Q. 21. Discuss the importance of fabric construction giving suitable example.
Ans : Construction of fabric determines its suitability to the dress. Loosely woven fabrics breath better besides having good absorbency. The use of yarns of different sizes and strength reduces the durability of the fabric. It can even lead to breaking of the fabric.
In the pile fabrics the durability depends upon the security with which the pile is held. Looseness of the weaves is often related to high shrinkage, unbalanced weaves mean poor wearing quality.
Knitted fabrics have become very popular because of the comfortable snuggly fit it provides . Children clothing, T-Shirts, undergarments and hosiery are made by knit-constructed fabrics.
Q. 22. Differentiate between soap and detergents.
Ans : Soaps :
(i) Soaps are alkali salts of higher fatty acids which are prepared from fats and oils.
(ii) After washing with soaps the yellowness has to be removed by the use of bleaches and blue.
(iii) They can be used in soft water.
(iv) Washing with soaps is very tedious.
(v) They dissolve well in hot water.
(vi) This is not suitable for all the kinds of fabrics.
(vii) They require less water for rinsing.
(viii) They form less foam.
(ix) Rinsing is not very easy when soaps are used.
(i) Detergents are sodium salts of sulphated long chain alcohols.
(ii) Optical whiteness bleaches are already present in the detergents so bleaches or blue is not required.
(iii) They can be used in hard and soft water.
(iv) Washing with detergents is very simple and comfortable.
(v) They dissolve easily in cold and hot water.
(vi) As it is not an alkaline so it is found to be suitable for most of the fabrics.
(vii) They require more water for rinising.
(vii) Thay form lot of from.
(ix) Rinsing is quite easy when detergents are used.
Q. 23. Give a brief account of hygienic handling of food at home level.
Ans : Hyginic handling of food at home level can be done in the following ways :—
(i) Washing of hands before touching food. (ii) Don’t enter kitchen with open hairs. (iii) Avoid licking food. (iv) Keep the food covered. (v) Do not touch food, if you have boils. (vi) Avoid coughing and sneezing on food. (vii) Cook in clean utensils. (viii) Wash food thoroughtly before cooking.
Q. 24. Elaborate two methods of washing clothes and suggest their suitability for washing various type of fabrics.
Ans : (i) Light pressure method — It is applied to fine, delicate and coloured fabrics, cotton, wool, silk and lace.
It is done by kneading and squeezing method. The articles are kneaded and squeezed by hand in soap solution. This method does not need any special equipment.
(ii) Friction — It is applied to strong durable fabrics such as household lines, cotton fabrics.
It is done mostly by rubbing with hands, using scrubber, brush, scrubbling board and stones. The clothes wear out quickly on account of strong and harsh friction.
Q.25. How a personal trait helps in making one’s career ?
Ans. Different vocations require different ability aptitudes. For example, some jobs require special talents like artistic, musical or orational skills. Some vocations require good eye and hand coordination, concentration, and creativity etc. Certain jobs require higher mental abilities. Individual efficiency is better and higher if he/ she is interested in work undertaken.
Hence the adolescents must look into their own abilities, aptitude and interests before making career choices. These should commensurate with the requirements of the vocation. In case of any confusion,you can consult a career counseller. There are standardized tests available which can measure one’s abilities, aptitude and interest.
Q.26. What are the functions and sources of Vitamin C ?
Ans. Functions of Vitamin C : It is required for proper formation of intracellular glandular substance or matrix that binds the cells in tissues e.g. capillaries, bones, teeth dentin, connective tissues and cartilages.
It is essential for the maintenance of collagen-a protein essential for binding and cementing the teeth on the jaws.
It is required to check the rupturing of capillary walls.
Lack of intracellular cement substance causes hemorrhages.
Vitamin C is essential for healing of wounds, hence essential for quick post operative recovery.
It is closely connected with the formation of red blood cells in bone marrow.
Vitamin C helps in the absorption of iron in the intestines. It reduces ferric iron into the ferrous iron which is assimilated easily in the body.
It helps in the metabolism of amino acid tyrosine and in the functioning of adrenal glands.
It protects the body against infections.
Sources of Vitamin C : Citrus fruits like oranges, lemons and grapefruit are particularly rich in vitamin C.
All fresh fruits and vegetables have enough vitamin C to meet body requirements. Fruits and vegetables like grapes, carrots, cherries, strawberries, cantaloupe (kharbooja), amla, guavas, mangoes, tomatoes, green chillies, broccoli, lettuce leaves and other green leafy vegetables are rich in vitamin C. Damaged and bruised fruits and vegetables tend to lose vitamin C fast. Potatoes are low in vitamin C, but as they are eaten in large amounts, they account for fair vitamin C intake.
