Home Science Answer Key Set 19 (Q17-Q32) Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

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Humanities/Arts : Home Science Answer Key Set 19 (Q17-Q32) Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

The document Home Science Answer Key Set 19 (Q17-Q32) Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev is a part of the Humanities/Arts Course Home Science Class 12 Model Sample Papers.
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Q. 17. How judicious spending helps in supplementing income ?
Ans : Judicious spending helps in supplementing income. For example, husband may carry packed lunch rather than getting it from market.
One may buy seasonal fruits and vegetables which are cheaper. One can reduce expense by making purchases from wholesale shops.

Q. 18. Why is it important to save money every month ?
Ans :
It is very important to save money every month. It helps to inculcate regular saving habits among people. If we save some amount every month, it will not be burden on a salaried person. He can use this, saved money in case of emergency or to fulfill his needs. If money is not saved every month it is difficult for a person to get huge amount of money in case of emergency. Regular saving also helps to restrict on  unnecessary expenses.

Q. 19. When will you consider advertisement misleading ?
Ans :
Misleading Advertisement
(i) The item you purchased carried total guarantee according to the advertisement, but in case of fault, dealer blames the consumer.
(ii) The advertisement plays with the psyche of the consumer. For example, the product is advertised to make the skin fair and smooth. The consumer is psychologically convinced of the need to try the product.
(iii) The product advertised carries fabulous prizes to promote sales. It forces the consumer to indulge in the purchase of unwanted products.
(iv) Advertisement about the discount offers. When the consumer actually approaches the shop for buying, they find the 50% advertised discount is there only on a few items.
(v) Advertisement using words  likes ‘extra rich’, ‘highly nutritrous’ attract number of buyers. The close inspection of the content may reveal that the advertisement is over rated.

Q. 20. Write a short note on principle of proportion.
Ans :
According to this principle, different parts of the dress should be in proper proportion. Buttons, yoke, collar, pockets, etc., should be in  roportion to the size of the dress. Example : Big button or large pocket on small frock will not look appropriate. Whereas small pocket and buttons would look more appropriate on a small frock. The dress should be in proportion to the size of the person. Principle of proportion should be kept in mind while choosing a print. Small prints go well with fat and short women, while large print with lean and thin women.

Q. 21. Write short notes on good finish and easy maintenance of clothes.
Ans : Good Finish —
Different finishes are given to provide good quality cloth. We should select clothes with permanent finishes only. Some finishes are selected according to the use like crush resistant, water-proof, fireproof, sanforized, etc. colours should also be fast, they should not bleed out.
Easy Maintenance — Laundering can bring about fading of colours in a printed and dyed fabric thereby lowering the quality of fabric. One should use mlid soap and dry the garment in shade to maintain the apparel. Look for the label that states the different finishes before purchasing the fabrics.

Q. 22. How will you remove ink stain from a white cotton shirt ?
Ans :
Ink stain can be removed from white cotton shirt :
(i) Rub the stain with tomato juice and rinse.
(ii) Rub sour curd, rinse well.
(iii) If the stain persists rub with salt and lemon juice. 
(iv) Rinse well, dry in sun for total bleaching effect.

Q. 23. List three main areas of physical development in which changes take place during first three years of a child’s life. Give one characteristic of each area.
Ans :
Three main areas of physical development in which changes take place during first three years of a child’s life are :
(i) Height (ii) Weight (iii) Body proportion Characteristics of each area are as follows :
Height — increases 36”-40” at the end of 3 years.
Weight — increases 12-15 kg at the end of 3 years.
Body proportions — at the end of 3 years.
(i) Length of trunk increases.
(ii) Shoulder width increases.
(iii) Leg len gth increases.

Q. 24. State four problems you have faced as a consumer.
Ans :
Problem faced by me as a consumer are :
(i) Adulteration in food items. (ii) Incorrect weights and measures. (iii) Hoarding. (iv) Substandard quality of goods. (iv) Overcharging for the goods.

Q.25. How is sex of a child determined ?
Ans.
The responsibility of the birth of a girl child is often pinned on the mother. But this is not true. The female cell has X-chromosomes while the male spermcell has XY chromosomes. The female egg cell divides resulting in two cells having single X-chromosome each. When the sperm cell divides, half the cell receives the chromosomes while the other half receives the Ychromosomes. An egg cell fertilized by the sperm cell having X-chromosomes will develop into a girl child. On the other hand if the sperm cell containing Y-chromosomes fertilizes the egg cell, it will develop into a boy.

Q.26. What are the functions and sources of riboflavin ?
Ans.
It is essential for the enzyme that helps in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. It unites with the enzymes that help cells to use O2.

Riboflavin is known to promote the general well being among individuals.

It is needed to prevent ocular lesions (wounds and dryness around eyes).

It is needed to check seborrhea of skin (rash and dryness).

