Q. 1. Write four points that you would consider while planning meals for a person suffering from fever.
Ans : While planning meals for a person suffering from fever following things should be kept in mind.
(i) To meet the increased demand of energy and to restore glycongen stores in the body, increased amount of carbohydrates should be given to the patient.
(ii) Fever increases metabolism and hence protein demands. Milk, dal soup, soft cooked eggs are good sources of protein for sick person.
(iii) Considerable amount of salts like sodium and potassium are lost from body. Loss of sodium is made up by adding salt to juices, soups. Fruit juices, vegetable soup are good sources of potassium.
(iv) Two and a half to five liters of liquid per day should be given to a fever patient. Small amount of food at short interval should be served.
Q. 2. State four reasons for individual differences in physical development of children.
Ans : There are individual differences in physical development of children due to many reasons such as :
(i) Heredity - Children resemble their parents and grandparents. If parents are short in height, the child will also be short.
(ii) Nutrition - Children who get more nutritious food to eat in their growing age will grow better than those who do not get nutritious food.
(iii) Practice - Children who do not get opportunity to practice the things do not develop properly.
(iv) Encouragement - Children who are motivated and encouraged to do activities have better physical development.
Q. 3. State four objectives of I.C.D.S. ?
Ans : Objectives of I.C.D.S. are :-
(i) Improve health/ nutritional status of children from 0-6 years.
(ii) Laying foundation for psychological, social and physical development of the child.
(iii) Reduction in the incidence of malnutrition, morbidity, mortality and school drop out rates among children.
(iv) Enhancing capabilities of mothers to look after normal health and nutritional needs of the children.
Q. 4. Enumerate any four problems faced by consumers. What are the responsibilities of consumers in this context?
Ans : Problems faced by consumers
(i) Price variation
(ii) Poor quality products.
(iv) Hoarding of articles.
(v) Defective weight and measures.
(vi) Lack of standardized products.
Responsibilities of consumers
(i) Buy from reputed shops only.
(ii) Buy standard products only.
(iii) Don’t pay more than the printed MRP.
(iv) Seek Redressal in case of cheating.
(v) Don’t be tempted by sales, discounts, misleading and fancy advertisement.
Q. 5. Name two foods commonly adulterated with metanil yellow. State the procedure of its detection and mention its possible health hazards.
Ans : Haldi and Arhar dal are commonly adulterated with metanil yellow.
Put Haldi/ dal in a test tube. Add water and shake.Add dilute hydrochloric acid and shake. Presence of magenta red colour shows that the dal/haldi is adulterated with metanil yellow.
It causes degeneration of reproductive organs - causing sterility, liver and kidney damage.
It can even cause abnormalities in the foetus.
Q. 6. Why would Mrs. Verma prefer to leave her two years old child with her mother— in— law at home and not in a creche? Give four reasons.
Ans : (i) It is safe to leave her child in home creche.
(ii) Mother— in— law will have love and affection with the child, hence will take proper care.
(iii) She is mature so she will look after all needs of the child.
(iv) It is economical.
(v) Grandmother will be able to teach the child family values and good manners.
Q. 7. Your brother wants to invest his money. Explain to him the Public Provident Fund scheme along with its benefits. Also point out the difference between PPF and Provident fund.
Ans : Public Provident Fund is offered by nationalised banks and post offices. Any individual can deposit money either in lumpsum or regularly in the form of installments.The rate of interest is 9.5% per annum. After 5 years, one can take back certain percentage of money and interest.
The scheme enjoys tax relief benefits, loan and part payment can be made in case of need. PPF is different from other two types of provident funds, i.e., GPF and CPF which are meant for pensionary and non— pensionary post, respectively. For these two provident funds, money is deducted from the salary of the person by his employer.
Q. 8. Elaborate three abilities in language and three in motor area in a nine month old child.
Ans : Language development
(i) Child produces double flat sounds like baba, papa, etc.
(ii) Child associates meaning with an object.
(iii) Child speaks one word sentences, i.e., monosyllables.
(i) Stands holding furniture.
(ii) Crawls on abdomen.
(iii) Improvement in grasping ability.
Q. 9. List four activities of a 6 months old child which reflect motor development.
Ans : (i) Can independently sit on a chair.
(ii) Grasp the dangling object.
(iii) Learn to focus on the colourful balloons hanging above their cots.
(iv) They can hold bottle or a cup to their mouth for drinking water and milk.
Q. 10. “We can fulfil the nutritional needs of family by planning meals” using the context, elaborate six points.
Ans : Nutritional needs of different family members can be met if meals are properly planned.
(i) Infan ts need more of protein an d calcuim for growth and development.
(ii) Children should be served lot of calories, proteins, calcuim for their growth which is possible only if meals are planned.
(iii) Adolescence is a period of growth hence calorie and protein requirement is to be increased.
(iv) Nutritional requirement of pregnant and lactating women have to be increased as they support a child.
Meal planning also helps to meet nutritional needs during diseases, fever, etc.
