinach — Because spinach has a laxative effect.
(iii) Dahi without Vada — Because vada is fried and is heavy to digest.
Q.25. What is the importance of preparing for marriage and family life ?
Ans. Family life education helps in the development of values and concepts that contribute to a successful marriage and happy life. Development of correct and desirable relationships will help the adolescent of today to become a responsible adult tomorrow.
The role of parents and teachers for family life education is of great significance. They should have no inhibitions in passing the correct information onto the adolescents. This will enable the adolescent to grow towards adulthood with positive experiences. Knowledge acquired in areas of physical health and sexual development repares the adolescent for marriage and family life. The study of health, hygiene, anatomy and physiology of human reproduction leaves no scope for misconceptions regarding sex and sexuality. In fact it will instil a sense of responsibility as regards the acceptable limits in the level of interaction between the sexes. An essential part of family life education is population education, and importance of planned parenthood. It is one’s duty to practise personal safety in adult life.
Now is the right time to let the adolescent know about the importance of limiting and spacing children and sexually transmitted diseases like AIDS. The adolescents should equip themselves with a lot of patience and tolerance that will be needed to discharge their obligation and commitments in marriage and family life.
Q.26. Discuss the symptoms of Ricket ?
Ans. Vitamin D deficiency can be observed in young children, women in productive years and also among older men. and women. The deficiency disease is called rickets in children. The deficiency leads to osteomalacia and osteoporosis among adults.
Symptoms of Rickets
Deficiehcy of Vitamin D leads to impaired deposition of calcium and phosphorus. Certain amount of vitamin C (cementing factor) is also essential for calcification.
Rickets occurs among children from the ages of six months onwards. Children born of mothers having low levels of vitamin D and calcium often have fragile and soft bones. In young infants the closing of fontanellea of skull is delayed. The eruption of teeth among these children is slow and teeth tend to fall off early due to poor vitamin D levels.
Sweating and irritability are the early symptoms of rickets.
The long bones of legs bend with the body weight.
In case they bend outwards, the condition is called ‘bow legs’. Sometimes the legs bend inwards, so that with each step the knees knock with one another, hence the name “knock knees”. This condition is particularly common among children born of mothers remaining in ‘purdah’ having low dietary intake and repeated pregnancies. It is quite common in India, China and Pakistan. High incidence of rickets is seen in Himachal, Uttar Pradesh, Orissa and Punjab as well.
Among children the ribs protrude and joints jut out.
The chest resembles the breast of pigeon and hence the name ‘pigeon breast’.
The pelvic girdle gets deformed due to deficiency in early age. In girls this causes problems during child birth.
Among adults prolonged deficiency state can cause rickets. Osteomalacia is adult rickets. Deficiency of Vitamin D results in osteoporosis (porous bones) among adults. Individual becomes prone to fractures if the bones become porous. Vertebral column may bend and result in defective posture. Women having repeated pregnancies and accompanied by low nutritional status often have defective gait. The individual suffers from aches and pains and muscle weakness. The muscles start twitching due to hyper-irritability of nerves, thereby causing spasms. These can be seen on face, hands and feet. This condition is generally referred to as Tetany.
Q.27. What are the effect of cooking on nutrient like protein, carbohydrates, sugar and fats ?
Ans. Proteins coagulate at temperatures below 100° C. Half boiled egg or single fried egg is easier to digest than hard boiled and double fried eggs. The proteins gelatinise with wet cooking methods. Gelatinised proteins are easily assimilated in the body. Prolonged and fierce cooking methods reduce the digestibility of proteins e.g. roasted meat. Protein shrink in size, become leathery, stringy and are difficult to digest when fierce cooking methods are used.
Starchy foods when subjected to dry and wet cooking methods promote the breakdown of starch cells thus facilitating easy digestion, e.g. boiling of rice and potatoes.
Toasting of bread converts starch into dextrin, a midway product between starch and sugar. Hence a toast is easier to digest than a slice. Sugar dissolves in water to form syrup used in various preparations. Sugar gets caramelised when subjected to dry heat. It turns honey colour, changes in flavour that is specific to desserts and custards etc.
