Q. 21. What type of design would suit your tall height and why ?
Ans : Every person has a unique figure. Some are tall or short, fat or thin. Every one should wear clothes according to his/her figure irrespective of latest fashion. Horizontal design and with two or more colours in the dress will suit to tall height girl/boy. This type of design gives illusion of less height. Example : If the salwar is of light colour, the shirt should be of dark colour with horizontal lines. This will help in shortening the height of a tall person.
Q. 22. Discuss the factors that will effect the quantity of material required for a particular garment.
Ans : The following points should be kept in mind before deciding the quantity of cloth required for the garment.
(i) The width of cloth. Often cloth with more width, in spite of being a bit more expensive, turn out to be cheaper than the one with lesser width. By making an exact estimate of cloth required for a specific garment, some better quality cloth can be afforded in the same budget by avoiding wastage of cloth.
(ii) It is important to know about the margins and ease in the garments in case of growing children.
(iii) Additional cloth should be purchased in case of cloth with a tendency of developing holes around the stitching or seams getting torned.
(iv) The shrinkage of the cloth should also be kept in mind.
(v) Clothes should be purchased in accordance to the design. Clothes with large prints should be stitched in such a way that the outfit gives a balanced look.
(vi) More cloth may be required according to the design of the garment, for example, in a full sleeves blouse, more cloth is required as compared to short sleeves blouse. Additional cloth should be purchased for gathers, pleats, pockets, collars, etc.
Q. 23. Name the different methods of stain removal.
Ans : The stains can be removed by the following methods.
(i) Dipping — The stained material is dipped into the reagent. It is then scrubbed to remove to stain and finally rinsed.
(ii) Sponging — The part of material from which the stain has to be removed is placed on blotting paper and the reagent is applied with a sponge on the stained area and scrubbed.
(iii) Drop method — The reagent is put on the stained cloth stretched over a bowl with a dropper.
(iv) Steaming — The stained area is exposed to steam from boiling water.
Q. 24. State four reason for maintaining a record of income and expenditure.
Ans : Reason for maintaining a record of income and expendituer are :
(i) Th ese assist in keeping a check on spending behaviour.
(ii) By maintaining records, one gains an insight into money availability and expenditure requirement of the family.
(iii) One becomes conscious of neither borrowing nor taking loans to run the household. Very often, payment of these loans becomes difficult if not possible.
(iv) Maintainin g household account facilitates the achievement of family goals.
Q. 25. Home Science is a combined study of science and art. Discuss How the study of Home Science helps an indiridual ?
Ans : The knowledge of art, colour and designs, can be applied in home situations for decorating the house, the garments and table linen etc. Wellogarnished and attractively served meals will tempt the family to the table.
The knowledge of science enables the home maker to make a wise choice of the foods rich in the necessary nutrients.
Scientific principles can be used for learning the correct methods of cooking and preserving foods. It plays a vital role in all round development of any individual. Study of Home Science helps to:
(a) Develop proper attitudes for developing interest and desire to assume responsibilities of home activities.
(b) Study the fundamentals of health, nutrition, family relationships and hygiene etc.
(c) Develop skills to accomplish all the essential household activities such as cooking, stitching, management of accounts, entertaining and child care. (d) Appreciating social, religious and cultural values.
It is essential to have peace and quality in life.
(e) Knowledge of the various aspects of Home Science enables one to make wise decisions.
(f) Home Science helps in developing good habits of health and hygiene necessary to promote well-being.
(g) Develop good relationship among all members of community irrespective of age, sex, religion, caste, socio-economic and cultural difference.
Q.26. What is Population Education ? What the population education aims at ?
Ans. UNESCO defines population education “as a programme which provides for a study of the population situation in family, community, nation and world with the purpose of developing in students rationale and responsible attitudes and behaviour towards that situation”.
The Population education aims at : Creating an awareness of demographic concepts and processes.
Developing an understanding about the crisis due to over-population.
Studying the influence of population characteristics on the various aspects of human life.
Developing appreciation of the relationship between the standard of living of a family and its size.
Developing an appreciation for the small family size and tts relationship with the over all progress.
Q.27. What are the functions and sources of Calcium ? How can we prevent its deficiency ?
Ans. Calcium is a major mineral performing the following functions.
Strong and healthy teeth are required for enjoying food and giving good smile. Adequate intake of calcium ensures permanency of teeth.
Calcium gives rigidity to bones and prevents rickets.
Strong bones provide a safeguard or a shield for the vital, delicate internal organs like heart and brain.
Calcium is needed for the normal functioning of muscles. It is responsible for the rhythmic muscle contractions and relaxations.
Calcium is essential for the formation of blood clot.
It provides safety against hazards due to haemorrhages.
The minerals is of vital importance for individuals going in for major surgery.
