Q.18. State two advantages of putting money in Provident fund.
Ans : Advantages of putting money in Provident fund are as follows :
(i) The money deposited as Provident fund is exempted from income tax.
(ii) The depositor enjoys 11% interest annually for the money saved.
(iii) One can get loan against the fund in case of emergency.
Q.19. Give a brief account of the advantages of consumer education.
Ans : Advantages of consumer education.
(i) It helps in optimum utilization of money and all other resources.
(ii) It provides basic knowledge to handle the consumer problems.
(iii) Consumer becomes aware of existing laws and facilities to safeguard one’s interest.
(iv) It make a consumer conscious of his rights and responsibilities.
(v) Increased consumer involvement can result in reduction of the expenses incurred on consumer Protection Programmes.
Q.20. What are the basis of selection of colour in a dress ? Discuss.
Ans : Factors affecting colour choice in cloths :
(i) Age and Sex — The colour of the dress should depend on the age and sex of the wearer. Bright and grey colours suit children, sober and light colour suit elderly persons. All colours are in fashion both for boys and girls but some colours suit only to girls.
(ii) Season and time — In summer, light and cool colours while in winters, dark and warm colours are preferred. Dark and bright colours do not look appealing at day time but at night these colours look very appealing.
(iii) Size and shape of the body — Colours effect the size and shape easily. Warm colours increase the size of wearer whereas cool colours help in reducing the size of wearer.
(iv) Colour of skin, hair and eyes — They have very important role in choice of the colour of dress such as dark cool and sober colours on fair complexion.
(v) Occasion — Colour of the dress should be appropriate to the occasion.
(vi) Fashion — A particular colour in fashion, should only be worn if it suits the personality, colour, and figure. All colours suit only very few people.
(vii) Personality — Colour of the dress reflects the personality of the wearer. Selection of colour should aim at enhancing the personality of the wearer.
Q.21. What are the factors which effect the appearance of fabric ?
Ans : Factors which effect the appearance of fabric are :
(i) Fabric should be nice and attractive.
(ii) Effect and blending of colours should also be proper, then it would appeal to the eye.
(iii) Fabric, yarn weave and finishes also effect the appearance of the cloth.
(iv) Feel or touch of the fabric also affects. Example, softness of silk, warmth of wool and coolness of line.
Q.22. Elaborate six points you will check in a frock before purchasing it in order to ensure quality.
Ans : (i) Seams — Should be flat finished by interlocking.
(ii) Placket — Should have a neat finish. It should be long enough to allow easy and convenient getting in and out of the frock.
(iii) Pleats — In frock, pleats should be carefully stitched and be deep enough to hang well. Reinforcement should be made at points which receive more strain.
(iv) Fasteners — Should meet exactly and those that are intended to be invisible should be completely hidden by the placket.
(v) Trimmings — Laces, frills should be checked to see that they are securely attached. Colour of trimmings should be fast, if it runs, the frock will be a total loss.
(vi) Lining — In the frock, lining will give shape and firmness to the dress. It should be light weight and of matching colour. It should also be smooth and comfortable.
(vii) Hem — A frock should have an ample hem. It should not be less then 2”—3” for children because it is to be opened to increase length for a growing child.
Q.23. State four ways by which siblings can help in looking after the child when mother is out.
Ans : When mother is out, the siblings can help in looking after the child in the following ways :
(i) Siblings can feed the child.(
ii) They can amuse the child.
(iii) Older child can take care of safety and rest needs to the younger child.
(iv) They can also help in disciplining the younger children.
Q.24. A rikshaw puller is complaining of poor vision at night. What is the cause of this problem and what can be some of the other symptoms associated with it ?What will happen if this problem is not treated ? Suggest two food items along with two dishes which he should include in his daily meals to correct the condition.
