Q. 21. Which colour and texture in clothes should be in winter and why ?
Ans : Knowledge of selecting the clothes according to the climate is essential. Warm, thick and bright coloured clothes should be used in winter. Bright colours are warm colours. They give an effect of warmth. Thick texture in the clothes should be used in winter it gives warmth to the body and protects the body from cold.
Q. 22. How far is it desirable to purchase clothes from departmental stores ?
Ans : Clothes at departmental stores are little costlier than clothes available in other stores. But these stores have various facilities. Such stores provides small joyrides for children, quick snacks, drink facilities, they even have toilet and car parking facilities besides being air conditioned.
Most important point to be considered is that wide variety of clothing of different mills are available under one roof which saves time and energy. They even provide guarantee for their material. In case of complaint, such stores refund money or replace material.
Q. 23. Describe the principle of stain removal.
Ans : Principle of stain removal.
(i) Stains should be removed immediately. (ii) Identify the nature of stain. (iii) Dilute solution of chemical should be used to avoid damage to the clothes. (iv) Unknown stain should first be washed in cold water and then with detergent in hot water. (v) Acidic matters should be washed in alkaline medium. (vi) During removal of stains, clothes should be moved in a circular motion with hands.
Q. 24. Which two methods of investment you will suggest to your father who wants to save his tax ?
Ans : Methods of investments I will suggest to my Father who wants to save his tax and which give other benefits also are as following :
(i) Life Insurance Corporation — Risk coverage and he can take loan in case of emergency.
(ii) Units of UTI — Gets good interest.
(iii) P.P.F. — Can take loan, Good rate of interest.
Q.25. What are the importance of Home Science ?
(i) Educating the individual for family living.
(ii) Improving the services and goods used by families.
(iii) Conducting research to discover the changing needs of the individuals, families and finding ways and means of satisfying them.
(iv) Improving community, national and world conditions favourable for family living.
(v) Home Science is the education which makes life meaningful for all men and women. It is a unique subject wherein one gets an opportunity to apply knowledge in day to day life experiences. The study involves the development of the individual, efficient management of resources and contributing gainfully to the community.
Q.26. What is the status of girls child right now ?
Ans. Of the 12 million girls born each year 3 million die before the age of fifteen because of poor nutritional status. Another half a million girls die because of neglected upbringing. Many of the female children don’t even see the light of the day because of female infanticide.
Female foetuses are often aborted ignoring the moral, ethical and medical codes.
This has led to a deviation in male-female sex ratio.
The male-female sex ratio has dropped from 972 females to 1000 males in 1901 to 933/1000 males in 2001 census.
Employment certainly holds the key in contributing towards improvements in the status of women. But employment is dependent on one’s educational status which is poor in the case of Indian women. The importance of education can be judged from the national sample survey which reports that a college going female produces on an average 2 children, a matriculate gives birth to 4-5 children. Women with yet lower educational level give birth to six or more children.
This emphasizes the need for education for women.
An educated mother is capable of imparting knowledge to the entire family. Education today aims at providing economical independence for both sexes.
According to the latest Education Bill free and compulsory education for children aged between 6 an 14 years has become a fundamental right with Parliament amending the Constitution (Ninety Third Amendment Bill, 2001).
Women must be provided equal rights and opportunities as enjoyed by their male counterparts. This will not only step up the status of women but also aid in control ling population. Working women partners augment the family income thereby improving standard of living.
Q.27. What are minerals ? What are its functions in the body ?
Ans. Minerals are defined as the elements that remain largely as ash when plant or animal tissues are burnt.
Body requires a number of minerals for its well being.
They are called major minerals and trace minerals depending upon the amoung required in the body.
Major minerals are required in the diet at the levels of 100 mg/day or more. These are : Calcium Phosphorus Potassium Sulphur Sodium Magnesiun Chlorine Trace minerals are required in micro-quantities – a couple of mgs/day. These are: Iodine, Iron, Copper, Manganese.
There are a few more minerals required in still lesser quantities for carrying on the normal body functions.
These are: Fluorine, Selenium, Cobalt, Zinc, Nickel Approximately 4% of the total body weight is due to the presence of minerals. Calcium and phosphorus alone form 3% of the body weight. Organic salts are present in thyroxine, haemoglobin, phospholipids and phosphoproteins. Minerals in inorganic and soluble forms are present in body fluids, lymph and blood. Bones and teeth account for the insoluble minerals.
Functions of Minerals : Minerals regulate the acidbase balance. Phosphorus, sulphur and chlorine are acid forming elements, while calcium, potassium, sodium, iron and manganese are alkali forming elements.
