Q. 21. Write the procedure to file a complaint.
(i) Before submission of the complaint, collect all the relevant documents which enable you to establish the authenticity of your complaint.
(ii) Before submitting the complaint to consumer ’s court, it would be better to write registered A.D. letter to ‘other party’ asking them for rectification giving them a period of about 15 days.
(iii) A regular complaint has to be deposited. One may follow the complaint format.
(iv) The complaint should be typed. It should contain complete and full presentation of the entire case.
(v) Six copies of the complaint along with photocopies of the documents are normally required by the consumer court.
(vi) An affidavit should accompany the complaint stating
Q. 22. How the profession affects the choice of clothes ? Give two examples.
Ans : Clothing is associated with profession. We all would like to wear clothes that do not cause any hindrance in our working. Doctors and nurses wear white or light coloured simple clothing that provides the much needed soothing effect to the patient. Specific clothing is a must at cetain places. Special overall are worn by individuals working with nuclear exposure. These help in insuring the safety of workers.
Q. 23. What are discount stores ?
Ans : Discount stores are becoming very popular nowa-days. Materials and garments come from factory outlets, while some are leftover pieces from other stores. They are sold at particular place. One can pick up good stuff at relatively low cost. Only an intelligent and well informed individual can protect himself against being cheated.
Q. 24. Present is six steps the procedure of the removal of unknown stain from a white cotton fabric.
Ans : Unknown stain can be removed in the following sequence.
(i) Soak in cold water. (ii) Soak in warm water. (iii) Expose the stain to sunlight for bleaching it. (iv) Treat the stain with an alkaline solution. (v) Treat the stain with an acid. (vi) Treat with an oxidising bleach. If the stain persists then treat it with a reducing bleach. (vii) Steps (iv) to (vi) can be repeated till the stain disappears.
Q. 25. Mention four benefits you have enjoyed due to savings from your pocket money in the past.
Ans : Benefits enjoyed by me due to savings from pocket money in the past are :
(i) Buying a gift for friend. (ii) Buying a dress for myself. (iii) Eating out with friend in restaurant. (iv) Treating friends/family on birthday. (v) Buying book and stationery for myself.
Q. 26. Justify that knowledge of child care/resource management can lead to employment. Give one suggestion for self-employment and one for wage employment.
Ans : Justification — Study of home science helps one learn certain skills and knowledge which can enable a person to earn some money.Specialisaton in any of such fields/area can lead to a career.
Suggestion : Child Develpment / Resource Management
Wage Employment : — Work in a creache, — Work in institution of special education., — Work as assisstant to health professionals.
— Supervisor , — Housekeeper, — Caretaker.
Self-employment : Making toys or learning material, baby sitting or day care service.
Housekeeper of a guest house, laundry service, party organiser, caretaker.
Q.27. What is Population Explosion ? What are the consequences of over Population ?
Ans. Population is a dynamic phenomenon. Any increase or decrease in its size has a major impact on socio-economic development of that country.
It is a well-known fact that there has been a considerable growth of population in India since Independence. India has the second largest population, but is seventh in terms of land availability. The population of our country has already crossed 120 crores. The population was 680 million in 1981. This unprecedented growth of population is generally referred to as ‘Population Explosion’. India is supporting 16 percent of world’s total population on 2.4% of the world’s land area.
Consequences of over-population : Quality of life is adversely affected. Shortage of food supply and the resulting weaker population.
Inadequate and poor housing conditions.
Inadequate educational facilities leading to ignorance and superstitions.
Increase in poverty.
Increase unemployment and the resultant exploitation.
Increase in pollution of all kinds.
Increase in health and sanitation problems.
Decline in the quality of life.
Q.28. What are the symptoms of Scurvey? What should we take to prevent ?
Ans. Symptoms of Scurvy : Deficiency of Vitamin C interferes with the absorption of iron and folic acid, consequently the resultant anaemia and feeling of fatigue.
Scurvy causes painful and bleeding gums. The infection sets and the puss is formed. It gives foul smell in mouth and the condition is called “gingivitis”.Deficiency of vitamin C interferes with the synthesis of collagen and clotting of blood. There are hemorrhages under the skin. These can be seen as dark patches known as “patechial hemorrhages .”
Horny follicular keratosis similar to that in vitamin A deficiency is present in scurvy patients.
The infants suffering from “infantile scurvy” are restless and do not sleep well. They have painful and swollen thighs. The children often keep their legs bent like ‘frog legs’ because of pain.
ICMR (Indian Council of Medical Research) recommends 40 mg. of ascorbic acid for adult man and woman. Pregnancy demands of vitamin C are negligible but additional allowance of 40 mg/day have to be made for the lactation period. Infants from 6 months onwards need 25 mg and older children will do well with an allowance of 40 mg/day.
Q.29. How the fuel for cooking and the electricity can be conserved ?
Ans. Collect your ingredients and then light the source of heat.
Put off the flame immediately after use.
Lower the flame once boiling point is reached.
