Q. 21. Clothes and personality are interrelated. Justify the statement.
Ans : Clothes and personality are interreleted. The clothes that fit well and give a shapely look enhance the personality of the wearer. Proper dresses help in building self-confidence which is essential for the proper development of personality. Clothes affect the personality of the wearer. People who are introvert wear bright and gaudy clothes.
Q. 22. List an advantages and disadvantage each for doing fabric shopping with credit cards.
Ans : An advantage for doing fabric shopping with credit cards is that one does not have to carry cash. Disadvantages is that one is always tempted to buy beyond one’s needs and this can lead to budget and expense problems.
Q. 23. What are the steps involved in the general washing and cleaning of clothes ?
(i) Sorting of clothes — White and coloured, very dirty, bed lined and other clothes are stored.
(ii) Steeping — Material is soaked in soap solution hence economy of time, labour and soap.
(iii) Washing — By soaps and detergents.
(iv) Hot water washing — White cotton and liner can be washed at high temperature.
(v) Rinsing — To remove all traces of soap suds.Rinsing is done several times.
(vi) Stiffening and blueing — White clothes are blued. Starch gives a fresh appearance and makes it dust proof.
Q. 24. You have been asked to make a paushtic roti for a lactating mother. Name two chief ingredients you will add to wheat flour, two chief nutrients these ingredients would provide and state two advantages of these to the lactating mother.
Ans : To make a paushtic roti for a lactating mother, two chief ingredients which can be added are : (i) Cooked dal (ii) Green leaves — e.g., Palak (iii) Powder peanuts.
Nutrients provided by these ingredients are : (i) Proteins (ii) Minerals — Iron (iii) Vitamins
Advantages of these to lactating mother are : (i) Gets added proteins or better quality proteins. (ii) Gets needed minerals and vitamins.
Q. 25. Enumerate three points you will keep in mind while selecting a readymade dress.
Ans : While selecting a readymade dress following points should be kept in mind :
(i) Size — Garment should fit well to enhance the beauty of the wearer.
(ii) Colour — Should suit th e per son ality an d it should be fast otherwise it will fade.
(iii) Seam allowance should be enough for alterations.
(iv) Good workmanship — Edges well finished, buttons intact, Embroidery etc. neat. (v) Garment should drape properly.
Q.26. What is delinguency ? What are the causes of it ?
Ans. Delinquency can be defined as “antisocial behaviour in which an individual is involved in illegal and violent actions”. Truancy is also considered similar to delinquency. A student who stays away from school when he should be in school is called a truant. Truant children are known to run wild, fight and damage property.
A delinquent is an individual who repeatedly commits minor offences. Most delinquent children have deprived backgrounds. High rate of unemployment among low strata families increases the problems related to delinquency. Juvenile delinquents are children involved in crime acts but they are old enough to be called adults.These children can’t be tried in the usual crime courts, but go through reformation process under the strict supervision of the juvenile courts.
Causes of Delinquency
Adolescents need firm and friendly control of the parents and adults. However, the adults should not unduly pressurize the adolescents. The working parents from urban as well as rural backgrounds often feel short of time to keep a track of their adolescent son/daughter.
(ii) Broken Homes. The adolescents coming from broken homes often get confused with the behaviour of their parents. The frustrated parents subject the innocent adolescent to harsh treatment. The adolescents often resort to truancy, run away from home, resort to alcohol, smoking and drugs. Suicidal tendency and sexual misbehaviour are also resorted to by these adolescents for lack of proper guidance.
(iii) Poverty and lack of activities involving proper time utilization are also responsible for delinquent behaviour.
(iv) Association with friends involved in gang activities. The explicit peer loyalty and the thrill accompanied with the antisocial activities often land the adolescents in juvenile courts. Pick-pocketing, stealing, lying and eve-teasing are some other antisocial activities in dulged in by such adolescents.
(v) Lax dis ciplin e at sch ool, faulty teaching techniques, reluctant learning, truancy and the inability of the child to make appropriate progress can also lead to deliquency.
Q.27. Discuss the deficiency of folic acid. What should we take to avoid it ?
Ans. Folic acid is another important member of the vitamin B group. It is found both in free and conjugated forms. The former is readily absorbed in the system than the latter.
It is water-soluble vitamin, hence needed on daily basis.
Prolonged deficiency of folic acid and cynocobalamine (vitamin B12) leads to megaloblastic anaemia. The anaemia readily responds to folic acid administration.
