Home Science Answer Key Set 20 (Q17-Q32) Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

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Humanities/Arts : Home Science Answer Key Set 20 (Q17-Q32) Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

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Q. 17. Give factors of supplementing family income.
Ans :
The following factors govern the need to supplement the family income :
(i) Achievement of family Goals — Every family sets the goals in mind, e.g., to purchase a house.
Very often, it becomes difficult to fulfill the goals.
So, it becomes essential to supplement income.
(ii) To raise the standard of living — Every one wants to enjoy luxuries and comforts to the maximum.
He wants to move to higher standard of living.
For this, supplementary family income is needed.
(iii) Inflation — The ever-rising cost of commodities commonly referred to as inflation. The increase in the availability of income does not keep pace with the increase in prices. Thus, the need for supplementing family income is greatly felt.
(iv) Secured future — Unexpected happenings account for large expenditure jeopardising the future. With suppementation of family income, one feels better equipped to lookforward to a secured future.
(v) Catering to large families — Generally, economically weaker sections have large families. It becomes necessary for them to supplement family income so that all basic requirements are met.

Q. 18. Write a short note on Recurring Deposit Account.
Ans :
Recurring Deposit Account is meant specifically for salaried class people who find it difficult to save large sums of money. Every month, a fixed amount is deposited. The investment period is agreed. The account  older gets the capital money along with the interest at the end of the term. The Recurring Deposit Account has a higher rate of interest than the savings account.

Q. 19. Define the following terms. Consumer, Defect, Deficiency.
Ans :
(i) Consumer —
Consumers is the one who purchases any goods or avails or hires any services for whieh he makes payments.
(ii) Defect — It is defined as any fault or shortcoming in the quality, quantity, potency or standard which is required to be maintained under the laws for the time being.
(iii) Deficiency — It refers to any fault, imperfection , shortcoming or inadequacy in the quality, nature and manner of performance.

Q. 20. Write short notes on Fashion, Fad and Style.
Ans : Fashion —
Is  the current mode. It is a style that is popular at a given time, it is not short-lived like a fad.
Fad — In something that has enormous appeal specially with adolescents and is short-lived. The fad burns high and bright before ‘burning out’.
Style —Is a term that describes an object or an art form that has distinguishing features. It implies something that has come to be approved over a period of time.

Q. 21. List two desirable  and two undesirable qualities each for cotton.
Ans : Two desirable qualities of cotton :

(i) Good absorbency.
(ii) Withstands high temperature and friction.
Two undesirable qualities  :
(i) Wrinkles easily. (ii) Colour fades in the sun.

Q. 22. Name the components used to make soap.
Ans :
The usual components of soap are as follows :
(i) Sodium silicate (ii) Starch (iii) Salt (iv) Resin (v) Perfume.

Q. 23. In a school, for normal children what special arrangement should be made to accommodate and educate orthopaedically impaired children and to what advantage ? 
Ans : To educate orthopaedically impaired children in a school for normal children, following arrangements can be made to help them get education :
(i) Having classes on ground so that no climbing is needed.
(ii) Modification  iondoor activities so as to involve the disabled.
(iii) Modification in outdoor activites to give equal chance to the disabled as well.
(iv) Orient peer group to the child’s need, so that they are helpful and do not tease the disabled children.
(v) Facility for medical help so that in case of emergency child gets immediate help.
(vi) Provide transport for easy mobility of disabled.
(vii) Provide appropriate vocational guidance so that he can be on his own.
(viii) Provide freeship or concession so that the disabled has a chance to be educated trained adequately.

