Q. 18. Differentiate between Direct and Indirect income. Give one source of each type.
Ans : Real Direct Income — Comprisis of all those commodities and facilities which are available to the family without the use of money.
For example — Homemaker, who is stitching and knitting for the family members is adding to the total family income.
Real Indirect Income — Refers to the commodities and facilities which are available to a family with the use of money or in exchange of good, e.g., the services of paid workers.
Q. 19. List an important benefit, an investor enjoys while saving in National Saving Scheme (NSS).
Ans : Important benefits enjoyed by an investor while saving in National Saving Scheme are Income tax Rebate of 20%, interest of 9.5% per annum and money can be withdrawn when desired but the withdrawn money is treated as income and is liable to be taxed.
Q. 20. What information should be there on a complete label ?
Ans : Requisites of a good lable are :—
(i) Name of the product.
(ii) Brand name
(iii) Trade mark
(iv) Manufacturer’s name and address.
(v) Standardization mark
(vii) Manufacturing and expiry date.
(viii) Batch number
(ix) Licence number
(x) New weight of content
(xi) Direction of use/storage.
(xii) Details of colours and preservatives used.
(xiii) Dosage in the case of medicines and tonics.
(xiv) Maximum retail price.
(xv) Warning, if any
Q. 21. How similarity and harmony can be created in a dress ?
Ans : Harmony means a relationship of different portion of a dress. Harmony and similarity can be created in a dress in following ways.
(i) Harmony in a dress can be achieved by repeated use of lines and shapes, e.g., with square collars, only square pockets should be designed.
(ii) Colours used in dress also create unity, e.g., with a blue printed shirt only blue salwar and dupatta will match.
(iii) There should be unity in texture also. Only silk blouse goes well with a silk saree.
(iv) Personality of the person wearing the dress and the occasion should be complimentary to each other.
Q. 22. List the difference between Wholesale and Retail cloth stores.
Ans : Wholesale stores
(i) Wholesale dealers are only interested in selling bale after bale of cloth.
(ii) You cannot examine the cloth.
(iii) Bulk quantities of cloth are sold at cheaper rate.
Retail cloth stores
(i) Here one gets clothes according to the requirement, i.e., you can get small quantity also.
(ii) The individual may examine fabrics at her leisure and decide upon her choice, colour, etc.
(iii) Price charged for shorter length is slightly more.
Q. 23. Which six points would you check in buying a readymade shirt for your brother ?
(i) The shirt end should be tapered evenly and stitched smoothly with a neatly turned them.
(ii) Collars should be evenly cut so that both the sides match. It should be sewn well and without any puckers. (iii) Sleeves must be fully cut and set in smoothly to assure good fit. See if cuffs are even all around and sewn neatly.
(iv) The tag should tell you that the shirt won’t shrink.
It should also tell the size and instruction for washing and cleaning.
(v) Be sure that all the buttons are of fine quality and stitched on securely. Extra buttons should also be there. (vi) Lock stitch at the pocket corner should be there to provide reinforcement and durability.
Q. 24. A creahe is providing the facilities of nutrition and sleep. State the other any four essential features that are missing in the creche.
Ans : A creche is providing the facilities of nutrition and sleep. Other four essential features that are missing in the creche are :
(i) Saftey (ii) Hygiene (iii) Play space (iv) Medical facility. (v) Proper ventilation and light.
Q. 25. Name a mineral, the demand for which is more during pregnancy than lactation and state why this demand is more. Suggest two foods which will provide this mineral and name one dish each incorporating these foods.
Ans : Demand for iron is more during pregnancy than lactation because iron is needed for foetus, blood growth and well being and also for mother’s health. During lactation, only normal supply of iron is required. Foods which will provide this mineral are spinach, methi, egg, jaggery, chirwa. Dishes which can be prepared are spinach paneer and methi potato.
Q.26. Name some of the diseases which are hereditary and have serious consequences.
Ans. A number of disease get passed on from parents to their children. Children also inherit defects that cause them to have extra fingers or toes or be colour blind.
Some inherited diseases have serious consequences.
These are as follows :
(i) Haemophilia is a condition where the blood does not clot normally. As such there will be problems of excessive bleeding in case of an injury/surgery.