Folic acid is present in a wide variety of foods such as green leafy vegetables, fruits and yeast. Cereals and pulses contain fair amount of folic acid. Pulses have twice the amount of folic acid as compared to cereals. You will read about anaemia in details in the next chapter.
The individual is generally pale and tired.
Anaemia is resultant of general low nutritional status.
The deficiency is accompanied by tingling feeling in toes and fingers. The individual recovers fast with better dietary intake.
Folic acid requirements are measured in terms of Ug. According to the ICMR-table 100 Ug/day provides safety for adult man and woman. The requirement increases to 300 Ug/day for pregnant woman to provide for the blood for the infant and to allow for the loss during parturition.
The requirements for infants and children are 50 Ug and 50Ug-100Ug daily respectively. Demand increases during disease, surgery and alcoholism.
Q.28. How can you preserve food by dehydration ?
Ans. Dehydration is removal of moisture. Sundrying has been practised for centuries to preserve food. Variety of foods ranging from green leafy vegetables to peas, fish, tomatoes and peaches haye been dehydrated for years. Of course these days you can dehydrate foods in a short time and under controlled conditions, with the latest technology and equipment. This way the dehydrated food will have better colour, taste, flavour and nutritive value. Foods can also be partially dehydrated. Khoa, rabri, ketchup and tomato puree etc. are some examples of partially dehydrated foods. Partially dehydrated foods have higher concentration of salt/sugar and lower availability of moisture. This makes the medium unfavourable for microbial activity.
Q.29. What are the principles of Flower Design ?
Ans. Rhythm : It denotes continuity in movement.
Basically there can be three types of rhythm.
(a) Radiating rhythm : All lines radiate in different directions from one same point.
(b) Diagonal Rhythm : It is the most active type of rhythm in flower arrangement. The main line runs diagonally signifying progressiveness.
(c) Curvilinear Rhythm : Movement runs through a curve which can be created by using curved branches or stems in the form of S or C.
Proportion : There should be a fine relationship between the flower arrangement and the vase. The height of flowers at the centre should be one and a half times the diameter of the mouth of the container.
Balance : A flower arrangement that seems to be stable often has proper balance. For achieving balance, large or heavy plant material may be kept close to the centre and preferably at the bottom.
The balance in flower arrangement can be of two types i.e. symmetrical and asymmetrical. In symmetrical the flowers and foliage are equally distributed around its centre. It is also referred to as formal balance. Whereas in asymmetrical balance, the two sides of an arrangement may not be identical to each other. This type of balance is difficult to achieve but yields interesting results.
Emphasis : The centre of the flower arrangement is generally emphasised. The darker and heavier flowers are kept in the centre and the lower part of the arrangement. The lighter and smaller flowers are generally placed towards the top. Care must be taken to emphasise the arrangement and not the vase. Hence one should select subdued variety of vases. However, if the container is to be emphasised, then the arrangement could be done mostly with foliage.
Q.30. Write a short note on Tetanus.
Ans. These germs produce toxins in the wounds and cuts. They are called Tatanus Becillus. They are found in the intestines of horses and animals. They are found in dust also.
Incubation Period : Incubation period of this disease is from four days to fourteen days. Sometimes it cause difficulty in breathing and heart failure.
(i) The patient experiences pain in the muscles of the back.
(ii) These symptoms appear from 3rd day to 21 days.
Patient feels restlessness and is irritation.
(iii) Body becomes stiff and patient suffers from headache.
(iv) Neck and jaws become stiff. Patient cannot chew and swallow food.
(v) Patient suffers from fever.
(vi) Patient suffers from severe pain and often dies.
(i) All the wounds should be treated carefully.
(ii) Wounds should be washed with antiseptic lotion.
(iii) Tetanus injection should be administered immediately.
(iv) Doctor who treats the patient should be careful about himself.
Measles : This disease is caused by virus. It is an infectious disease. Children are usually affected by this disease. But it can attack elders also. It is caused by the contact with disease person. Its virus spreads in the air and cause infection.
(i) Child suffers from cough, headache and cold.
(ii) Small red eruptions are seen on the face and behind the ears.
(iii) Slowly the whole body is covered with these and the child suffers from fever.
(iv) Child suffers from running nose.
(v) Swelling in nose and throat.
(vi) Difficulty in swallowing.