Fats are often used as cooking medium for foods. Fats/oils undergo partial decomposition when subjected to strong and prolonged heating. Foods cooked in decomposed fat irritate the digestive tract. You should not use liberal quantity of fat for frying pooris and pakoras. The remaining fat is partially decomposed and the food cooked in it irritate the gastro-intestinal tract.
Thus it is clear that using the same fat for frying again and again is not wise. Hence only a small amount of fat should be used for frying so that you are not left with large quantity of used fat.
Cooking destroys most of Vitamins C and B-group vitamins because they are heat labile. Minerals are lost when large quantity of water is used for cooking. The losses further increase if this water is discarded.
Q.28. Write short notes on Bleaching of Fabrics.
Ans. Sun has natural bleaching power. It is a good practice to sun-dry white clothes after washing. The clothes dried on grass or bush are still better due to the action of chlorophyll. The bleaching of fabric can be done by using (i) Reducing bleaches (ii) Oxidative bleaches.
Reduction Bleaching is not lasting because the fabric gets back to its natural colour on exposure to air.
Hydrogen peroxide is an oxidative bleach and can be applied to all fabrics by varying its concentration. A teaspoon of concentrated ammonia or sodium perborate added to each gallon of the hydrogen peroxide solution makes the action stronger. Fabric should be rinsed properly after bleaching. The excess bleach can have a damaging effect. A little blueing treatment can be given to have long lasting whiteness.
Fabrics can also be bleached with another oxidative bleach called potassium permanganate (KMnO4). This can also bleach away the perspiration and mildew stains. Dissolve approximately 3 gms of KMnO4 in 1 litre water. Dip article to be bleached in this solution. It will make the fabric brown all over. It is then dipped in oxalic acid solution (Approx. 6 gms/ 1 ltr water). Rinse thoroughly.
Bleaching powder (CaCl(OCI)4H20) is very often used for bleaching fabrics. It is also an oxidative bleach.
Q.29. Discuss the causes and spread of Diarrhoea.
Ans. (i) Contaminated Water and Food : By taking polluted water and food bacteria of diarrhoea enter the body of a person and cause diarrhoea.
(ii) Malnutrition : Causes weakness among children and they become susceptible to diseases. Their digestive system becomes weak. Whatever they eat they cannot digest and causes diarrhoea. They do not get nutrients and as a result become malnourished.
(iii) Unhygienic conditions : Unhygienic conditions causes diarrhoea as microorganism grow in such places.
Children take their toys to their mouth and these organisms entre their mouth and their body. Flies also sit at stuck places and pick up organisms and make others sick by leaving them on milk bottles, nipples, open food and toys etc. It causes diarrhoea in children.
(iv) Allergy : Diarrhoea is caused due to allergy also.
(v) Worms in stomach : Some types of worms also cause diarrhoea. If these worms are in the stomach or intestines they cause diarrhoea.
(vi) Bacteria and virus in intestines : If due to any reason poisonous bacteria enter the intestine they cause diarrhoea and stomach pain due to the toxins and such bacteria.
Spread : As it is an infectious disease, it spreads by taking used food and water of infected person. Also by taking food or water which is uncovered and is subjected to flies. Unsterilised nipple and toys also cause diarrhoea.
Q.30. What should be the meal planning of the old age people ?
Ans. In old age, number of changes take place in the body. Hence, a few changes are required in the type, amount and number of meals and also in the method of cooking.
Elderly people can’t chew food properly on account of decaying and falling teeth. Therefore, foods which are soft, properly cooked, mashed and finely chopped should be included in the meals.
Sensitivity towards taste is lessened in old age. As a result, food is no longer relished. Hence, meals for elderly should be more attractive and to their likings.
Mostly elder people complain of heaviness and loss of hunger. In such situations small quantities of food should be served to them at short intervals for easy digestion. Fried and fat rich foods should be avoided.
Constipation is very common in old age. To avoid it, fibrous foods and liquids should be included in the diet.
Q.31. Write a short notes on redressal procedure of the consumer protein Act.
