Q.1. Specify any two problems faced by consumers relating to labels on products.
Ans : Problems faced by consumers relating to labels on products are as follows :
(i) Popular brands of the labels are being limited by local producers so perfectly that it is very difficult to make the difference between the original and imitated labels.
(ii) Labels do not give the complete information about the product, for example, data of manufaeure, data of expiry, direction of using product, precaution if any, etc. are missing on the label.
Q.2. Why do most people prefer to use detergents for washing their clothes? Support with eight reasons.
Ans : Most of the people prefer to use detergent for washing their clothes due to following reasons :
(i) Optical whiteness bleaches are already present in detergents so bleaches or blue is not required.
(ii) They can be used in hard and soft water. (iii) Washing clothes with detergents is very simple and comfortable.
(iv) They dissolve easily in cold and hot water.
(v) As they are not alkaline, they are found to be suitable for most of the fabrics.
(vi) They form lot of foam and make the clothes soft and fluffy.
(vii) Detergent can lower the surface tension and make garment clean.
(viii) Less water is required for rinsing clothes hence save time, water and energy.
Q.3. Earthen pots are used for storing water. Describe the use of alum and chlorine tablets for making water potable. Which of the two methods is better?
Ans : Earthen pots are used for storing water. Alum and chlorine tablets are used for making water potable.
Use of Alum - Alum is added to the impure water. It dissolves and forms thiny sticky globules called flocks. Bacteria, mud and other impurities stick to these flocks. Once flocks settle at the bottom, the top water can be transferred to another container for use.
Use of chlorine tablets - Dissolve chlorine tablets to water, the gas is released and destroys bacteria and other germs and purifies the water.
Chlorine tablets are better than alum because they can purify even highly polluted water. Use of chlorine is the cheapest, simple, effective and reliable method to disinfect water.
Q.4. A student has got plain parantha and pickle in her tiffin. Suggest three modifications in this meal to suit her nutritional needs. Give reasons for your choice.
Ans : A student has got plain parantha and pickle in her tiffin. Modifications which can be done in this meal to suit her nutritional needs are :-
(i) Add besan / soyabean flour to wheat flour.
(ii) Stuff parantha with paneer.
(iii) Pack chutney made of pudina, dhania, amla.
Reasons for modification
(i) Soyabean and besan is rich in protein.
(ii) Paneer has protein, calcuim and vitamin A.
(iii) Pudina/ dhania has iron, vitamin A.
(iv) Amla has vitamin C.
Q.5. Knowledge of food and nutrition can lead to both wage employment and self employment. Give two opportunities of each.
Ans :Wage Employment
(i) Working in hotel industry.
(ii) Working with some caterer.
(i) Open up a catering business.
(ii) Supply packed lunch to offices.
(iii) Owing a bakery.
Q.6. You want to buy curtains. Write four qualities which would ensure that they are easy to maintain.
(i) Fabric should be polyster or cotton which is easily washable.
(ii) Curtains should be light in weight so that they can be washed at home.
(iii) There should not be any lining otherwise their maintaince becomes expensive.
(iv) They should be colourfast and wrinkle resistant.
Q.7. For a family : Chana dal, Parantha and Custard has been planned. Suggest three modification in it to suit the requirement of a lactating mother. Support your answer with appropriate reasons.
Ans : Chana dal — Add Palak to dal to make it more nutritious.
Parantha — Instead of plain parantha give stuff parantha. Stuffing can be of paneer, cauliflower, etc. It becomes very nutritious.
Custard — Give fruit custard instead of plain custard to improve vitamin and mineral content.
Q.8. Give two possible reasons for a two year old child to show anger. Write four ways he/she may express this emotion.
Ans : A two year child may show anger when he is hungry and when someone takes his/her things. He/she may show his/her emotion by crying, throwing things, speaking bad language and snatching things from others, biting, and even by beating others.
Q.9. State four advantages of buying life insurance policy.
(i) High rate of interest.
(ii) Income tax rebate is obtained.
(iii) Risk factor is covered against theft, death accidents, etc. (iv) It is a safe method of investment.
Q.10. Eight year old Raju has polio. List problems he may have to face in school. How will you help him to deal with these as a fellow classmate ?
Ans : Problems
(i) Difficulty in going up and down the stairs.
(ii) Cannot participate in sports.
(iii) Others might tease him, make fun of him.
(iv) He might be left alone without friends.
(i) Organise classes on ground floor.
(ii) Do not show pity or sympathy but show love and affection.
(iii) Organise extracurricular activities where he can participate.
(iv) Be friendly with him to gain self-confidence.
Q.11. Differentiate between money income and direct income.
Ans : Money income — Consists of all the income obtained in the form of currency, example, salary, wages, pensions, rent, etc.
Direct income — Comprises of all those commodities and facilities which are available to the family without the use of money. Example, facilities provided by the skill of the family member.
Q. 12. Sita is saving to purchase a house after six years. Suggest two ways of safe investment of her savings. Write two advantages of each.
Ans : N.S.C. and Fixed deposit.
Advantages of N.S.C.
(i) Money gets alsmost doubled in six years.
(ii) Income tax rebate is given.
Advantages of Fixed Deposit
(i) High rate of interest is given.
(ii) Money is safe, loan can be taken if need arises.
Q. 13. Name two common adulterants used to adulterate milk. How will you detect them ?
Ans : Water and starch are used to adulterate milk. To detect water, do lactometer test. Normal value of specific gravity of pure milk are 1.030-1.034. If the gravity does not fall in these values, it is adulterated with water. To detect starch ,add few drops of iodine. Appearance of bluishback colour shows are presence of starch in milk.
Q. 14. What is Immunization schedule ? Make one for a child between 0-3 years of age.
Ans : Immunization schedule is for new mothers to tell her about all important injections which are to be given to her child between 0-3 years of age which will prevent her child from all dangerous diseases.
Q. 15. What are the disadvantages of sibling care ?
(i) Siblings are also young and don’t have enough experience to take care of children.
(ii) Some sort of emergency, like in case of minor accidents, they cannot do much to help the young child.
(iii) They also learn menners and habits from their siblings.
Q. 16. Availability of time, energy and labour saving devices affect meal planning. Explain.
Ans : Meal planning is greatly affected by the availability of time, energy and labour-saving devices. Planning avoids unnecessary trips to market to purchase food items. It is desirable to use appropriate and simple methods of cooking to save fuel. With the help of lablour-saving devices like food processor, pressure cooker, etc, we can make different foods in less time and can add variety to the meal.
Q. 17. What important points you would consider while planning meals for old persons ?
Ans : In old age, number of changes take place in the body. So meal planning for the old person should be done after considering following points :
(i) Old people should be served with soft, properly cooked, mashed and finely chopped food because they can’t chew food on account of decaying and falling teeth.
(ii) Sensitivity towards taste is lessened in old age.
As a result food is no longer relished. So, meals for elderly should be more attractive and to their likings.
(iii) Elderly people complain of heaviness and loss of hunger. In such situation, small quantities of food should be served to them at short intervals for easy digestion. Fried and fat rich foods should be avoided.
(iv) Constipation is very common in old age. To avoid this, fibrous foods and liquids should be included in the diet.