(ii) Muscular distrophy – causes wastage of muscles.
(iii) Phenylketonuria (P KU). The children born with the heredity defect of PKU cannot use the phenylalanine present in food. Consequently the brain and its faculties get damaged.
(iv) Hypertension or high blood pressure affects all those individuals who inherit this tendency from their parents.
(v) Diabetes is a condition where the excess of sugar flows in blood rather than be converted into glycogen.
Normal blood sugar level is 100 mg sugar/100 ml blood.
In a diabetic person when the sugar level is high, some of it passes into the urine as well. Clinical examination of blood and urine confirms that the person is diabetic.
Children inherit the tendency to be diabetic from their parents.
(vi) Myopia is also called shortsightedness. The individual cannot see the distant objects properly. The tendency to be shortsighted is also inherited by children from their shortsighted parents.
(vii) Gout. It is caused by a defect in the body’s natural action of breaking down proteins called ‘purines’.
This defect results in excess of uric acid formation and its accumulation in tissues around joints. These deposits cause sudden painful swelling of joints, most common in the feet. The tendency to gout is also inherited.
Q.27. What are the thiamine deficiency causes?
Ans. Thiamine deficiency causes a disease called Beri Beri. It is of two types,
(a) Wet beri beri characteristic by water retention and oedema and
(b) Dry beri beri involving the nerves but with no oedema.
Symptoms of Beri Beri
Loss of appetite, persistent vomiting and diarrhoea.
Sometimes the disease is accompanied with fever.
Thiamine deficiency causes degeneration of nerves of arms and legs resulting in difficult mobility. The loss of muscular coordination leads to ‘ataxia’. It may ultimately cause paralysis.
A person suffering from beri beri suffers from polyeuritis, general fatigue, mental depression and nervous instability. He may also suffer from vague fears and mental confusion.
Deficiency of thiamine among infants is known to cause ‘Infantile beri beri’. Breastfed infants of mothers with low nutritional status may get beri beri. The symptoms are irritability, low urination, palpitation,
muscle wasting and vomiting.
Deficiency leads to oedema (water retention) in Wet Beri Beri.
Thiamine requirements are based on the calorie intake of the individual. Among adults an intake of 0.5 mg per 1000 calories is considered safe. This amount is also sufficient during pregnancy and lactation.
Infants get thiamine from mother’s milk. They require this vitamin at the rate of 0.3 mg per 1000 calories.
Q.28. Write short notes on (1) Germination (2) Fermentation (3) Combination.
Ans. (1) Germination : It is the process in which small new shoots come out of pulses or cereals under certain controlled conditions thereby improving their nutrient content.
The food to be germinated/sprouted is cleaned, washed and soaked in an equal amount of water over night. In the morning it will be noticed that most of the water is absorbed and the grains are swoollen in size and are softer in texture. The grains are now tied up in a wet muslin cloth and put in an airy place having sufficient amount of defused sunlight for another eight to ten hours.
New shoots will appear. Sometimes the shoots grow up to 1 cm in size. The shoots may take longer to appear when the atmospheric temperature is low.
The shoots that have recently sprouted are very rich in vitamin C that was totally lacking in the dry cereals and pulses. Niacin content increases by 60-100% in 48-72 hours, while thiamine content remains almost the same as in dry seed. Iron (which is generally found in bound form and not easily available) gets loosened and becomes easily available to the body.
Sprouting changes the texture of starch cells by rupturing their walls. In the initial stages of germination the starch gets converted into sucrose, fructose and glucose. As germination proceeds increasing quantities of maltose appear. These changes promote the digestibility of the grains. The methi seeds loose their bitterness on germination thus improving in taste.
Hence it is quite appropriate to say that germination is a way of improving the quality, quantity and digestibility of food at no additional cost.
(2) Fermentation : It is process in which the naturally present micro-organisms are allowed to bring about desirable physical and chemical changes by converting them into simpler and better forms having increased nutrient availability.
The conversion of milk to curd is brought about by adding a little ‘starter’ (curd) to warm milk. The slightly sour taste is brought about by the microbial activity of lactobacilli that convert the milk lactose into lactic acid.