Ans : He may be suffering from night blindness. Cause of this problem is deficiency of vitamin A. Other symptoms associated with this problem are frequent infection of eye and throat and if this problem is not treated, it can develop into total blindness. Food itmes rich in vitamin A are pumpkin, carrot, papaya, green leafy vegetables and milk. Dishes which can be included in the daily meal to correct the condition can be pumpkin vegetables, carrot halwa, spinach potato vegetable.
Q.25. What do you mean by heredity ? How is heredity transmitted ?
Ans. It is the process of passing on of characteristics
from parents to their offsprings. Genes present on chromosomes are responsible for passing on of the parental characteristics. The variation in height (Chinese and a European), colour of eyes (black, brown, blue, green or grey), skin (fair, wheatish or dark) and hair (black, brown, blonde) are all due to heredity.
Heredity greatly influences the physical features, i.e. shape of ears, eyes or nose and the body proportions in general. An individual may resemble either one or both parents or even the grandparent. How is heredity transmitted ?
Genes are located on the chromosomes. They are tiny thread like structures in the nucleus of the cell. Each chromosome is 0.0005 mm and carries about 1000 genes.
Each gene has fixed placement on the chromosome.
Chromosome consists of proteins and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). In human beings all body cells (except the egg and sperm cells) contain 23 pair of chromosomes (total 46 chromosomes). The gorilla’s and Chimpanzee’s body cells have 48 chromosomes.
The egg and the spem cells are formed in a special way and have only one set of 23 chromosomes. When an egg and a sperm cell unite, they produce a fertilized egg that has 46 chromosomes (23 pairs), half the chromosome come from the mother and half from the father. The fertilized egg develops into a human being by process of cell division, called mitosis. Each and every cell of your body bears chemical similarity to your parents and this is how the traits are inherited. Genes present on chromosomes inft1uence traits like height, weight, skin and hair colour and even intelligence. Genes also determine the blood type of an individual. A person might inherit one of the four blood types : A, B, AB or O.
Genes also determine whether the red blood cells have another chemical characteristic called Rh factor.
Every person inherits certain basic mental such as the ability to learn and remember. One needs to have a suitable environment to develop these mental traits.
Mental abilities vary amongst the members of the same family. One brother may learn mathematics more easily than the other.
Some people inherit special aptitudes and talents in music, painting or mathematics etc. Environment plays a vital role in the development of these aptitudes. Identical twins may inherit equal talent for playing the piano/sitar/ guitar, but the twin who practices more will be a better musician.
Q.26. What are the functions and sources of Thiamine ?
Ans. Functions of Thiamine : Thiamine is required for the well being of nerves. Birds fed on thiamine deficient diet suffered from retraction of necks and had convulsions. This vitamin is known to reduce depression, moodiness and irritability.
Thiamine promotes appetite and digestion and is often referred to as the appetite vitamin.
It is important for the normal tissue function.
It is closely connected with carbohydrates metabolism. Thiamine requirements increase with the increase in the dietary carbohydrates.
Pregnancy and lactation demand higher thiamine intake.
Sources of Thiamine
Whole grain cereals and enriched flours are good sources of thiamine.
The germ of peas, beans, cereals, pulses and nuts contain thiamine.
Yeast is a good sources of this vitamin.
Fair amount of it is present in green vegetables, roots, fruits and flesh foods. Butter oils and ghee are totally deficient in thiamine.
Pork has more thiamine than any other fleshy food.
Q.27. Write a short note on fat cooking method.
Ans. Deep Frying : A large amount of fat is heated to the smoke point and food to be cooked is fully immersed in it. The food to be cooked can be dipped in besan, egg or cornflour batter before frying. Frying makes the food crisp in texture, rich in colour, and tasty because it keeps the ‘flavour in’. Housewives resort to this method of cooking with the arrival of unexpected guests at meal timings.
The fat should be heated to the smoke point (about 320oC) before putting the food in. It requires constant attention for good results.
A frying basket or a metal sieve can be used for lifting small foods i.e. chirwa, boondi etc.