Q.24. Tell a couple who is setting a house for the first time, four reasons for keeping a record of income and expenditure. Also give them a format for recording the weekly expenditure of food.
Ans : Couple who is setting a house for the first time should keep record of income and expenditure because of the following reasons.
(i) To know about expenditure on various items, keep track of money.
(ii) Comparing the amount spent on each item with the previous month’s.
(iii) Identifying unimportant expenditure.
(iv) Estimating the amount required for a future need.
Format of recording of weekly expendture on food.
Week Days : Mon , Tues, Wed , Thurs, Fri , Sat
Item — Food , Cereals, Pulses, Vegetables, Fruits, Milk/Milk Products , Spices, Conveyance, Foods / Total

Q.25. How do you define ‘Anorexia Nervosa’ ?
Ans.
The problem of ‘Anorexia Nervosa’ is specially common among growing girls. They resort to extreme starvation (anorexia) because they fear  that they will no longer be the parents ‘Baby Doll’. Prolonged anorexia nervosa is difficult to cure and has serious consequences.
Social and cultural pressures often weigh heavy on the growing adolescents. A teenager bride may find herself not measuring up to the expected norms of her in-laws’ family, She experiences unhappiness despite doing her best in the situation and in the roles earlier unknown to her. Not measuring up to the high expectation, the young bride may experience depression.
Over-emphasis on table manners can be a source of depression and suppression of hunger for the growing adolescent appetites. Similarly, when the academic performance is low and the expectations are high the student feels strongly for being called an ‘under achiever’.
This makes him vulnerable and insecure. Loss of selfesteem may lead to inferiority complex. Very often the adolescent loses interest in studies and other learning processes and ends up in a state of depression. Setbacks dishearten the adolescent. It is desirable to set a series of small goals that can be achieved to provide rewarding encouragement than set up high goals not possible to achieve.

Q.26. What are the symptoms of riboflavin deficiency ? What should we take to avoid it ?
Ans. Airboflavainosis is caused due to the eficiency of riboflavin coupled with the shortage of other B-group vitamins.
Symptoms of Riboflavin Deficiency
The mouth becomes sore, there is inflammation of tongue which may be magenta red or purplish in colour.
The condition is called “cheilosis”.
The lips also crack at the corners and are inflamed.
The condition is called “angular stomatitis.” Deficiency leads to “seborrheic dermatitis”. The skin is rough and scaly with a feeling of burning. The skin gets cracked around the nasalabial folds. Sometimes the skin cracks near the ear lobes as well.
Often the deficiency symptoms involve the eyes.
Eyelids feel rough. Eyes become sensitive to light. There is “vascularisation” of the cornea and eyes appear blood shot.

Scaling and dryness of scrotum and vulva is often observed. The condition is referred to as “Scrotal dermatitis”.
The urinary excretion becomes low and scanty.
Ariboflavinosis causes the failure of maturation of red blood cell in the bone marrow.
The requirements of Riboflavin in the this body have been worked out on the basis of calorie requirement, protein requirement, folic urinary excretion, concentration in blood and body size etc.
An intake of 1.1 mg and 1.4 mg daily is considered safe for adult woman and man respectively. The requirements increase by 0.2 mg, 0.3 mg during pregnancy and lactation. An average intake of 0.6mg/1000 calories is sufficient for growing children.

Q.27. What is food preservation ? What are its importance ?
Ans.
Food Preservation is the state in which a food may be retained for a longer time without : (i) being contaminated by pathogenic organisms (disease causing micro-organisms) or chemicals. (ii) losing optimum qualities of colour, pre texture, taste, flavour and nutritive value.
Importance : Countries with large population often experience food shortage. Food grows in abundance when in season. It is a good practice to save surplus food for future use. Preservation of foods has the following benefits: A. They are easy to store. Fresh foods can be bulky i.e. green leafy vegetables. Preserve foods to reduce weight and volume.
B. Checks the wastage of food. Seasonal foods are often surplus. They can be preserved for future use.
C. Preserved foods add variety to meals. Mango slices served as dessert in winters make the meal delectable. Pickles and papads add variety to any meal.
D. Preserved foods are easy to transport. All types of foods can be made available all over the country.
Berries from Leh are turned into juice to reach to all parts of our country. Tapioca is found in Kerala. Tapioca chips are available all over India, even abroad.
E. Provide nutritionally adequate meals to the family.
Inadequate meals can always be supplemented with preserved foods to make them nutritionally adequate.
F. Learning to preserve food is a skill. It is a good way of making use of one’s leisure time. This way the housewife can provide variety in meals to her family at low cost.
G. One can even earn money by selling products preserved at home. This is a good self-employment avenue for a home scientist.