Cereals and pulses are devoid of vitamin C.
Germination of cereals and pulses increases the vitamin C content. Sprouted pulses have a better vitamin C content than sprouted cereals.
Animal foods are fairly low in ascorbic acid content.
However organ meats have some of this vitamin. Eskimos derive all the vitamin C they require from the organ meats alone.
Mother’s milk contains small amount of vitamin C, but it is nearly 4-6 times more than the amount present in cow’s milk.
Cooking and alkalies destroy ascorbic acid present in the foods.
Q.27. How the food can be preserved by changing the pH value ?
Ans. Making of tangy, tasty and lip-smacking pickles and chutnies have been common in most Indian homes.
Pickles can be made with or without oil. A layer of oil on top of pickle removes , the air supply. Pickles can be made from acidic foods like mangoes and lemons.
Chemicals like Vinegear, lemon juice, citric acid and acetic acid are often used while making pickle. Powdered rye is also used while making pickles. This creates acidity in the pickle due to fermentation. Acid medium/low pH does not allow microbial activity.
Pickles and chutnies often have a higher salt content that reduces the availability of moisture to the microbes.
Use of spices in pickles and chutnies has an antiseptic action.
You will learn to make pickles and chutneys in your practical class. Pickles can preserve the food for real long periods as they involve the use of the various principles of preservation.
(i) Use of Salt — Removal of moisture
(ii) Use of acidic additives — Removal of favourable pH
(iii) Use of Oil — Removal of air
(iv) Use of Spices — Removal of factors causing sepsis.
Jams and squash/syrup and squashmaking : Involves the use of large amount of sugar. Higher concentration of sugar in these foods reduces the supply of moisture to the microbes.
Acidic additives lower the pH and safeguards the jam, jellies and marmalade against bacterial spoilage.
Spoilage by moulds and yeast can at times be notices in foods preserved in sweet medium. All jams etc. should be stored in sterile and air tight bottles.
Q.28. Discuss the basic types of flower arrangements.
Ans. Line Arrangement : In this type of compositions, the element of plant material is used in mass arrangements.
The grouping of flowers and the colours are more important than the element of line.
Mass Arrangement : Comparatively large amount of plant material is used in mass arrangements. The grouping of flowers and the colours are more important than the element of line.
Line and Mass Arrangement : In this type of arrangement, the best features of both line and mass arrangements are utilized. Interesting and attractive arrangements are made by combining the charm of colour and mass with the lines. Some popular examples of this type of arrangements are : the triangle, pyramid, circle, crescent, fan or S-curved arrangements.
Miniature Arrangements : Miniature arrangements are made utilizing very small flowers that are displayed in small containers. A shell, ash tray, smaIl bottles etc. may serve as a container.
Q.29. What will you do with a child suffering from language defects ?
Ans. It has been seen that children sometimes suffer from language defects. Normally it is from birth. If they are not attended then they can create environmental misadjustment. Sometimes due to environmental disturbance also these defects occur later in life. Following disorders are found in children. (a) Speech disorder : (i) Stammering, (ii) Stuttering (b) Pronunciation defect
(c) Defect in sentence structure.
Needs : Mostly these defects ar e h ereditically transmitted. If recognised early and efforts are made to improve, this problem can be solved to a large extent.
(i) New words should be pronounced telling them their meaning before.
(ii) Children should be encouraged to speak good language.
(iii) There should be more interaction with the children of their age.
(iv) Children should not be criticised for speaking defective language but with love they should be trained to speak good language.
(v) Correct language can be learned through radio and television also.
(vi) Sometimes people out of affection talk to children in child like language and children imitate it.
Q.30. What are the common adulterants present in fats, oils, spices and condiments ?
Ans. Low quality less filtered oils like sunflower oil, also oil, cotton seed oil etc. are used as adulterants in edible oils like groundnut, mustard, coconut oil etc. Often argimone oil which is harmful, is mixed with mustard and groundnut oil.
Sometimes oils with foul odour are sold in the market as such or after mixing it with good quality edible oil.
Mineral oils being cheap are mixed with other edible oils.
Either cheap or less filtered oils are mixed in vanaspati ghee, during manu facturing Rancid oil or animal fat is also mixed.
Spices and Condiments Spices and condiments are often adulterated mainly because these are expensive and easy to adulterate. Straw, mud balls, stone chips, cheap or spoiled spices and condiments or some similar substances are used adulterants.
Spices and condiments are adulterated as follows : Brick powder or coloured saw dust is used as adulterant in red chilli powder.
Metanil yellow or lead chromate is used to enhance the colour of tumeric powder.
Coloured powder of rice or pulses or chalk powder is used as adulterant in turmeric powder.
Papaya seeds are mixed with whole black pepper.