It facilitates the flow of nervous impulses and helps in the efficient functioning of the nervous system.
It helps in enzyme functions
Sources of Calcium : Calcium is widely spread in animal as well as vegetable foods.
It is found in plenty in milk and its products like cheese, cottage cheese, khoya and icecream. Meat,. poultry and eggs have lower calcium content. Fish and other seafood has very high calcium content, even higher than that of milk. Butter and ghee are devoid of calcium.
Leafy green vegetables like spinach, amaranth, curry leaves, betel leaves, methis, knol-khol, sarson and mint etc. have a fair amount of this mineral.
Ragi, soyabeans, red kidney beans (rajmah), peas, legumes, black and bengal grams are considered good in calcium content.
Almonds, dry coconut, gingelly seeds, mustard seeds and groundnuts have good amount of calcium.
Spices – cloves, cuminseeds, corriander seeds, lemon peel, poppy seed have a fair amount of calcium but their dietary contribution is low on account of small intakes.
Jaggery has more calcium that its counterparts sugar and honey.
All the dietary calcium is not available to the body.Hence ICMR recommends extra allowances to meet the body needs. Adults need 0.4 gm calcium/day.The demand increases considerably during pregnancy and lactation. An allowance of 1gm/day is considered safe during this period.Growing children will do well an allowance of 0.4-0.6 gm/day.
Deficiency of calcium leads to poor bone and dental formations. Inadequate intake of the minerals may interfere with the clotting of blood and rhythmic cardiomuscular functioning. Irregularity of nervous impulses occurs when there is deficiency of calcium.
Q.28. Write short notes on the following : (1) Organising (2) Implementing (3) Controlling (4) Elevation.
Ans. (1) Organising : Organising is one of the most crucial steps in management. The very success or failure of a plan largely depends on how sound the organization structure is. In simple terms, ‘organising’ can be explained as a technique of arranging things in an orderly manner.
Organization can be defined as a process of combining and co-ordinating work of the family members with the resources necessary for its execution. Organising, for the earlier example, will include collection of information and study material for the architectural course. You can take relevant help ‘to ensure admission to such a course’.
In short, a sound and effective organization is the answer to most problems and there can be no substitute for a good organization.
(2) Implementing : Implementing means putting the plan into action. It is the ‘doing’ process of management.
When a plan has been finalised and resources are assembled and organized, it is ready to be put into action.
Referring to the initial plan of pursuing architecture, the student will have to carry out the detailed study in given time schedule. It will also include, critically analyzing whether the preparation done for the achievement of goal is right or not.
(3) Controlling : Controlling is yet another important step in managerial process. It is one of the supportive columns, on which success of the plan depends. In the absence of proper control, all efforts may prove a failure.
Controlling is the art of measurement and application of correction for any activity. If anything goes wrong with the prior actiones plan i.e. planning, organising or implementing, it can be set right by the control process.Referring back to the earlier example, in case your study and extent of learning is not upto the desired level at a certain stipulated time, what control can you exercise?Cut down on leisure and devote more time for study.Additional help of a qualified person can be taken to solve your difficulties to make your plan successful.
(4) Evaluation : Evaluation is a very essential tool of the management. It helps in assessing progress at every stage of management process and final results achieved.Evaluation provides checks and tests to know that the plan is turning out as originally planned or whether it needs any modifications. Evaluation has to be done from time to time. It helps in judging the strengths and overcoming weaknesses of the entire process.
Q.29. Discuss the factor which affects the motor development in a child.
Ans. 1. Hereditary factors : Children get ‘genes’ for all the developments from their parents. It has been seen motor development of a child follow the same pattern as of his parents.
2. Nutrition : Nutritious food promotes good motor development. Sensory motor development is dependent upon nutrition, the child gets to a great extent. Children get stronger and development is good.
3. Immunisation : If mother and child both are immunised at a proper time it leads to good sensory motor development.
4. Environment : Encouragement, love and security helps the child to take risk to explore fearlessly and to know more about environment leads to a better sensory development.
5. O pportun itie s : Ch ildr en wh o get mor e opportunities to do more activities their motor development is better. Opportunities to play to gain knowledge gives a better chance of developing sensory motor activities.
Factors which badly affect the motor development.
Sometimes the motor development lags behind due to many factors. Some are as follows :
(i) Health : Due to ill health the child can’t develop properly.
(ii) Hereditical factors : Child whose parent’s motor development was not proper in their childhood will have poor motor development.
(iii) Imbalanced food : By not getting balanced diet the child can’t develops himself. He will suffer from one or the other diseases as a result he will not be able to coordinate their different sense organs and body parts. So his sensory motor development will not be good.
(iv) Lack of opportunity : Children who do not get enough opportunities to play and to interact with their environment don’t develop properly their motor skill.