The contraction and relaxation of muscles require minerals like Ca, K, Na, Cl and P. Phosphorus performs important functions in muscle physiology.
Flouride is needed for teeth and bones. Right amount of flourine protects one from dental and bone fluorosis.
Iodine is thyroxine and Iron in haemoglobin aid the oxidation processes in the body.
Most salts, specially sodium and potassium are responsible for maintainig intracellular and extracellular fluid balance.
Calcium helps in the clotting of blood.
Q.28. How the water can be conserved ?
Ans. Close the tap or source of water after use.
Maintain the flow of water to check water waste.
Use water in only required quantities. If you need to drink half a glass of water, do not fill your glass to top.
Appreciable amount of water can be conserved by doing ‘family wash’ instead of each member individually washing their clothes.
Use of soakage pit ensures the filtration of waste water to a large extent. This prevents the pollution of ground water.
Waste water should be channelised to kitchen gardens etc. Care must be taken not to allow water to stagnate at one place.
If there is community source of water then proper maintenance must be ensured. The tap should not be left open. Individuals should queue up for water collection.Make arrangements for rooftop Rainwater Harvesting.
Q.29. What are the significance of motor development in a child ?
Ans. Physical and motor development broadens the areas of activities for the baby. The toddler tries to explore and understand its environment. Baby learns new skills in order to adjust with the environment. In this process it attains self confidence and self reliance. Early concepts about itself and other’s attitude towards the baby and their behaviours affect the relationship of the baby with them.
Sensory Development : God has given us five sense organs to explore and understand our environment. These are as follows –
Newly born baby reacts with his environment with the help of these sense organs. He receives information through these organs and tries to understand the world around him. He forms simple concepts about self and other people. With the help of this information and knowledge the baby tries to adjust with the environment around him. The sensory development takes place along with the motor development. Both these developments help the child to explore and understand his environment.This is called Sensory motor development.
At the time of birth all the sense organs of the baby are not fully developed. Gradually his nervous system develops, his muscles becomes strong and as a result, his sense organs become strong and their capacity to receive stimulus from the environment increases.
(i) Seeing : At the time of birth the baby has no control over his eye muscles, that is why he can not hold his pupil at one place. ‘Ratina’ is also not properly developed. The baby can not see different colours.
Psychologist are of opinion that the newly born baby is sensitive about blue colour only 3 month old baby is able to hold his pupil and becomes sensitive toward various colours especially red because his eye muscles becomes strong and other development also takes place.
(ii) Hearing : At the time of birth this sense organ is very less developed. Three months old baby moves his head at the sound of snapping of fingers. He recognises his mother’s voice. He is able to differentiate between various voices in the 9th or 10th month.
(iii) Skin : The most developed sense organ at the time of birth is skin. Very fast he learns to recognise touch.He is able to recognise familiar and unfamiliar touch. That is why a crying baby stops crying when his mother pick him up. The baby also recognises hot, cold, pain etc.
(iv) Taste : At the time of birth the baby recognise only sweet taste. Gradually starts recognising sour and bitter taste also.
(v) Smelling : Smelling power of the baby is slightly better at the time of birth. He is able to recognize his mother’s body odour. Gradually this capability increases.
Q.30. Who are socially handicapped children ? What are their common needs ?
Ans. There are many children in our society who it gets separated from their parents due to some or other reason. Poverty, natural calamity like, earthquake, epidemic are some of the reasons by which many children get orphaned. Such children don’t have a family to turn to, so they are called socially disadvantaged children. These children due to lack of educational and other facilities and proper guidance become antisocial. To make them a responsible member of society, it is necessary to help them develop properly.
(i) First of all, basic needs of such children like destitute, vagrant and juvenile delinquents should be fulfilled. They should be provided proper food, clothing and shelter.
(ii) Proper arrangements for their education should be done. Government should take care of their fees, books etc.
(iii) One important problem with such children is that they find themselves cut off emotionally from the society.
They develop negative attitude towards society as they get rejected by people. They become antisocial and want to seek revenge from the society. In order to eliminate this feeling we should provide them security compassion and congenial atmosphere for their physical and mental growth.
So that they can feel they are the part of this society.
(iv) Children should be trained in such vocations so that they can become self-dependent.
(v) For starting their own enterprise Government should provide them some help in the form of money as well as guidance.
(vi) Voluntary organisations should provide healthy recreation, library facilities, night schools and vocational training to such children.
(vii) For juvenile delinquents, reformatory houses and psychological guidance should be arranged.
(viii) Good environment in home and society should be provided for their character, cultural and moral development.
Q.31. What are the types of the different expenses included in the family budget ?