A coating of mineral oil on whole black pepper is used to stop fungus growth on it.Bark of other trees is mixed with cinnamon. Often thick bark of cassia tree is used as an adulterant.
Asafoetida is adulterated with resins, or with gum or resin.
Dyed strips of jute, paper or similar foreign materials are used to adulterate saffron.
Cumin seeds are adulterated with seeds of wild grass.
Substantial quantities of chaff of pulses may be present in fenugreek seeds and aniseeds.
Common salt is adulterated with stone dust and dust powder.
Q.31. Write short notes on : (i) Hem (2) Plackets and Fasteners (3) Trimming and Decoration.
Ans. (1) Seam:
(i) The seam should be durable.
(ii) Stitches should be small, equal and straight.
(iii) The thread used in stitching, should be of fast colour and almost matching to the colour of the cloth.
(iv) The seam at joining two pieces should be durable and there should be enough margin in the seams for alterations.
(v) Both ends of seam should have proper finishing, otherwise, there will be revelling. This is often done with the help of peeko or interlocking.
(vi) Flat seams are preferable in children’s dresses as these are durable and doesn’t irritate the skin.
(vii) The seams of lining of the garment should also be checked carefully. Each portion of lining should be stitched with the seam.
Hemming is done on various ends of the dress like at the ends of sleeves, around the neckline and at the flair of the dress.
Stitches of hemming should be at short intervals and equal in size.
The ends of hemming should be properly locked to avoid opening of seams.
The thread used for hemming should be of fast colour and matching the fabric because a part of hemming is visible on the front side.
The foldings for hemming should have some margin for alterations.
Plackets and Fasteners : Provision of some opening is made for putting on and putting off the dress, where button with holes, zip, eyehook are used.
1. The strip on which buttons are appended is called placket. While buying a garment, ensure that the placket is straight, buttons or hooks are at equal distance and in working order. The placket should be large enough for easier change of dress.
2. Stitches of holes should not be loose. The opening of hole should be properly interlocked to avoid tearing of the cloth at the ends of the holes. The button also does not fit well in loose holes and looks odd.
3. Buttons should be appended firmly. The thread used should not be visible from front surface. Also ensure that the buttons used are not defaced in washing or buttons may not taken-off the garment. Sometimes buttons used in readymade garments are of different type. If one button is lost, it is difficult to find a matching one. Often the manufacturers append one or two buttons in excess.
4. Zip is also commonly used now-a-days. Before buying, ensure that the zip is in proper working order. The durability and colour of buttons, hooks and zip should be in accordance to the dress.
(3) Trimming and Decorations : To make tile design of a dress more appealing, laces, frills, pipings etc. are used. Embroidery and patch work is also done. Ensure that the trimming and decoration are :
1. Of fast colours.
2. Similar to the fabric of the dress. Sometimes on a cotton dress, nylon lace is used which create problem in ironing.
3. The frills or gathers should be such as are easy to wash and dry. It should be stitched to the cloth firmly.
4. If some accessory used is likely to get spoiled in washing, it should be easily replaceable.
5. Trimming and decoration should be such as may enhance the appeal of the dress. Excessive use of decoration will be irritable to the onlooker.
Q.32. Just putting the test questions is an objective form does not necessarily render the test scientific.
Comment and elucidate the characteristic of a good psychological test.
Ans : Psychological tests are structured techniques to generate a carefully selected sample of data for measuring one of the attributes in question. The sample of behaviour may be verbal and/ or non-verbal and the estimation of performance may be quantitative or/and qualitative. Singh (1982) therefore, defines “ a psychological test as a standardized procedure to measure quantitatively or qualitatively one or more than one aspect of traits by means of a sample of verbal or non-verbal behaviour”. The purpose of tests in, question compare the same individual on the same fruit or traits and compare different individuals on the same traits.
Tests have been classified on different criteria. One way of classification is on the basis of what they strive to measure. On this ground, they are divided into tests of aptitude, intelligence, attitude, memory etc.
At another level they are classified on the basis of the mode of administration. At this level they are classified as individual and group tests.
At a third level, they are classified on the basis of the mode of behaviour they intended to examine to generate data. At this level they can be classified as verbal and non-verbal tests.At a fourth level, they are classified on the basis of the nature of items they contain. Here, they are classified into the two broad categories of psychometric tests that are those which are easily amenable to quantification while protective tests undergo content-analysis.
The above-mentioned four criteria constitute the main basis for the classification of tests with each classification based on a particular rationale. A test can be classified on all these four criteria either simultaneously or even separately. The type of classification employed depends primarily on the needs and concerns of the researcher in question.