Q.28. How should you select food for good health ?
Ans.
The nutritionists and medical experts are in general agreement that food selection based on following factors will promote health and national prosperity : Select balanced diet.
Foods from different food groups should be included in the diet daily.
Variety in foods ensures availability of all nutrients. NCE
6
in blood and body size etc.
An intake of 1.1 mg and 1.4 mg daily is considered safe for adult woman and man respectively. The requirements increase by 0.2 mg, 0.3 mg during pregnancy and lactation. An average intake of 0.6mg/1000 calories is sufficient for growing children.

Q.27. What is food preservation ? What are its importance ?
Ans.
Food Preservation is the state in which a food may be retained for a longer time without : (i) being contaminated by pathogenic organisms (disease causing micro-organisms) or chemicals. (ii) losing optimum qualities of colour, pre texture, taste, flavour and nutritive value.
Importance : Countries with large population often experience food shortage. Food grows in abundance when in season. It is a good practice to save surplus food for future use. Preservation of foods has the following benefits: A. They are easy to store. Fresh foods can be bulky i.e. green leafy vegetables. Preserve foods to reduce weight and volume.
B. Checks the wastage of food. Seasonal foods are often surplus. They can be preserved for future use.
C. Preserved foods add variety to meals. Mango slices served as dessert in winters make the meal delectable. Pickles and papads add variety to any meal.
D. Preserved foods are easy to transport. All types of foods can be made available all over the country.
Berries from Leh are turned into juice to reach to all parts of our country. Tapioca is found in Kerala. Tapioca chips are available all over India, even abroad.
E. Provide nutritionally adequate meals to the family.
Inadequate meals can always be supplemented with preserved foods to make them nutritionally adequate.
F. Learning to preserve food is a skill. It is a good way of making use of one’s leisure time. This way the housewife can provide variety in meals to her family at low cost.
G. One can even earn money by selling products preserved at home. This is a good self-employment avenue for a home scientist.

Q.28. How should you select food for good health ?
Ans.
The nutritionists and medical experts are in general agreement that food selection based on following factors will promote health and national prosperity :
Select balanced diet.
Foods from different food groups should be included in the diet daily.
Variety in foods ensures availability of all nutrients.
Whole grains and cereals should be used in preference to refined foods. Vegetable fats in preference to animal fats. Consume less of sugar concentrates i.e. chocolates, sweets etc. Seasonal foods are cheaper and nutritious and help in maintaining good nutritional status.
Minimum use of hollow calorie foods in diet i.e. Alcohol, besides being expensive deprives one of important nutrients.

Q.29. Write a short note on Paralysis.
Ans. Cause :
It is spread by virus called polio virus. They spread through patient’s cough, sneeze and spit :in the air. It also spreads through the excreta of the patient. They affects the spinal chord and medulla oblangata. If this is treated in time the child can be saved to an extet. If the virus succeeds in affecting the organ, the child gets paralysed. These viruses sometimes spread through water and milk.
Incubation Period : It take 7 to 12 days. Sometimes it can affect in 3 days also.
Symptoms :
1st Stage :