Shallow Frying or Pan Frying : In shallow frying little amount of fat is used. It is a good method of making tikkis, chops, pancakes, chillas, dosa, fish fillets and parantha etc. The food is half or little less immersed in ghee/oil. It is a good practice to use heavy bottom frying pan or tawa for good results.
These days you can pan fry food in nonstick pan in almost negligible amount of fat/oil. Oily foods like nuts, sausages, bacon etc. can be dry fried without using any fat/oil.
Sauteing : It is a method of cooking involving very little quantity of fat. The food to be cooked is tossed into hot fat and cooking completed over low heat. The food is frequently turned or stirred in this method. A little water may be used for hard and tough foods.
Q.28. Write a short note on Mercerizing.
Ans. It is a treatment given to cotton and cotton
blends (terrycot). Cotton is treated with alkali to increase its lustre and affinity for dyes. Step-wise procedure of mercerizing finish is given as follows :
(i) Thoroughly wet the cotton fabric.
(ii) Saturate the fabric under tension with 18-20% caustic solution (NaOH). Leave it on fabric for specified duration of time.
(iii) Wash with neutralizing chemical.
(iv) Rinse thoroughly.
The fabric undergoes physical and chemical changes during mercerizing. The alkali swells up the fibre, which removes the twists. The fibres now appear cylindrical.
The chemical changes provide lustre and sheen to the fabric.
Q.29. What are the symptoms and prevention and care method of diarrhoea.
Ans. (i) Acute Diarrhoea is for a very short duration but is very intense.
(ii) Chronic diarrhoea is for long duration but not so intense.
(i) Frequent passing of stools.
(ii) Watery stools.
(iii) Foul smell and mucus in stools.
(vi) Deficiency of water in the body.
(vii) Sometimes vomiting is also there.
(ix) Tongue and throat dries up.
(x) Sunken eyes.
(xi) Skin becomes loose.
(xii) The patient can faint.
(xiii) If not treated in time the patient dies.
(i) One should follow the principles of hygiene.
(ii) Always clean one’s environment.
(iii) Utensils used for the baby should be clean.
(iv) Food and water should be kept covered.
(v) Toys of the baby should be cleaned regularly.
(vi) If possible in summer the baby should be given mother’s milk, as Lacto–Bacillus presence in mother’s milk restrict diarrhoea.
(i) Children should be given full rest.
(ii) Milk and water should be boiled properly.
(iii) In order to prevent dehydration, ORS solution should be given.
(iv) Doctor should be consulted.
(v) Dal water, orange juice, barley water should be given to the baby.
Q.30. What are the important things to be considered during pregnancy ?
Ans. Morning sickness during pregnancy like nausea, vomiting, gridiness etc. can be avoided by taking tea with some carbohydrates rich foods like biscuit, rusk etc.
Problems like acidity and heaviness of stomach can be prevented by avoiding fat rich and spicy foods in the diet.
More fibrous foods like fruits, vegetables, whole grain and pulses, wheat flour with bran etc. should be added in higher amounts in diet.
More amount of liquids should be added. Drinks like lemon water, lassi, coconut water, juices etc. must be included between main meals. This will help in preventing constipation.
A pregnant woman should avoid highly flavoured, spicy, pungent and stale food.
Food must be served, in a pleasant and tension free environment to a pregnant woman. Also ensure that she must take some rest after each meal. This helps in proper digestion and absorption of food. Dinner should be taken 2-3 hours before going to bed.
A pregnant woman should avoid fasting etc. This may harm the foetus.
Alcoholic drinks and smoking should be avoided by the pregnant woman. These are harmful for the foetus.
Q.31. What are the characteristics of colour in clothing ?
Ans. Colour theorists have defined characteristics of colours (3 dimensions of colour)
1. Hue-name of the colour.
2. Value-lightness or darkness of colour.
3. Intensity-dullness or brightness of colour.
1. Hue : The name of colour is known as hue. For example-Green, Red, Blue etc.
2. Value : Lightness or darkness of a colour is known as its value. White colour when added to a prime colour to make it light is called ‘tint’. Darkness in colour is achieved by adding black colour to the pure colour and is known as ‘shade’. White colour has ·minimum value whereas black colour has maximum.