Wide and shallow utensils save fuel.
Use minimum amount of water while boiling the foods.
Soak pulses and cereals before cooking. This reduces the cooking time.
Use of a pressure cooker saves fuel and time.Ensure that the flame is bright and blue. Yellow flame signifies inefficient burning and wastage of fuel.
Avoid reheating of food. Cook and serve hot food to the entire family at one go rather than catering to each individual.
Allow the food kept in refrigerator to come to room temperature before reheating/cooking. This practice saves fuel.
Dirty utensils and burners result in extra consumption of fuel.
Electricity : It is an expensive fuel. It can be used for cooking, heating water, lighting, space heating and running electrical appliances. You must utilize this expensive and limited resource in an efficient way. This can be done in the following manner.
Switch off the lights when leaving the room.
Switch off the TV, Radio etc. when not required.
Economise on the use of electricity by sharing lighting, space heating and cooking equipments such as tube light, room heater and heater, etc.
Fluorescent tubes and bulbs should be used in preference to ordinary bulbs for they give better illumination.
Make maximum use of natural light while working.
Day light studying habits help in saving electricity to a great extent.
Wherever you need dim light, use low wattage bulbs.
Appliances in proper working conditions prevent the wastage of electricity.
Q.30. Write a short notes on floor decoration in India.
Ans. Decoration and beautification of floor is done during festivals and other special occasions. This is an art which can be learnt effortlessly while participating in the family festivals.
Floor decoration is known by different names in the various states. i.e. ‘Rangoli’ in Maharashtra, ‘Kolam’ in Tamil Nadu, ‘Alpana in Bengal, ‘Sathiya’ in Gujarat, ‘Moggulu’ in Andhra Pradesh; “Sanjhi” in Uttar Pradesh and ‘Mandanas’ in Rajasthan. The materials and the techniques vary from region to region. The designs are simple and the materials can be most inexpensive. Hence almost anybody can practise and derive pleasure by beautifying the entry to their house.
The design consists of natural forms artistically done.
There is always a certain element of rustic and ritualistic appeal. The materials used include flowers, rice powder, colours, sawdust, and chalk powder. Haldi, roli (kumkum) and mehendi are used to make the traditional rangoli at the marriage ‘mandap’. Rice paste is used for making freehand floor decoration at the entry to the ‘puja house’.
Flower petals produce attractive rangoli at hardly any cost. In fact finely cut grass or ‘thuja’ leaves make a beautiful background for the floral rangoli. During Deepawali and Ganesh Chaturthi people decorate their homes with designs created out of grains. These grains should be put to use in the home afterwards. The grains can be substituted by coloured marble chips of varying sizes and colours. Rice powder or flour is filled in hollow and perforated wooden or metal pipes. These are then rolled on slightly moist floor to give interesting border designs. Tribals apply fresh mud or cowdung paste to clean the walls and floor before making the design.
According to them the wall designs provide peace to ghosts and spirits, thus leaving the home to the happy family. ‘Sanjhi’ designs are intricate and many colours are used to create these beautiful patterns during Janmashtmi. Sawdust coloured in earthy colours is used to make beautiful carpet designs.
Q.31. Who are mentally retarded children ? What are their needs ?
Ans. Children who are not developed mentally due to any reason like normal children are mentally retarded children. These children grow physically but mental growth is checked. This is a permanent problem. It cannot be cured. Such children cannot perform properly. They need other people’s help in doing work.
(i) Such children should be educated and trained from the beginning.
(ii) Let the children do their personal work providing them help wherever necessary.
(iii) They should be sent to school specially created for such children.
(iv) Specially trained teachers should be employed in such school.
(v) Education to such children should be given according to their mental capability.
(vi) Sympathetic and encouraging environment should be given to mentally retarded children.
Q.32. How do you take precautions against food adulteration ?
Ans. It is very difficult to take precautions against adulteration and avoid it. Hence, vigilance against it is very important. Harmful effects of adulteration can be avoided by taking sufficient precautions and being careful.
For this, following precautions are important : One should be aware of the rates prevalent in different markets.
Buy commodities from the familiar shops and cooperative stores.
Buy reliable brands offen with standard markes like I.S.I, Agmark, F.P.O etc. These standards marks are in themselves a guarantee of good quality.As far as possible, buy food items in packed form.
Never buy spices and condiments and edible oils in loose form. Chances of adulteration by damaging the seals in packed foods by the shopkeepers are reduced considerably.
Packed foods and medicines, with proper labels only should be purchased. These labels must contain all the information regarding quantity, weight, contents, date, manufacture etc. so that the consumer must be sure of what he is purchasing.
Natural colours should be used to enhance their appearance. Never buy rice, pulses, sweets, spices and condiments etc. having artificial colours.
Manufacturers often resort to advertising to increase the sales. Consumer should not be impressed by such measures.
Q.33. What are the principles of stain removal ?