(vii) There is decline in the eruptions after four or five days, they start drying.
(viii) Temperature of the body recedes.
(ix) The child becomes normal after 8 to 10 days.
Incubation period : 6 to 14 days is its incubation period. The symptoms of the disease appear after 12 to 13 days.
(i) The child should be kept in well ventilated room.
(ii) The child should be kept separate from other children.
(iii) The personal belongings like towels, handkerchief, toys of the child should be sterilized.
(iv) Child should be inoculated.
(i) Child should be given full rest.
(ii) Food should be light, with less spices and can be easily digested.
(iii) The child should not touch the eruptions, sprinkle powder on them.
(iv) Doctor should be consulted.
Q.31. What is adulteration ? How the food can said to be adulterated ?
Ans. Adulteration can be defined as the intentional addition or subtraction or substitution or abstraction of substances which adversely affect the nature, substance and quality of food products. It can be at the time of harvesting, storage, processing, transportation or distribution.
To check the growing tendency of food adulteration, Government of India had introduced “Preventation of Food Adulteration Act” (P.F.A.) in 1954. This act is based on international standards, keeping in mind the Indian conditions. This act came into force on 1st June, 1955.
Since then the rules have been amended in 1968, 1973 and 1978-79 to safeguard the consumer’s interests.
According to P.F.A., only those foodstuffs should be deemed to be adulterated :
1. It is not of the nature, substance and quality which it ought to be.
2. If it contains cheaper or inferior ingredients incidentally or intentionally.
3. If it has been prepared by a process which alters the nature, substance or quality of foodstuff.
4. If any constituent has been abstracted partially or wholly from it, like abstraction of cream from milk.
5. If it has been prepared, packed or kept under unsanitary conditions.
6. If it is infested with insects, worms etc.
7. If it is obtained from sick or diseased animal, e.g., milk and meat of diseased animals.
8. If it contains poisonous ingredients which are injurious to health.
9. If the container renders it poisonous or injurious to health.
10. If it contains unpermitted colours or any excessive amount of permitted ones.
11. If it contains prohibited preservatives or an excessive amount of permitted ones.
12. If it does not satisfy the prescribed standards laid down by the authorities even though they do not have adverse effect on health.
If a food product violates one or more of the above said standards, it will be regarded as an adulterated food and the seller will be punished under the law.
Q.32. What should be kept in mind while selecting the quality of fabric ?
(i) Fibre of Cloth
(ii) The quality of its weave. Clothes with tight weave are better than those with loose weave as these tend to shrink.
(iii) How to wash and maintain the cloth ? Whether some special method or material is to be used ?
(iv) Type of cloth used in lace, piping and lining of the garment. It should match the main cloth, otherwise, it will cause inconvenience in washing and ironing. Lining should be such as is not affected by sweat and shrinkage.
(v) It is important to look for the weave in case of hosiery and knitted ready-made garments.
(vi) Drape of a cloth is an important aspect in its selection. If readymade gents’ garments do not have good drape, then it would not have good crease also. Lahanga, skirt, saree etc. look more attractive if these have good fall.
Q.33. Analyze the process of communication and discuss the various strategies for making communication more effective.
Ans : The process of communication begins with the planning of the communication. Communication begins when the sender of the message thinks about an idea to be transmitted to the receiver. He then puts these ideas into an organized and coherent pattern. After organizing the ideas, he encodes the information in such a manner that it remains quite easily intelligible to the receiver. For this, he must take into the abilities of the receiver of the message. The data can be encoded in simple language for an ordinary person, it may also be encoded in a technical language of the receiver is a technical personnel.
After the message is organised and encoded, the next step is the transmission of the message. The message is transmitted through a medium. The medium may be a memorandum, a computer, a telephone, a pamphlet, a speech, a television, etc. Usually the medium is selected in such a manner that it has an easy access to the receiver for example, if it a socially relevant programme such a programme of family planning and it has to reach the vast masses of population residing in Indian villages, then television or radio would be the most appropriate medium. On the other hand, if it is a confidential message to be transmitted among the managers of an organization, a confidential meeting of the manager would be the most appropriate way of transmitting the message.
In the transmission, one of the foremost challenges is overcoming noises. A noise is anything that hinders effective communication. It may arise due to faulty encoding which has utilized ambiguous symbols. Noise in transmission may also arise due to interrupted flow of the message. An effective transmission consists in overcoming such noises.