Ans. Following main heads of expenditure are included in the family budget:
1. Food : Food is the basic need of a family, hence major portion of the income is spent on it.
2. Clothing : It includes clothes for the family and for furnishing.
3. Housing : A person who resides in a rented house has to pay a part of his income as house rent while the person residing in his own house spends same money as house tax, municipal tax and on maintenance of it.
4. Education : Expenses on education also a head in all the families where children are getting education.
It includes expenditure on fees, stationery, books etc.
5. Health : Expenses on medical care and well-being of the family members comes under this head.
6. Entertainment : It includes expenditure on play items for children, cinema, club, picnics and other recreational activities of the family members.
7. Transport : It includes expenditure on petrol, repair and maintenance of vehicle and other travel expenses.
8. Miscellaneous, Household Expenses. It includes miscellaneous and personal expenses like repair of household appliances, donations, subscription etc.
9. Savings : Saving is that part of income which is left after meeting all house; hold expenses. It is an important head of a budget. Savings are spent on emergencies, celebrations, higher education of children, acquisition of immovable property etc.
Q.32. What are the main methods of stain removal?
Ans. 1. Solvent Method : Stains which are soluble are removed by this method.
(a) Wash the cloth with brush.
(b) Put the stain on a blotting paper upside down.
(c) Rub stain remover on the back side.
(d) Rubbing should be from inside towards outside.
(e) Stain is obsorbed by the blotting paper. Petrol, benzene, ether etc. are various solvents used in this method.
2. Chemical Method : Stains which are not removed by using detergent and water, are removed by using reagents, later on, clothes are rinsed in water so that reagents used are completely removed. Leaving the chemical on the fabric will damage it. Usually the following chemicals are used in this method-Oxalic acid, Chlorine, Acetone, Hydrogen Peroxide etc.
3. Absorbent Method : Some stains which can not be removed by water are removed by absorbent method.
Various absorbent are-talcum powder, refined flour (Maida), fuller’s earth salt etc.
(a) Place a blotting paper beneath the stained part of the garment.
(b) Rub the absorbent on the stain.
(c) Ironing it at high temperature, transfers the stain on the piece of blotting paper.
Removing an Unknown Stain : Sometimes nature of the stain is not known. Precaution should be taken while removing such stains. Following steps should be followed to remove them –
(i) Solvents like petrol, benzene etc. should be used.
(ii) Soap and water should be used.
(iii) Hot water and soap should be used.
(iv) Use bleach.
(v) Use dilute acidic solution.
(vi) Use dilute alkaline solution.
(vii) Lastly oxidizing agents should be used.
Q. 33. What do you understand by the term ‘National Character’. Critically examine the present Indian National Character according to your perception.
Ans : The term ‘national character’ refers to some total characteristics of a section of population which goes on to make the personality of group and consequently the ability to perceive the salient traits of the population as a whole. It primarily refers to the internalization of the characteristic traits of a nation by its individuals through the process of socialization. This process is also referred to as the process of ‘political socialisation’ Abram Kardiner and Ovesy define national character as “a common personality integration showed by a significant member of individuals who have had similar socialization experiences”. The concept of national character is, therefor based on the difference in cultural patterns which tend to produce different stereotyped personalities in different nations.
The Indian National character is marked by the feelings of dependence, low achievement, risk-avoidance, anxiety and insecurity prone behaviour. The reason behind this can be traced to the initial socialisation experiences in India. The way in which Indian child is nurtured makes him excessively dependent on his parents for falsifying his seeds and desires. There is a neglect of independence training among the Indian children. Moreover, the vast majority of India is poor and during the childhood, they are reared by parents who have internalized low aspirations and excessive dependence. Rearing by such fathers also breeds in the children a socialization to apathy and underachievement. This all makes him adopt a modal personality characterized by low need for achievement, excessive dependence, high anxiety and risk avoidance.
Another marked feature of Indian national character is the inculcation of different types of pre-mordial loyalties and prejudices. The way an Indian child is reared, he gets caste and religion conscious before adolescence and, as he grows, he inculcates various caste, religious, or tribal prejudice. These, then, are the salient characteristics of a modal Indian personality pattern and their etiology lay purely in the realm of the unique socialization experiences in India.