1. Stains should be removed immediately.
2. Identify the nature of stain.
3. Dilute solution of chemical should be used to avoid damage to the clothe.
4. Unknown stain should first be washed in cold water and then with detergent in hot water. In case, the stain persists, it should be bleached.
5. Acidic matters sh ould be washed in alkaline medium.
6. During removal of stains, clothes should be moved in circular motion with hands.
7. Clothes should be washed after using chemicals for the removal of stain so that they don’t damage the fabric.
8. Before removing the stain from a coloured cloth, fastness of its colour should be checked.
9. Inflammable chemicals like petrol etc. should be used very carefully.
Q.34. What shall be kept in mind while washing clothes ?
Ans. Clothes should be washed as soon as they become dirty. Fresh dirt can easily be washed.
Soiled clothes should not be kept with clean clothes.
Very heavily soiled clothes should be washed separately.
It is better to wash coloured and white clothes separately.
Cotton, silk, synthetic and woollen clothes should be segregated and washed separately.
They should be repaired before washing.
Soaps and detergents should be selected according to the type of cloth.
After washing, blue or starch should be applied if needed.
Coloured clothes should be dried in shade.White clothes should not be kept in sun for a longer period as they tend to lose their whiteness.
Q. 35. Describe the various important endocrine glands in our body ?
Ans. Various important endocrine glands in our body are :
(i) Pituitary : It controls the growth of our skeleton.
Gigantism is the result of its over secretion and dwarfism due to its reduced secretion of hormones. It also controls the activity of other glands.
(ii) Thyroid : This gland controls the metabolic process of our body. If the secretion of hormone from this gland is more, it leads to increase in pulse rate and loss of weight. Deficiency of its secretion leads to reduction of pulse rate, overweight, less ossification of bones and hair loss.
Deficiency of Iodine leads to disturbance in the functioning of thyroid glands etc.
(iii) Parathyroids : Th e deficiency of h ormone secreted by this gland leads to reduction in calcium content in the blood and-increase of phosphorus. This leads to frequent fractures and stone formation in blood.
(iv) Thymus : Its function is limited to early growth and development because it vanishes after puberty. It is mostly associated with the development of sex characteristics.
(v) Adrenal : This gland has a powerful effect on blood circulation. Its hormone (Adrenalin) increases the heart rate and blood output. Its hormone increases BP., increases, muscular power and delays fatigue. Therefore, adrenal glands play an important role in emotions and exercise.
(vi) Pancreas : Secretion of Insulin by the inner portion of this gland helps in the burning of sugar in our body. Lack of insulin leads to diabetes, i.e., the increase of sugar level in the blood. Diabetes is a slow killer disease.
(vii) Sex glands : Their secretions lead to development of sex characters in males and females.
Q. 36. Name various public organisation engaged in the work of health care and welfare of community.
Ans. (1) Indian Red Cross Society : This society which is a unit of the International Red Cross was set up in 1920. Its main function in the beginning was the care of the sick and wounded in war but its functions increased gradually. Now its activities include helping in cases of floods, epidemics, earthquakes, war and other disasters. In such eventualities it helps to provide food, medicines and clothings to the victims. This society also helps in running health centres, blood banks and first aid and home nursing training centres. The St. John Ambulance brigade serves as ambulance unit of Red Cross. The Indian Red Cross Society works in close cooperation with Indian and international health agencies
(ii) Tuberculosis Association of India : This association known as T.B. Association was established in 1939, to work for the prevention and cure of Tuberculosis.It has established institutions for diagnosis, treatment and training of workers in the field of T.B. control. This association has also established hospitals for the cure of T.B. To augment its funds, it organises T.B. seal sales campaigns. The main functions of this society are to give expert advice, standardise methods and train workers in the field of Tuberculosis prevention and cure.
(iii) All India Blind Relief Society : Since 1946, this society has been working for the cause of the blind.
It coordinates the activities of various organisations working for the blind. It has set several training centres for giving training to the blind in different trades, in cooperation with some other voluntary organisations, for the rehabilitation of the blind.
(iv) Hind Kusht Nivaran Sangh : Also known as Leprosy Association of India, it was set up in the year 1949. Since then it has been working in the field of research for Leprosy cure, training of doctors for diagnosis and treatment of Leprosy patients and providing literature on Leprosy.
(v) Indian Council for Child Welfare : This society aims to help the children to develop in a healthy and normal manner. It therefore works for child welfare by attending to problems of child health services, eradication of malnutrition among children and care of maternal and child health.
(vi) Indian Medical Association : Its aim is to work for solving problems of national health. It is therefore engaged in the field of research for the prevention and cure of dangerous diseases. It makes its recommendations to the government as an expert advice in the case of epidemics or for the prevention and cure of dangerous diseases.
(vii) Family Planning Association of India : It works for the adoption of family planning norms. It also carries out research programmes in the field of family planning and functions as a supporting unit of the family planning and welfare department of the government.
Apart from the above mentioned organisations, some other voluntary and semi-official organisations such as Medical Council of India and Central Social Welfare Board etc. are also working in the field of health.