Riboflavin also checks cracking of lips and tongue.
Sources of Riboflavin
Cereals lack in riboflavin. Fruits, roots and vegetables are also poor sources of this vitamin. Fats and oils are totally devoid of this vitamin. The richest source is yeast.

Meat, specially liver, milk, green vegetables and grain have fair amount of this vitamin. Liver contains approximately sixteen times more riboflavin than present in the ame quantity of milk. Milk should be covered to reduce the loss of riboftlavin. This vitamin is lost if the food is cooked in large quantity of water.

Q.27. What is food spoilage ? Define microbial and enzymatic spoilage.
Ans.
Food is considered spoilt when it has undergone undesirable changes in its natural (i) Colour (ii) Flavour (iii) Odour (iv) Appearance (v) Texture (vi) Consistency (vii) Shape and (viii) Nutritive value.
Every food that we eat is biological in origin.
Vegetables and fruits are still alive when purchased, but meat starts undergoing chemical changes soon after slaughter. The food that you eat should be wholesome and health promoting. Remember food spoilage is a natural phenomenon occurring at varying rates depending upon harvesting, storing, handling and processing factors.
Microbial and Enzymatic Spoilage : Some microorganisms are naturally present in food while some more find entry into food during harvesting, transportation, storage, handling and cooking. Can you name these microorganisms? Yes – Bacteria, yeast, moulds and fungi. Some amount of enzymes are also produced during microbial activity. Some bacteria grow faster than others. The fast growing bacteria will soon dominate the food. Most bacteria take minutes to a couple of hours to adapt to new environmental conditions. Hence you must decide either to cool or heat or consume food within four hours of its purchase.

Enzymes are an intrinsic part of foods. Enzymes bring about desirable changes in colour, taste, flavour and texture of food. Ripening of green tomatoes/ mangoes is brought about by the action of enzymes.
Further continuation of enzymatic actively results in over-ripening and rotting of food. The desirable changes brought about in food by enzymes are called ‘positive’ while rotting etc. are ‘negative’.

Q.28. Based on the physical, mental, emotional and social aspects what do you look for the signs of good health among the members of your family ?
Ans. Eyes : Sparkling brightness; good vision, moist and lustrous, not sensitive to bright light and no dark circles.
Skin : Clear, smooth and soft with no dryness. There should be no dry scales and patches.
Hair : Lustrous hair, not easily pluckable (falling hair), no split ends and no premature greying.
Face : Free of rash and dermatitis, pleasant look and smooth skin, without black heads and unwanted hair.
Mouth : Velvety lips without any cracks at the corner.
Oral and Dental State : Healthy teeth free of dental caries, tartar deposit etc. Fresh breath without foul smell, have normal breathing.
Physique : Average height, weight depending upon age and sex. Neither underweight nor overweight (Big built, average built and small-built.)
Sleep : Sound sleep of 7-10 hours. No snoring and certainly not unduly interrupted sleep due to anxiety, bad dreams and worries.
Appetite : Good eating habits, balanced meals, no over/under eating.
Activity capacity to work : Enough energy to work and play. Quick to react and with no lazy and tired feelings. No restlessness.
Posture : Good posture with no stoop, hunch or awkward gait. Agile and alert disposition.
Freedom from disease : No disease, not listless and no infirmity.
Mental state : Positive, good ability to learn and remember, creative and no forgetfulness.
Emotional : Have good control over emotions, under all circumstances. No hysterical or uncontrolled behaviour, pleasant nature without irritability.
Social behaviour : Friendly, helpful, God fearing and honest. A good human being will be a responsible individual, family member, community member and citizen.

Q.29. Write a short note on Whooping Cough.
Ans
. Cause : The cause of this disease is Becillus Pertussis or Hemophilus Pertussis. It badly effect respiratory pipe and lungs.
Incubation Period : It takes seven days : to come to its full form. Maximum limit is 21 days.
Spread :
(i) It is a very dangerous infectious disease.
(ii) It spreads through breath, spit and cough of the patient. (iii) Sometimes personal belongings of the patient like handkerchief, bedding etc. also help in spreading this disease.
Symptoms :
(i) Cold and cough.
(ii) Pain in throat.
(iii) Light fever.
(iv) Watery eyes and nose.
(v) Continuous and harsh coughing.
(vi) ‘Whoops’ sound while coughing.
(vii) Face gets red while coughing.
(viii) Tongue protudes while coughing.
(ix) Patient sweats and faces difficulty in breathing.
(x) There are blood clots in spit.
It is a very painful disease. The children do coughing vigorously for many minutes. They loose control over passing of their bowels and urine.
Cure :
(i) Patient should be prevented from cold and dampness.
(ii) Patient should be kept separate from other children.
(iii) Patient should be given light digestible food in small quantity.
(iv) Pertussis Vaccine (D.P.T.) should be given to the patient.
(v) Juice of Aloe Vera (Gwar Patha) with sugar should be boiled and cooled. One teaspoon of this should be given in morning and evening.
(vi) Sour foodstuff should be avoided.
(vii) Fruit juices should be given to the patient.
Prevention :
(i) Keep the patient away from other children.
(ii) Other children should be vaccinated.
(iii) Leftover food of the patient should not be used.
(iv) Personal belongings of the patient should not be used by people.
(v) Cough and spit of the patient should be burnt.