3. Intensity : Brightness or dullness in colour is known as intensity. The best way to lessen the intensity of a colour is to add its supplementary colour. Bright colours have more intensity and dull are monotonous.
These characteristics are helpful in the proper and use of colours.
Q.32. Discuss the vocational scope of Home Science.
Ans. Under the curriculum of Home Science, complete information is imparted regarding the importance of
nutrients of different foodstuffs, meal planning, food preservation, cooking delicious and nutritious food by different methods. Students having an aptitude in this subject and may start related business like:
(i) Supplying packed lunch in offices.
(ii) Setting up a small canteen or restaurant.
(iii) Coaching classes in cooking where demonstration in baking, snacks, ice creams, pudding, pickles, jams etc. can be given.
(iv) Selling food preservers like jams, pickles, sauce, papad, bari, etc.
(v) Supplying snacks to a canteen.
Students interested in cutting, stitching, embroidery etc. may start following businesses :
(i) Selling suits, dupattas of latest designs by opening their own boutique.
(ii) Selling printed or embroidered bedsheets bed covers, cushion covers etc.
(iii) Setting up readymade garments business.
Students with an aptitude in interior decoration may start :
(i) Coaching classes in rangoli, henna, flower decoration etc.
(ii) Selling artistic handicrafts like decorated boxes, diyas, thalis etc. during Rakshabandhan. In addition paintings, dry flowers arrangements, lamp shades, wall hangings may also be sold.
Another subject of Home Science is child development and psychology. In this, complete knowledge is imparted regarding the physical, mental, social and emotional development of the child. This knowledge is very helpful in proper care of the child.
One can start a creche or pre-nursery school with the help of this knowledge. Bringing up children is a major problem of working women. With the abolition of joint family system, the only alternate solution with them is creche during working hours. Therefore, this is also a good business proposition.
The Government of India has started ICDS programme at national level. This scheme has many programmes for the development of child upto 6 yrs. For example their education, food and vaccination etc. The students of home science can gain employment in these programmes also.
Apart from these the students of home science can work in many social welfare programmes.
Q. 33. Discuss the major steps to achieve social integration.
Ans : Social integration in India can be achieved only if people do not become a victim of various prejudice that gets built in within them from the initial years of their lives to their present experiences. It has been founded that the Indian child starts developing his caste or religious identity by the time of 6-7 years old due to traditional ways of child-rearing prevalent in the country. These child-rearing practices generate in the children feelings of one’s caste and religion and thereby, inculcates in them a tendency to maintain social distance from people of other castes and other religions. If the formation of these irrational prejudice at the early stages of life could be stopped, then the foundations of social integration would be really strong in India. The Indian parents should strive to rear their children in secular values and do not do anything which generates in them caste and religious consciousness.
It has also been found that the traditional family structures in India which give high emphasis to authoritarianism and excess discipline also inculcate in the children rigid attitudes and give shape to rigid personalities. Such rearing also leads to the rise of ethnocentric attitudes if there is too much emphasis on caste and religious values. So, overcoming authoritarianism and rigid discipline patterns may help
the Indian society move towards social integration.
Social integration in India can also be fostered by making provisions of desegregated schools where children from different socio-economic, caste, and religious group live together and were to acquire a greater understanding and closeness towards each other.
Psychologists have also pointed put to the effective role that education play in overcoming irrational prejudices based more on traditions and beliefs which have become outmoded since long. So, spread of literacy and education can also foster social cohesion in the society. This finding has, however, also received certain criticism.
So, social integration in India can be acquired primarily by checking on the early development of various sports of prejudices in children. Afterwards inculcation of healthy and proper social values can serve to strengthen this process.