Q. 11. You purchased an item with Agmark seal adulterated. What are your rights and duties as consumer rights ?
(i) Right to Safety — Consumers have the right to be protected against products which are hazardous to health.
(ii) Right to be informed — Consumers have the right to be given complete and correct information on the quality of the product.
(iii) Right to seek redressal — This is the right of the consumer to move to the courts in case of malpracitces and demand compensation.
(i) We should report to the shopkeeper for his adulterated good and ask him to replace.
(ii) We should inform the concerned authorities to take action against the manufacturer and the shopkeeper both.
(iii) We sh ould demand compensation and seek redressal from consumer courts.
Q. 12. Your mother is working in an office. Write four points you will keep in mind while purchasing a dress for her.
(i) The clothes should be simple and sober according to age.
(ii) They should be easy to wash and maintian.
(iii) Dress should be comfortable and allows free movement.
(iv) The dress should not be very expensive as it is meant for daily wear. The cost should suit her pocket.
Q. 13. Enlist different barriers against disease germs.
Ans : Body resists the entry of the disease causing germs and offers resistance in many ways.
(i) Skin — Mucin secreted by mucous membrane repel bacteria.
(ii) Nasal Openings — Have Sillia that sweeps out the germs to some extent.
(iii) Stomach — Secretes pepsin by hydrochloric acid that destroys away some of the germs.
(iv) Blood — Contains white blood cells. The WBCs move like the single-celled amoeba. They engulf the bacteria and release a ferment to liquify bacteria.
(v) Lymph Nodes — Engulf the disease germs and kill them. The lymph nodes may become enlarged and painful due to execssive infection.
Q. 14. What are the objectives of nursery schools/ Balwadis ?
Ans : Objectives of nursery schools/Balwadis are :—
(i) To fulfil the basic needs of small children, to prepare them for schooling ahead.
(ii) The children are init ated into the learning process in a play-way method.
(iii) They are given basic concept of number, colour, etc.
(iv) Children get the opportunity to develop hidden talents like drawing, painting, music, etc.
(v) Good schools provide eongenial atmosphere to the child for its physical, mental and social development.
(vi) The environment in these places helps in the development of language among children.
(vii) Teachers narrate stories which develop the listening skills, memory and comprehension.
(viii) Children learn to fantacise and have flights of imagination during story-telling session which enhances their mental development.
Q. 15. What is the nutritional requirement during pregnancy and lactation ?
Ans : Nutritional requirement (RDA)
Pregnancy — Lactation
Energy 2525 kcal — 2775 kcal / Protein 65 gm — 75 g / Fat 30 gm — 45 gm / Calcuim 1000 mgm — 1000 mgm / Iron 38 mgm — 30 mgm / Vitamin A 600 mg — 950 mg / Thiamine 1.3 mgm — 1.4 mgm / Vitamin C 40 mgm — 80 mgm
Q. 16. How can chlorine tablets be used for purification of water ?
Ans : Use of chlorine is the cheapest, simple, effective and reliable method to disinfect water. It destroys bacterias but does not remove suspended impurities. So water should be filtered before chlorination. Bleaching powder is used at the rate of 1 PPM at the water works to purify water.Bleaching powder when dissolved gives out nasent chlorine that purifies water.
These days you can get chlorine tablets from the chemist in the brand name likes Halazone, Chlordecho etc.
Q. 17. How is daily account maintained ? Explain with the help of a table.
Date Items Items Purchased Amount spent 8.4.02 Bread 1 loaf 16.00 Eggs 12 20.00 Vegetables 2 kg 36.00
Ans : In daily account, the expenditure under different heads in written daily. After putting date one one side of page, details of all the items purchased, i.e., item, its quanitity, rate, total expenditure incurred is written. At the end of the day, total expenditure is calculated. It helps in knowing the amount of money spent under various heads.
Q. 18. Write short notes on Shares and Debentures.
Ans : Shares — A share is one of the units into which the total capital of the company is divided. By acquiring a share of any company, you become part owner of that company. A share holder shares both the profits and the losses of the company.
Debentures — It is a document or certificate issued by a company as a proof of the money invested in the company. Acquiring debentures mean loaning your money to the company. The debenture holders get fixed amount of interest at regular intervals.
Q. 19. Which consumer forum will you move for the compensation of the item purchased of the (i) value of less than one lakh. (ii) more than one lakh. (iii) more than ten lakhs ?
Ans : (i) Less than one lakh, the consumer moves to District Forum.
(ii) More than one lakh, the consumer moves to State Commission.
(iii) More than ten lakhs, the consumer moves to National Commission.
Q. 20. How selection of clothes is affected by the availability of money?
Ans : Income and availability of money directly influences the amount of money spent on clothing. Higher the income, larger is the expense on clothing. If the family size is small, enough money will be available for clothing for all occasions. If the income is small, the basic demands of the family for food, shelter, education and medical leave little to be spent on clothing. Working members of the family usually spend more on clothing.