Q. 34. What is the meaning of communicable disease ?
Ans. A disease is an abnormality or deviation from normal health. It may be defined as a deviation from the state of complete physical or mental well being. It is a state or condition of the body in which some functions of its body part or parts are disturbed. Diseases from which human beings suffer can be classified into two groups:
Communicable diseases are those diseases that can spread from a sick person to a healthy one under suitable conditions, through germs, worms or parasites. Since these can spread from one person to another, these are also termed as infectious. Various communicable diseases are : Malaria, Tuberculosis, Whooping Cough, Measles, Polio, Tetanus, AIDS, Chickenpox, Cholera, Typhoid, Dengue and Rabies etc. Noncommunicable or non-infectious diseases are those that cannot spread from one person to another such as diabetes, cancer, mental illness and some genetic disorders.
Q. 35. How can communicable disease be controlled ?
Ans. Various steps are needed to control or prevent the spread of communicable diseases. These are :
(i) Destroying the agent.
(ii) Controlling the medium.
(iii) Protecting the host.
(i) Destroying the Agent : Germs are the agents of spreading communicable diseases and often live and multiply in human beings and other animals. Therefore, it is essential to detect cases of disease by proper diagnosis and kill the agent inside the patient with proper medicines.
It is also essential to isolate the patient for the period during which he or she can spread the disease to others.
In this way transfer and check of disease is possible.
(ii) Controlling the Medium : Agents of communicable diseases are generally found in air, water, milk, food, animals and plants. Therefore, we need to clean the breeding places. Take steps to purify water.
Take steps to improve sanitation by quick disposal of household waste and proper disposal of human excreta.
Proper steels should be taken to destroy contaminated food. Pets and other animals should be checked and controlled for preventing them from becoming carriers of germs.
(iii) Protecting the Host : Preventing the healthy people from the risks of the communicable diseases can be done in the following three ways :
(a) By carrying out a programme of immunization wherever required and possible to prevent the people from catching the disease.
(b) By the use of preventive drugs.
(c) By ensuring safe drinking water supply, better sanitation, proper food and housing etc.
Q. 36. Define AIDS. What are its signs and symptoms ? How does it spread ? How can it be prevented ?
Ans. AIDS or Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome is a virus caused communicable disease. The virus spreading AIDS is called Human Immuno-deficiency Virus or H.I.V. It is a deadly disease which is incurable and is considered to be the scourge of the twentieth century.
The first case of AIDS was reported in 1981 in New York and since then it has become the most talked about and the most serious health hazard of the twentieth century.
According to 1993 World Bank’s World Development Report, around nine million people carried the H.I.V. virus worldwide, in 1990. The total number of H.I.V. infected persons in the world is estimated to be around 15 million now. The figure is expected to rise to 30-40 million at the end of the 20th century.
In India the first case of AIDS was reported in 1986 and according to W.H.O. estimates there are approximately 15 lakh infected persons In India.
According to W.H.O. this disease is likely to spread fast in countries of South Asia and South East Asia. Intensive research is being carried out to contain and combat this deadly disease but no success has been achieved in this direction so far.
Signs and Symptoms of AIDS
AIDS infection has a pretty long incubation period.After a person catches the H.I.V. infection, he remains healthy for a period of about nine years. After this period the symptoms begin to appear gradually. The infected person may develop low grade fever, enlargement of nymph nodes, chronic diarrhoea and significant weight loss that may almost upto 10% per month. The patient may also catch other infections such as skin infections, infection of mucous membranes, pneumonia and tuberculosis. The brain may also be affected. Gradually the patient becomes very weak and death may overpower him within 1 to 3 years.
Diagnosis : Generally “ELISA” test and the Western Blot test are used for the detection of H.I.V. infection in the blood. Both these tests are very accurate. The western blot test is generally used to confirm the diagnosis, after a positive ELISA test. Persons who come under the risk group for likelihood of catching infection, should be subjected to these tests for early detection and possible prevention of the spread of this infection.
Transmission of H.I.V
AIDS infection is spread in the following ways:
(a) By using infected syringes or needles for blood transfusion or injecting drugs etc.
(b) Transfusion of blood or blood products infected with H.I.V.
(c) From infected mother to an unborn child.
(d) It is spread mainly through an unprotected sexual contact with an infected partner.
The H.I.V. on the other hand does not spread by shaking hands of an infected person, by embracing him or by sharing meals or eating from the same plate. Mosquitoes do not carry this infection and it is also not spread through the use of same clothes or bed sheets.
Prevention of AIDS
AIDS can be prevented by taking the undermentioned precautions :
1. Never using infected syringes or needles. It should be made sure that the injecting equipment is fully sterilized before use.
2. By making sure that blood or blood products are tested and are free of H.I.V. before transfusion.
3. By practising safer sex.
Though the cure of AIDS is possible so far, prevention is possible and is in the hands of individuals.Therefore, all the preventive measures should be taken to check this deadly menace. The H.I.V. positive people should be told how to protect their future sex partners or children.