(i) The patient suffers from high fever.
(ii) Patient suffers from headache, cold, pain in the body, stiffness in the neck.
2nd Stage : After 1st stage the child appears normal for 2 or 3 days then the 2nd stage starts. The child experiences pain in vertical column during bending. Feet become weak, limbs become listless. Sometimes muscles of eyes and face are also affected. If throat, chest, lungs are attacked by these viruses, the person may die.
Prevention :
(i) As soon as the disease is detected one must call the health officer.
(ii) Excreta of the person should be burnt.
(iii) Water should be saved from contamination.
(iv) Chlorine should be used to clean water.
(v) Milk should be pasteurised.
(vi) Raw fruits and vegetables should be cleaned in water which contain potassium permanganate.
(vii) Food should be saved from flies.
(viii) Hygienic rules should be followed.
(ix) Polio vaccine should be administered after one month to the baby three times within the gap of one month between each dose.
Care :
(i) It is necessary to control fever and vomiting.
(ii) More liquids should be used.
(iii) Consult a doctor.
Cure :
(i) Olive oil massage should be given to the child especially on legs.
(ii) Iron lung machine can be used for breathing by the patient.
(iii) Immediately the doctor should be consulted.

Q.30. What should be the meal planning of a diarrhoea patient ?
Ans.
Total rest should be given to the digestive, system in diarrhoea. Patients should avoid intake of solid foods orally for 12–36 hours. Full Liquid diet should be given to the patient to prevent dehydration, like-salt added water, glucose water, strained fruit, juices, lemon water, whey water, barley water etc. Semi-liquid diet without fibre should be given to the patient after improvement in his condition, e.g., tea, coffee, fruit juice, milk, jelly, lassi without fat, thin custard, strained vegetable soups, dal water etc. Soft foods should be given to the patient after considerable improvement in his condition, like boiled rice, half boiled egg, custard, boiled vegetables, fibreless fruits, foods made up of skimmed milk, khichri, porridge, etc. Patient should be served normal diet with the improvement in his condition.
Small amount of food should be given to patient at regular intervals. In the beginning, food should be served
at an interval of one and a half to two hours.
Avoid use of extremely hot and cold foods.
Food should be simple and without spices.
Avoid the use of fibrous foods.
Fried foods should be avoided in diet.
More liquids should be given.

Q.31. What is rhythm in clothing ?
Ans.
Rhythm is an important principle of art. Principle of rhythm is created by repeated use of that element time and again. If there is rhythm in a design, the eye would move easily from one part to the other. Rhythm can be created in three ways in a dress :
(i) By repetition of lines, colour or accessories. Parallel lines are formed by the use of seams, buttons, embroidery, lace etc. which helps uninterrupted eye movement.
(ii) Radiation : Rhythm can also be created by the use of radiated lines. These lines are created by gathers. Eyes can move easily from one part to the other on the small lines created by gathers. Such lines can be seen in gathers on neck line, arm and skirt.
(iii) Gradation : Rhythm can be created by gradual change of lines, shape or shade of the colour.

Q.32. Prepare a Day’s Diet for a Moderate Worker (Man) belonging to Middle Income Group.
Ans.

 

 

Meal Time

Menu

Household

Measures

Ingredients

1. Early Morning

(i) Tea

1 cup

Milk, sugar

2. Break-Fast

 

(i) Stuffed Parantha

(ii) Milk

2-3

1 glass

Wheat flour, Besan, Radish

Milk, sugar

(iii) Apple

(i) Dry dal

1 small katori

1 small katori

Apple

Urad dal, onion, tomato

3. Packed

Lunch

 

(ii) Cabbage-potato

(iii) Parantha

(iv) Carrot salad

1 small katori

3-4

2 carrots

Cabbage, Potato vegetable

Wheat flour

Carrots, Lemon

4. Evening

Tea

(i) Tea

(ii) Biscuits

(iii) Rasgulla

1 cup

4-Mar

2-Jan

Milk, sugar

Biscuits

Paneer, sugar.

5. Dinner

(i) Rajma

(ii) Mushroom

1 small katori

1 small katori

Rajma, Onion, Tomato

Mushroom, Peas, Tomato, Onion

 

Peas vegetable

(iii) Bathua Raita

(iv) Salad

(v) Rice

(vi) Vermicilli kheer

1 katori

1 small plate

1 plate

1 small katori

Curd, Bathua

Radish, Carrot, Onion, Tomato

Rice

Milk, vermicilli, sugar

 
 
 
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