Rice and dal are fermented to make idli, dosa and vadas. Refined flour is fermented with yeast or curds to make bhaturas, nan and bread. Dhokla is made by fermenting channa dal.
As the fermentation proceeds the mixture becomes more porous, bubbly and sour. Fermentation should be controlled upto the desirable state. The production of carbon dioxide makes the mixture spongy and light.
Fermented food is easy to digest and add variety in texture and flavour.
The fermentation brings about an increase in ascorbic acid content. Thiamine, riboflavin and niacin contents are doubled. There is increase in folic acid and methionine contents. Iron is released from its bound forms and is thus easily available.
(3) Combination : It is pr ocess of combin in g different foods so that they compliment and improve the nutrients content.
Combining of foods is done for the following reasons: (i) Economy (ii) Better nutritive value (iii) Variety (iv) Desirable changes in food habits for healthy living.
Meat is an expensive protein food. Economy can be effected by substituting it partially by texturised soyabeans like soya vadi and soya granules. Combination of milk and dal (payasam) is as nourishing as any meat preparation.
Cereals are deficient in lysine and pulses are deficient in methionine. Combine these to make khichri, missi roti, dal rice, dal stuffed parantha, dosa and idli to improve the nutrient content.
Cereals combine well with milk. They compliment and improve the protein and calcium content, e.g. kheer, custards, dalia, sago and sevian kheer.
Iron and vitamin A content can be improved by combining greens, with meat, paneer and potatoes. The popoular examples are mutton biryani, dal sag and vegetable tahiri.
Incorporate idlis with sprouted green grams to improve Vitamin C and protein contents.
Q.29. What is a Dye ? What are the different types of dyes prevealent in India?
Ans. A dye is a “compound that can be fixed on a surface in a more or less permanent state, that evokes the visual sensation of a specific colour”. Dyes differ on the basis of the method of application and their chemical nature. Dyes can be applied to the yarn or the fabric.
Direct Dyes : Direct dyes are inexpensive, easy to apply and are available in large range of colours. They are generally used on cellulose fabrics. These dyes are not affected by daylight and artificial lights and hence are suitable for dyeing curtains and draperies. The direct dyes do not have chemical reaction with the fibre.
Acid Dyes : Nylon, polyester and protein fibres are better suited for acid dyes. These dyes are applied to fabrics that are not affected by the acids. Some of these dyes fade on exposure to light and may also get stained due to perspiration. As such dry-cleaning rather than washing is better for acid dyed fabrics.
Basic Dyes : They are applied in an alkaline bath. They are excellent for nylons and polyester for they produce brilliant colours that are fairly permanent. The fabric is easy to launder, as the colour is well retained.
Cellulose and protein fabrics are not suitable for basic dyes.
Disperse Dyes : As the name indicates the dye is first dispersed into a solution and is applied to the fabric at high temperature and pressure. This method is often used for dyeing the polyester fibres blended with cotton and other cellulose fibres.
Azoic Dyes : These are also called naphthol dyes. These are used in cold water baths. These produce fast and brilliant colours at low cost. They work better on cotton and hence are suitable for towels and sheet etc.
Vat Dyes : The dye is applied in large vats either to the fibre or to the fabric. The vat dyes are soluble in alkaline solution and insoluble in water. It is their insolubility in water that makes vat dyes colourfast. These dyes are suitable for cellulose fibres. They can also be used on man made fibres under certain controlled conditions.
Q.30. Write a short note on Diptheria.
Ans. Cause : It is caused by ‘corynebacter ium diphtheria’. It affects the throat and respiratory canal and produce toxins there. If these toxins reach the heart the patient dies.
(i) Bacteria of this disease are spread in air by the infected person’s mouth, nose, cough, spit etc. which are taken in by other persons with the breath.
(ii) By using handkerchief, utensils, thermometer and leftover food of the patient, this disease can be contracted.
(i) Respiratory pipe is infected.
(iii) Tonsil swells and difficulty in swallowing.
(iv) The lymph glands also swell.
(v) The patient suffers from high fever.
(vi) Throat, tonsils and upper portion of mouth becomes white.