Q.30. What are the importance of substitute care ?
Ans. Psychologists believe that first six years of child’s life are very important. The foundation of child’s personality is laid during these years. This is a very challenging time for parents. They should be very careful in choosing substitute care as it will directly affect the child’s personality. If the people who care for the child in a congenial and loving atmosphere, they encourage the child and make him feel secure and wanted, then the child will develop all these traits in his own personality. Child’s nutritional habits, health and hygienic habits will develop in the guidance of these people. If the substitute care is in good hands, the child even if separated from parents will not feel insecure. The child will develop good habits and traits. Parents should see that responsible family members are involved in the care of the child. If this is not possible and they have to select some outside agency of person, they should be very choosy and selective as the future of the child depends on this.
Q.31. What are the factors that affect proposed expenses ?
Ans. 1. Sources of Family Income : Income and purchasing power of the family increases if in addition to head of family, housewife and other family members are also earning.
2. Structure of Family : Expenditure on house, kitchen etc. per member is less in a joint family as compared to nuclear family.
3. Size of Family : Expenditure on education, food and clothing is more in large family.
4. Age of Family Members : School/ College going children spend more on books, fees, uniform etc.
5. Standard of Living : The higher the level of living standard of a family, the more is the expenditure.
6. Residence : Families residing in urban areas spend more than those living in rural areas.
7. Family Traditions : Some families have more faith in certain social and religious, traditions and some times spend lavishly on these. All families spend on their basic needs i.e., food, clothing and housing. Apart from these, expenditure on various other heads may vary from family to family like in some families, more money is spent on education while in others on entertainment.
8. Available Resources : Proposed expenditure can be reduced by utilising the human resources. For example expenditure on education can be reduced by teaching the child at home instead of arranging tuitions.
Q.32. Make a chart of the following stains and show the method of its removal ?
1. Curry (Turmeric)
3. Tea, Coffee
5. Fruits and Vegetables
6. Egg Cotton and Linen Clothes
1. Wash with soap and water, dry in sun.
2. Keeping blotting paper under fresh stain and iron it. Then wash with soap and water.
3. Old stains can be removed by soaking in javelle water.
1. Wash with hot water and soap.
2. Apply paste of maida and starch and dry in shade.Again repeat. After doing 2-3 times it will be removed.
3. Petrol, spirit or kerosene oil can also be used.
4. Soak in Javelle solution and wash with soap and water.
Tea & coffce
1. Fresh stains are removed by hot water.
2. Hot water, suhaga and soap can be used.
3. Soaking in glycerine will helps in removing the stain.
1. Fresh stain can be removed by soap and water.
2. By applying lemon juice and salt and then drying it sun will remove the stains.
3. Soaking in sour curd can also remove the stains.
4. Stain can be removed by javelle solution.
5. Potassium permanganate can be used. Stains of potassium permanganate can be removed by oxalic acid.
Fruite & Vegetable
1. Apply starch paste on fresh stain. Then rub and wash.
2. Use sugana, salt and hot water to remove it.
1. Wash with cold water, then wash with soap and lukewarm water.
Woollen, Silk and Synthetic Clothes
1. By keeping blotting paper under it and ironing it will remove the stain.
1. Dipping alternatively in potassium permanganate solution and ammonia solution will remove it. Stains of potassium permanganate can be removed by oxalic acid.
2. Maida and starch paste application can be used.
3. Petrol, spirit and kerosene oil can be used to remove stains.
1. Wash with lukewarm water and suhaga.
2. Diluted hydrogen peroxide can be used.
1. Soap and water can remove it.
2. Use of lemon and salt will remove the stains.
3. Hydrogen peroxide solution can be used.
Fruits & Vegetables
1. Just like cotton clothes.
1. Just like cotton clothes.
Q.33. Critically examine the effect of television on the people of rural India. Suggest suitable measures to bring about socio-cultural change through this mass media.
Ans : Communication in developing societies such as India is a mechanism to instil awareness in the public through the spread of information. India primarily emphasized what Wilbur Schramm called ‘developmental communication’. In its strategy of development communication, the mass media played an effective role. Among the mass media radio and television were the two most potent media for political and developmental communication because there were no technological barriers associated with them in disseminating information. They could reach the poor and the rural masses of India. Television, in fact, was more potent than radio as one picture is worth thousand words.
In India, government gave special emphasis on spreading information about the modernisation techniques in agriculture which was the occupation of seventy percent of our workforce. It tried to utilize the national as well as local media to the maximum for purposes of an effective communication. The local television media turned out to be more useful because they were communicating and there were available means for the audience to report back to the senders of the message.
Folk media turned out to be too useful in capturing the rural audience. The government placed special emphasis on telecasting rural folk dances and other folk programmes were interspersed with programmes of socioeconomic development to foster social change in India.
