Q. 1. State any two functions of Agmark.
Ans : Agmark stands for Agriculture Mark. The mark stands for unprocessed and semi processed agricultural products. Example : cereals, spices, oils etc.
Two functions of Agmark are :
(i) Agmark has laid down same specification for the packing i.e., which type of packing should be used for different type of products.
(ii) Agmar k also ensures th at whatever is bein g packed should be properly weighed and measured before packing.
Q. 2. Prepare eight guidelines for consumers so that they can spend wisely.
Ans : (i) Consumers should be sure about the necessity of an item.
(ii) He should always compare prices of different sellers for the same item.
(iii) Always strike a balance between price, quality, utility, durability and special features.
(iv) If p ossible bu y fr om a wh olesal e dealer or authorised dealer only.
(v) Consider the after sale services and reputation of the shopkeeper.
(vi) Buy when the crowd is expected to be less.
(vii) Always make cash purch ases, they turn to be eheaper in long run.
(viii) Purchases always depends upon the availability of money and storage space.
(ix) Try to purchase popular brands with standard marks on them.
Q. 3. Write eight precautions you will adopt while removing stains from any fabric.
Ans : Precautions to be adopted while removing stain from any fabric are :
(i) Before removing the stain from a coloured cloth, fastness of its colour should be checked.
(ii) Stains should be removed immediately otherwise it will become difficult to remove it.
(iii) Dilute solution of chemical should be used to
avoid damage to the clothes.
(iv) Acidic matters should be washed in a alkaline medium.
(v) During removal of stains, clothes should be moved in circular motion.
(vi) Unknown stain should first be washed in cold water and then with hot water and detergent.
(viii) Clothes should be washed after using chemicals for the removal of stain so that they do not damage the fabric.
(ix) Inflammable chemicals should be carefully used.
Q. 4. List two disease caused by impure water. How is muddy water purified with the help of boiling method?
Ans : Diseases caused by impure water are :-
(i) Typhoid (ii) Cholera (iii) Diarrhoea (iv) Hepatitis (Jaundice)
Muddy water can be purified with the help of boiling method :-
(i) Stand muddy water in a container - Let it settle.
(ii) Strain water.
(iii) Boil at 1000C for 10 munites.
(iv) Cool and store it in a clean container.
Q. 5. Trace social development of a child from birth till one year.
Ans : Social development of a child from birth till one year :-
Age — Social Development
0 - 3 months —Next to nil at birth. Starts showing little interest in people around but no preferences. By 3 months, starts recognizing sound. Respond by smiling.
4 - 6 months — They respond by gurgling and babbling when they notice some one familiar. Wary of stranger and starts crying.
7 - 9 months — Differentiate love and scolding. Bond between the infant and the mother becomes stronger during this period.
19 - 12 — Claps and cries with joy. Shows interest in toys and ohter children.
Q. 6. Keeping elements of design in mind, give four suggestions for choosing a dress for tall thin girl.
Ans : Elements of design to be kept in mind for choosing a dress for tall girl are :
(i) Lines : Select with horizontal lines as they create the illusion of added width.
(ii) Form and shape : Select dress with bell shaped as it will add width to the tall girl.
(iii) Colour : Select dress with contrast colour as contrast gives the illusion of less height.
(iv) Texture : Glossy texture dress material should be selected as it gives an illusion of increased size.
Q. 7. Describe three specific symptoms of polio.
Write three precautions while caring for such patients.
Ans : Symptoms —
(i) 1II health and fever about 1000F, headache and drowsiness.
(ii) Pain and tenderness in the limbs accompanied with vomiting and diarrhoea.
(iii) Paralysis of the limbs and crippling effect.
(i) Control fever and vomiting of the child.
(ii) Provide sufficient fluids to drink.
(iii) Make the child take rest, especially, his fatigued painful limbs.
Q. 8. Present one difference and one similarity between general provident fund and public provident fund schemes. Specify one common benefit of each.
Ans : Difference — GPF is suitable for government employee’s while PPF can be taken by any individual.
Similarity — Loan can be taken in case of emergency.
Benefit — Both schemes provide income tax rebate.
Q. 9. Write advantages and problems of leaving a one year old child in creche.
Ans : Advantages
(i) Working mother can go for work without tension.
(ii) Helps in socialization.
(iii) Child learn good habits, like sharing, eating in group.
(iv) Helps the child to get prepared for schooling.
(i) It may not be safe.
(ii) May be all facilities ar e not pr ovided by th e creche.
(iii) Difficulty to leave sick child.
(iv) One has to pay for availing this facility.
Q. 10. Define psychic income and state two example of the same.
Ans : Psychic income — Refers to the satisfaction that is obtained from the money income and real income.
Example (i) one finds satisfaction by investing money in L.I.C. and other person may be satisfied by investing in units. (ii) One may find satisfaction by purchasing ready made garments and another person may find satisfaction by wearing clothes stitched by tailor to size.
Q. 11. Why do we need to maintain account of our expenditure ?
Ans : (i) Th ese assist in keeping a check on spending behaviour.
(ii) They help in the reduction of wasteful expenditure.
(iii) The household can also determine the amount of money that could be spent on various commodities.
(iv) One becomes conscious of neither borrowing nor taking loans to run the household.