 Q.30. What should be the nutritional requirements of a diarrhoea patient ?
Ans.
Maintaining nutritional status is a big problem in diarrhoea. Considerable loss of energy, liquids, minerals, serum, protein etc. is caused in it. Hence, all these things plays vital role in diet therapy of this disease.
Energy : Consider able loss of energy deman ds sufficient intake of calories. To meet the calorie requirements” easily digestible carbohydrate rich foods like fruit juices, suji kheer, boiled rice etc. should be given to the patient.
Proteins : Proteins are lost in considerable amount in diarrhoea. Unavailability of sufficient amount of food proteins in the body leads to, firstly disintegration of tissue proteins and then use of blood protein. It causes acute deficiency of proteins in the body. Hence, sufficient amount of proteins are required by the patient suffering from diarrhoea. Protein rich foods should be given to the patient with the improvement in his condition like boiled eggs, toned milk etc.
Fats : Fats and fat rich foods are restricted to a patient because the, intestines are incapable of absorbing them. Butter and light fats, like, cream, can be given to the patient with the improvement in his condition.
Vitamins. Deficiency of water soluble vitamins in the body is caused by the loss of water in diarrhoea (like Bcomplex and Vitamin C). Hence, fruit juices must be added in the diet of the patient.
Minerals : Loss of sodium and potassium leads to their deficiency diseases, like loss of appetite, vomiting, restlessness, loss of flexibility in the muscles of alimentary canal etc. Their deficiency can be made up by giving fruit juices to the patient after adding salt.
Water : Lot of water is excreted out in diarrhoea. Hence, it is very important to make up for this deficiency. Patients should be given liquids in the form of mineral water, juices, soups, lemon water, barley, water etc. Oral dehydration Solution (ORS) should be given to prevent dehydration.

Q.31. What is the importance of proportion in clothing ?
Ans
. According to this principle, different parts of the dress should be in proper proportion.
Button, yoke, collar, cuff, pockets etc. should, be in proportion to the size of the dress. A large pocket or big size buttons if appended on a small frock would look odd because they are not in right proportion to the frock. Small pocket and buttons would look more appropriate on a small frock.
The golden rule in any form of art is to decide in unequal parts than dividing in equal parts. This looks more attractive and interesting. Salwar-kamij dividing the body in two equal parts would not appeal much. Similarly, the equal length of skirt and top is also not desirable. In frock the length of yoke and skirt should be in right
proportions.
The dress should be in proportion to the size of the person. Body structure of people differ from one another.
In the construction of clothes, harmony should be created with the size of the body. Large collars, cuffs and pockets in a dress will not suit a tall and heavy woman rather these would suit a slender woman. Principle of proportion should be kept in mind while choosing a print. Small prints go well with fat and short women, while large prints with lean and thin women.
Different colours used in dress should be in right proportions. Light colours should be used in the longer portion and dark colour in the smaller. portion of a dress.
A dark colour blouse looks good with a light colour sari of the same colour. But light colour blouse does not look good with a dark colour sari.

 

Q.32. Prepare a Sample Menu of Day’s Diet for a Ten Years Old Child.
Ans.
Sample Menu of a Day’s Diet for a Ten Years Old Child

Meal Time

Menu

Household

Ingredients

 

 

Measures

 

Breakfast

(i) Milk

1 glass

Milk, sugar

 

(ii) Stuffed parantha

1 1/2

Wheat flour, Potato

 

(iii) Boiled egg

1

Egg

Packed

(i) Poha

1 plate

Chirva, Peanuts,

Lunch

 

 

Onion, Peas, Carrot

 

(ii) Guava

1

Guava

Lunch

(i) Mutter Paneer

1/2 katori

Peas,

 

 

 

Paneer, Tomato, Onion

 

(ii) Potato Beans

1/2 katori

Potato, Beans

 

(iii) Raita

1 katori

Curd, Carrot

 

(iv) Salad

1/2 plate

Cucumber, Tomato, Onion

 

(v) Chapaties

2

Wheat flour

Evening

(i) Milk shake

1 glass

Milk, Banana

Tea

(ii) Peanut Biscuits

3-Feb

Biscuits

 

(iii) Cutlets

2

Potato,

 

 

 

sabudana, onion, ghee

Dinner

(i) Dal

1/2 katori

Arhar dal

 

(ii) Rice

1 plate

Rice

 

(iii) Brinjal Potato

1/2 katori

Brinjal,

 

vegetable

 

Potato, Onion

 

 (iv) Curd

1/2katori

Curd

 

(v) Ice-cream

1 small katori

Milk, Mango

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