(vii) Cramps occur in body.
(viii) Respiratory canal is blocked by a membrane which causes difficulty in breathing.
(ix) Toxins produced by bacteria reaches nerves and heart of the patient.
Incubation Period : The incubation period of this disease is 2 to 5 days. It should be treated immediately, otherwise delay can cause the membrane to form and block breathing, which results in death of the patient.
(i) D.P.T. vaccine should be given in time.
(ii) Children should be kept away from such patients.
(iii) Attendant should gargle regularly with water + potassium permanganate.
(i) The patient should be kept in an airy room.
(ii) Secretion from nose and throat should be burnt.
(iii) Patient should be kept away from other children.
(iv) Patient should be made to gargle with salted water or water + potassium permanganate.
Q.31. What should be the diet during the lactation period ?
Ans. Cereals like wheat, rice, jowar, bajra or any staple food.
Pulses and if acceptable, meat, fish eggs etc.
Milk and milk products.
Green Leafy vegetables and other vegetables, particularly yellow and orange, like carrot, pumpkin etc.
Seasonal fruits – specially citrus fruits, like orange, lemon etc. and other fruits, like guava, pineapple, mango, papaya etc.
Nuts like peanuts, coconut, oil etc.
A lactating mother must drink a minimum of 500 ml of milk everyday. She should increase the amount of food and number of meals to be taken during the day. Normally, 6-7 meals should be given to her per day. The meal pattern during lactation should be the same as during pregnancy.
Important Things to be Considered while Lactating
No food is restricted to lactating mother. But if she feels that some particular food is causing inconvenience to the infant, she must avoid it.
Highly spicy, strongly flavoured foods (which may alter the taste of mother’s milk) should be avoided.
Alcoholic drinks and intoxicants should be avoided.
They are secreted in milk and may be harmful for the infant.
Lactating mother should take medicines with the advice of a doctor.
Amount of liquids and water should be increased, as these are helpful in maintaining the capacity to secrete milk. For proper feeding of an infant a lactating mother must get enough rest. It should also be ensured that she isfree from tension and mental disturbances.
Lactating mother should not breastfeed the infant if she is suffering from serious diseases like T.B., kidney or
mental disorders, heart problems, etc.
Lactating mother should reduce the amount of food after the weaning otherwise it would lead to weight gain.
Q.32. What are standard colour schemes in clothing ?
Ans. 1. Monochromatic Colour Scheme. In such a scheme, there is one base colour’ which is used in varied values and intensifies. Though, this colour scheme is simple yet there is a possibility of monotony. For example, light blue salwar and dupatta with dark blue shirt.
2. Analogous Colour Scheme. In this scheme, such colours are used which are adjacent to each other on the colour chart.
3. Complementary Colour Scheme. In this scheme, such colours are used which are opposite to each other in the colour chart like red and green, yellow and purple, blue and orange. For example red saree with green border and blouse.
4. Double Complementary Colour Scheme. In this scheme, two secondary colours are used with two opposite primary colours. While using these colours, care is taken that all the four colours are not of the same value and intensity and one colour should dominate the scheme.
5. Split Complementary Colour Scheme. In this scheme, a colour is used with the adjacent colour leaving its opposite colour. For example, blue green and yellow green when mixed with red.
6. Triad Colour Scheme. In this scheme, three such colours are used as are equlidistant on colour chart. For example, green, purple, orange, yellow green, blue purple and red orange.
The success of colour scheme in a dress depends upon its suitability on the person wearing it. It is not necessary that a colour that suits one person may suit other as well. Colour scheme in a dress should be according to colour of the skin, hair, eyes, personality, season and occasion. Colour of dress should match the accessories as well, otherwise, the very purpose will be defeated, that is, in men colour of suit should match with that of shirt, tie, socks and shoes. Similarly, in ladies, the colour of saree
should match with blouse, purse, sandles etc.
Q.33. Prepare a sample Menu of a Day’s Diet for a Six Months Old Infant.
1 small glass
Yolk of half bioled egg
Cod liver oil
1 small glass
1 tea spoon
Cod liver oil
Mixed vegetable soup
1 small glass
1 small glass