Then the next stage in the process of communication is the reception of the message by the receiver. The receiver has to decode the message in a way that he receives what the sender has intended. In this process of decoding, the person has to change the codes into thoughts. A communication is not complete unless it is completely understood. A faulty decoding may result due to wrong meaning attached to words and symbols. After the reception of the message, the effectiveness of the message can be increased if the receiver gives a proper feedback to the sender of the message. An effective feedback will make the sender to make adequate changes so that there is an effective communication.
Q. 34. What are the effects of exercise on circulatory system ?
Ans. Because of increased demand of oxygen and nutrients for the production of energy for muscular contractions in exercise, blood supply to the exercising part has to be increased. This is done in two ways by the body :
(i) By quicker contractions of the heart or increase in pulse rate that enables the heart to pump more blood into circulation.
(ii) By diverting blood from places where the need is less to the place of activity where there is greater demand of blood.
Therefore, it is noticed that during exercise, the heart rate or pulse rate increases and it may increase to even 180 beats per minute in strenuous exercise. Apart from this, as a result of chemical reactions in muscles, some waste product are released into the blood stream. The blood carries these waste products to the appropriate organs like lungs and kidney etc. for elimination from the body. As result of quicker chemical reactions, more heat is produced in the body. Some of it is utilized in performing work and the rest raises the body temperature.
Blood, during exercise, also helps in maintaining proper temperature of the body.
Effects of Regular Exercise
Regular exercise by an individual over a considerable period of time has far reaching effects on the circulatory system of our body. These can be listed as under :
(i) Regular exercise has a very healthy effect on our heart. As the load of exercise falls directly on the heart, its muscles become strong with the result that it can pump more blood into circulation on every contraction of its ventricles. In other words, its stroke volume increases.
(ii) Because of the muscles becoming strong, sometimes the size of the heart increases a little, resulting in an athlete’s heart. This should not be confused with diseased heart which increases in size due to lack of muscle strength and is also termed as an athletic heart.
(iii) As a result of regular exercise, new capillaries are formed in our body that result in better circulation in the body. This increase in the number of capillaries is felt in more colourful (Reddish) appearance of skin.
(iv) As a result of regular exercise, the increase in heart rate during exercise is much less as compared to a person who does not exercise regularly. Due to this, a trained person can reach a higher achievement level.
(v) Regular exercise also leads to an increase in the number of red blood corpuscles of a person. This results in his better oxygen carrying capacity and therefore a lesser strain of load during exercise. Increase in red blood corpuscles also improves the colour of skin.
(vi) A regular exercising person can come to normal or relax quickly after a heavy schedule of exercise because of his improved circulatory system. (vii) The ability to tolerate the presence of waste products such as Lactic Acid also increases in a person.
Therefore, the chances of having pain or stiffness etc. are reduced in a trained person.
(viii) Inactive capillaries in an athlete open up specially in the lungs that contribute to the efficiency of his movements in exercise.
(ix) The risk of increase in B.P. and heart attacks is reduced in a trained person due to the control on Cholesterol level in the blood as a result of regular exercise. Cholesterol deposits along the arteries block our blood flow and are a major cause of heart attacks.
Therefore, even heart patients are advised to do moderate exercise to keep the Cholesterol (fat) level in check.
(x) Regular exercise keeps sugar level in control and prevents diabetes.
Q. 35. What are the effects of exercise on respiratory system ?
Ans. Because of the increased demand of oxygen for the continuance of muscular activity during exercise, the rate of breathing increases. There is also an increase in depth of breathing to facilitate the intake of more air. The rate of exchange, of gases in the air sacs increases and because of the higher temperature of the waste carbon dioxide, the expired air becomes hotter.
Effects of Regular Exercise
(i) As a result of the effect of regular exercise, tidal volume increases. This is due to the gain in strength of muscles attached with the ribs that help in respiration.
(ii) The vital capacity increases. This may not happen in the case of adults but is true in the case of growing children.
(iii) The increase in respiratory rate in persons doing regular exercises is reduced for a particular activity. This change helps a person to do more strenuous work than those who do not exercise daily.
(iv) The minute volume of breathing for a given work is reduced due to the increase in efficiency of exchange of gases in air sacs.
(v) The recovery time to gain normal breathing after hard work becomes shorter.
(vi) The feeling of respiratory distress or Second Wind stage does not occur in regularly exercising individuals.