Q. 33. What are the effects of exercise on Digestive System ?
Ans. Process of digestion and assimilation is slowed down during exercise because blood from the stomach and the intestinal region is diverted to the exercising muscles during strenuous exercise, because of the increase in need of more blood in that region. After food intake, when we are not exercising, blood flow around the small intestines increases in order to help in the absorption of food. This is due to the diversion of blood from some other inactive parts of the body to the intestines. That is why we feel sleepy after taking food. The reverse happens during strenuous exercise which slows the digestive process, as it can be delayed. If however, we start exercising a short while after a meal, we may experience uneasiness, pain or even vomiting of food. Therefore, it is important to note that severe exercise should not be undertaken for atleast three hours after the meal which is the time taken by the stomach to pass its contents to the intestines.
Effects of Regular Exercise
(i) There is a general improvement in digestion. This is reflected in improvement in general health and overall appearance. Appetite also increases.
(ii) The quality of blood improves because of increase in nutrients in its cells. This is due to better availability and better assimilation of these in the digestive process.
These nutrients serve as stores of extra energy in an individual.
(iii) Regular exercise prevents the accumulation of decomposing food deposits in intestines that lead to gas formation. Proper health of the digestive track prevents constipation.
(iv) Digestive organs of the body such as Liver, Pancreas and Intestines remain healthy and perform their function efficiently.
Q. 34. Write short notes on nerves, synapse and reflax action.
Ans. It consist of nerve cells called neurons. Nerve fibres show the following properties :
(i) Excitability : It depends upon the strength of stimulus.
(ii) Conductivity: The nerve impulse is conducted along the nerve fibre.
(iii) A nerve will always give a maximum response if stimulus is adequate.
(iv) Refractory period : This is a sort of rest period.
The nerve once excited, will not respond to a second stimulus for a brief period.
(v) Summation : Summation of two small stimuli is possible if they take place in less than half a second.
Nerves are of three types :
(i) Sensory : Are those that convey impulses to the spinal cord and brain.
(ii) Motor : Are those that carry the impulses of action from the brain to other parts.
(iii) Mixed : Are those nerves that perform a dual role of carrying impulses in both the directions.
Neurone : It is the basic unit of a nerve fibre. It consists of a cell body and its branches, (1) Dendrite, and (2) Axon.
(1) Dendrites : Are usually short branching filaments shooting out from the cell and carry the nervous impulse towards the cell body.
(2). Axons : Each axon has one prominent branch of great length. They carry impulses from the cell body to the terminal points.
Synapse : The branches of neurons in nerve fibres are not connected with each other. They are separated by a gap. This gap or the functional region where one neurone ends and the other begins is called Synapse. At this junction, impulses are received and discharged. This process of transmission shows the following characteristics :
(i) An impulse is allowed to pass through a synapse in one direction only, i.e., from the axon of one neurone to the dendrite of another.
(ii) Sometimes many impulses are received from different sources, but the neurone acts as an integrator and sends its own impulse.
(iii) The impulse while passing through the synapse, takes a certain length of time. The time between the arrival and departure of an impulse is called synaptic delay.
(iv) Synapse is considered as a probable seat of fatigue in the nervous system.
Reflex Action : It is the involuntary motor response due to a sensory stimulus or the automatic conversion of a sensory stimulus into a motor effect. The reflexes in our body are of two types :
(i) Unconditioned or inborn reflexes. These are not learnt or developed reflexes and take care of many of our body actions such as blinking of eyes, digestion and circulation etc.
(ii) Conditioned or developed reflexes as in the case of development of skills. These reflexes can be established and abolished.
Q. 35. What are the effects of exercise on nervous system ?
Ans. As a result of exercise, the activities of muscles involved in that activity are increased. This increase is only possible due to an increased activity of the brain because voluntary muscles depend on the motor impulses of the brain. Therefore, activity of the nervous system which includes the reflex activities, increases during exercise.
Effect of Regular Exercise
(i) As a result of regular exercise, better neuromuscular coordination is established in muscles. This coordination eliminates unwanted movements in an activity and makes the performance skilful or graceful.
(ii) Because of the elimination of unwanted movements in an activity, there is a saving in energy in the performance of an activity.
(iii) As a result of training, the strength of muscular contractions in an activity get adjusted due to better control of impulses that stimulate them. This also helps in saving of energy.
(iv) Many of our actions become reflex. This results in saving of load on the brain. It also results in increasing, body safety as in many cases of an accident, our reflexes come into play and save us.
(v) The reaction time or the time required by an impulse to pass through the synapse, decreases as a result of regular practice. This reduces our response time and our movements become quicker.
(vi) Due to regular training, the maximum effort for an activity can be increased, because our nervous system taps the reserve areas. This way one can give better performance.
(vii) Fatigue related to synapse is delayed.