Ans. 1. A consumer, consumer organisation, or State or Central Government can lodge a complaint. In case complaints are more than one, a joint complaint can also be lodged.
2. The level of court where a complaint is to be lodged is determined by the amount of compensation.
3. The complaint should be lodged on the prescribed form indicating clearly the nature of loss-defective goods, lack of promised services, charging more than the maximum retail price (MRP), under weight goods etc.
4. The complaint can be lodged personally or through post.
5. The defendant should be informed about the complaint by Regd. AD Post before lodging the complaint.
A period of 15 days should be given to him to clear his position or redress the grievance.
6. The complaintant should ensure that ,his complaint is genuine before filling it. Documents like bill, cash receipt, guarantee card etc. should be attached along with the complaint to prove its validity.
7. The complaint form should contain the full details of the complaint details of loss and compensation demanded.
In case the complaint does not require any testing in the laboratory, then the court would try to decide the case within three months of lodging the complaint.
When the consumer lodges a complaint, the court can issue the following orders.
To rectify the defect.
To replace the good.
To refund the cost of the good.
To compensate in case of loss.
In case the product is harmful to life, then the complaintant can demand the removal of the product from the market with immediate effect.
Q.32. How the study of Home Science helps the students ?
Ans. Study of home science familiarises us with household problems and how to solve them.
Home science apart from being an art is a science also. It teaches us to do all the household jobs in a systematic and scientific manner. For example, it teaches not only cooking food, but also, how to provide nutritive food to all members of family economically. It also teaches the art of managing jobs like cleanliness, washing of clothes etc. by spending less time and energy. These days, the market is flooded by a large variety of garments, A student of home science, can make proper selection and maintenance of these clothes.
Home science also teaches us about child development and human relationship. In child development, the students are taught about the physical, mental, social and emotional development. Its knowledge helps us to know whether the child is growing at proper rate or not. The student learns to control his emotions and to adjust in the society.
Knowledge of home science helps us to become a conscious consumer. So that we should know our duties and rights as a consumer and not exploited by the sellers easily.
In earlier times, the duties of a housewife were confined to home only but these days because of modernisation and socialisation, she is working outdoors also. The knowledge of home sciences helps her as to how by efficient management of resources like time, energy, skill, interest etc., she can do all the household chores alongwith her outdoor duties.
Q.33. What is mental retardation? Discuss the genesis of different types of mental retardation. Suggest measures for this rehabilitation.
Ans : Mentally retarded children are those who do not find themselves able to cope up with everyday tasks of life in an effective manner. They have also been defined in terms of scores on an scale. On an IQ scale, those individuals who score below 70 are referred to as mentally retarded as they usually don’t find themselves competent enough to cope effectively with the demands of everyday challenges.
The mentally retarded have been classified into various groups based on their scores on the IQ scale. For instance, individuals scoring an, IQ score of in the range 55-69 have been categorized as mildly retarded, while those between 40-45 as moderately retarded, those between 25-39 as severely mentally retarded and finally those who score below 25 are categorized as profoundly mentally retarded :
IQ scores Category of mental retardation
55-69 Mildly retarded
40-54 Moderately retarded
25-39 severely retarded
below 25 Profoundly retarded
Individuals belonging to these different categories show differential abilities in coping up with everyday life tasks. The mildly retarded group, for instance, is capable of performing independently the everyday life tasks with the help of only a little training. They can also take up small jobs or other work if provided. There are adequate safeguards in their working condition.
Those belonging to the moderately retarded group can also be rehabilitated to a significant extent, if they are given intensive training. With such intensive training, they can be made to learn certain basic verbal and motor skill which will go a long way in helping them to survive on their own. But the researchers have pointed out that despite these intensive training, they can’t acquire mental age of more than a 6 to 8 years old child. Although they can be made to go for basic formal education.
On the other hand, individuals belonging to the severely and profoundly retarded group get so much mentally and physically debilitated that ever an intensive training can’t enable them to acquire formal education successfully. These group of retarded individuals need profound care for surviving in the world. They also desperately need family care to live properly.