Q. 12. Give six suggestions for preventing food adulteration.
(i) Buy food from reliable shops only.
(ii) Buy standardised goods and reliable brands.
(iii) Do not buy loose food stuffs where there are more chances of adulteration.
(iv) Study the label before purchasing the food stuff.
(v) Be quality conscious and sure you are not being cheated by adulteration. (vi) Report against adulteration to the concerned authorities.
Q. 13. A child has developed rash with pus on his body. Name the disease the child could be suffering from. Write two other symptoms of the disease. Write prevention and cure also.
Ans : A child has developed rash with pus on his body. Child is suffering from chicken pox.
(i) The rash first appears on chest and then spreads all over the body.
(ii) The sick child has headache and fiver.
Prevention and Cure :
(i) Application of calamine lotion relieves itching.
(ii) Isolate the child.
(iii) Chicken Pox vaccine is available; it should be given to the child.
VARIOUS CHILDHOOD DISEASES
Mode of Spread — Air and direct contact with sick child.
Symptoms — High fever, sore throat, difficulty in swallowing, greywhite film on tonsils, obstructing the respiratory tract.
Cure — Do not let other children play, use the toys and feeding cup to the sick child.
PERTUSSIS (WHOOPING COUGH)
Mode of Spread —Air Symptoms —Persistent cough, cough generally ends in vomiting. Severe cough spasms- accompanied by the sudden intake of breath commonly called the ‘whoop’.
Cure —Keep the child warm. Avoid exercise. Provide treatment as prescribed by the doctor.
Mode of Spread — Dirty soil & Rusted Metal Parts.
Symptoms — Fever accompanied with headache and restlessness. Difficulty in chewing and swallowing. Jaw muscles have spasms that can cause tongue bites, locking of jaws, back bends in the shape of bow.
Cure — Provide treatment under doctor ’s supervision. Keep cotton swabs between teeth to prevent tongue bites.
Prevention — DPT is a triple vaccine that provides protection against diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus. It is given in three doses starting from six weeks.
Mode of Spread — Infected nose and throat secretions passed on as droplets or by contact.
Symptoms — Cough and running nose, fever with feeling of chills, the rash appears first on the body, the rash is pink, sore eyes-very sensitive to light; child prefers to keep the eyes closed.
Cure — Isolate the sick child, apply calamine lotion to reduce itching, dim light will provide relief to the child.
Mode of Spread — Direct close contact. Indirectly the disease spreads through articles freshly soiled with saliva.
Symptoms — Fever and rundown feeling, enlargement and tenderness of one or both salivary glands giving swelling at the base of ears, earache, mouth feels dry because of reduced saliva secretions, severe disease damages brain and spinal cord.
Cure — Isolate and keep the patient in a clean place, feed the child with soft and liquid food, clean the mouth with a gauge soaked in saline water.
Prevention — Measles and mumps vaccine can be injected once the child is about 9 months of age. MMR vaccine provides immunity for measles, mumps and German measles (Rubella.)
Mode of Spread —Air Symptoms — Weakness, loss of weight and appetite, rapid pulse, occasional low grade fewer foul breath, persistent enough.
Cure — Isolate the sick child, give good nourishment, nose and throat secretion should be safely desposed should be safely disposed of. Keep the child in well ventilated clean room.
Prevention — BCG vaccine at birth or within a couple of weeks.
Q. 14. What are the advantages of substitute care done by grandparents ?
Ans : Advantages of grandparents as subsitute care are :—
(i) Grandparents in a family provide very loving and safe childcare.
(ii) There is a feeling of co-operation and sharing.
(iii) Chindren learn positive traits regarding society, culture and religion.
Q. 15. List the different factors which influence meal planning and explain any two.
Ans : Meal planning is a vey complex job. There are many factors that influence meal planning.
(i) Physical factors. (ii) Climatic factors. (iii) Personal factors. (iv) Conservation of available resources. (v) Meal pattern. (vi) Adequacy of Meal. (vii) Satiety Value (viii) Socio-cultural and religious factor. (ix) Flexibility in meal planning.
1. Meal Pattern — Meal planning should be in conformity with the family food patterns. People follow different meal pattern in the rural and urban areas. In urban areas, families are together at the dining table for evening tea and dinner only. These meals, when all family members are together should be taken in happy atmosphere to strengthen the family bonds. All efforts should be made to ensure that each mea has at least three out of the five groups in it.
2. Adequacy of meal — The meals planned should make sure that it provides all the necessary nutrients in right proportions to all the family members. Carbohydrates should supply sufficient calories and provid protein sparing action. Fat soluble vitamins and energy are taken care of by adequate intake of fats. Adequate amount of water and roughage should be included in the meal for healthy living.
Q. 16. Suggest three changes in the given menu for an old person. Give reason also : — Chapatties, Pulao (fried with vegetables) , Dal fry, Boondi Raita, Oniontomato salad.
Chapatties — Can be given.
Pulao — We can give boiled rice because fried rice is difficult to digest.
Dal fry — Instead of dal fry give dal without tadka because fried dal has fat and spices which will cause mechanical irritation.
Boondi Raita — Give plain curd. Boondi is again fried and it will cause irritation in digestive system.