The dance and drama division of AIR and Doordarshan has extensively utilized dances, songs, dramas etc. for disseminating persuasive massages to the people. Later in the 1980s, Department of Audio-Visual publicity was conferred with this role. It has shown a rejuvenated interest in making audio-visual programmes to spread message of social change, national development.However, sometimes there are certain dangers associated with the use of media in effecting social change.For instance too much information and persuasive communication can’t bring change by itself if there is lack of infrastructure and lack of economic capacity to adopt new practices in the various traditional occupations.Such a scenario can really dishearten and discourage the rural folks towards moving in the direction of social change.
Q. 34. Write short notes on (1) Hepatitis B (2) Hepatitis C (3) Rabies (4) Tetanus (5) Malaria (6) T.B.
Ans. (1) Hepatitis B
Hepatisis B is an infection of liver and is caused by hepatitis-B Virus (HBV).
Clinically it is very difficult to discriminate between Hepatitis-A and Hepatitis-B. The only difference is that Virus-B is transmitted through contaminated blood transfusion or Plasma transfusion and not due to oral route (contamination of water, food etc). Therefore man is the only source of infection in Hepatitis-B. It has a long incubation period which may last from 6 weeks to 6 months.In some cases (5 to 10 per cent) this disease fails to mature but the individual affected becomes the carrier of this virus.
Hepatitis-B has similar symptoms like hepatitis-A, i.e. nausea, abdominal discomfort, fever, jaundice ending in coma or death.
Prevention of Hepatitis-B
This disease can be prevented from spreading by taking proper steps to stop the use of contaminated blood or blood fractions. Its prevention also includes the use of Anti-Hepatitis-B vaccine for the purpose of immunisation.
Hepatitis-C Virus was discovered in the year 1989.
This virus also causes infection of the liver.
It is mainly transmitted through transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products. For this reason, about 50% of the cases of H-C Virus infection are related to intravenous drug users who share needles. Traditional practices such as tatooing and scarification with contaminated instruments can spread Hepatitis-C-Virus infection.
Its incubation period is 6 to 7 weeks and clinical illness is often mild. Usually similar in symptoms to high rate of chronic hepatitis, which may lead to Cirrhosis (a disease) of liver or liver cancer. It may take as long as 20 years to develop into cancer. Men, specially alcohol consumers are more likely to develop such cancer.
Prevention of Hepatitis-C
Testing donated blood for H.C.V. helps in reducing the risk of such an infection. Therefore screening for H.C.V. has been made compulsory for all blood banks in India. The treatment of Hepatitis-C is very expensive as the only effective medicine “Interferon” is very costly and very few patients can afford to use it. The anti H.C.V. blood test kit is also very costly.
(3) Rabies This disease is a deadly disease of the animals. It is caused by a virus which multiplies in the nerve cells of animals. It is widely distributed in the infected animal’s nervous system, saliva, urine, lymph, milk and blood. It is perpetuated by wild animals (Carnivores) such as foxes, wolves, jackals and mongoose etc. The wild animals transmit the infection to domestic animals.
Transmission of Rabies
Rabies is spread in human beings by the licking of broken skin or bite of an infected animal called Rabid or mad animal, which is generally a stray dog. It can be a rabid wolf or jackal also. From the saliva of the rabid animal, infection is passed on to the skin of the host.
Rabies virus spreads from the bite wound to the central nervous system of man.
Symptoms of Rabies
The symptoms of Rabies or Hydrophobia begin to appear after 4 to 6 weaks after the bite. Sometimes the Rabies’ effect appears years after the bite. The symptoms include:
(i) Headache lasting two to four days.
(ii) Fever of low intensity.
(iii) Intolerance of noise, light or cold air.
(iv) Involuntary contraction of muscles or sustained rigidity.
(v) Irritability and fear of water and death. On account of the fear of water symptom, this disease has been termed as Hydrophobia.
Prevention of Rabies
Rabies generally spreads by the biting of stray dogs.
Therefore, stray dogs should be eliminated. The domestic dogs should be immunized by using proper immunization vaccine. In the case of a dog bite, local treatment of the wound caused by bite should be undertaken immediately after cleaning the wound. The animal should be observed for 10 days and no treatment is needed if the animal remains alive after this period. However, Anti Rabies treatment is absolutely essential if :
(i) The animal dies within ten days.
(ii) If a person has been bitten by a stray dog.
(iii) If the animal has bitten without provocation.
(iv) If the animal shows signs of rabies.
(v) If laboratory tests are positive.
No time should be lost to check the effect of the virus before it gets to the brain.
It is an acute disease induced by a germ or organism called Clostridrium Tetani or simply Cl. Tetani. It forms spores or minute reproductive bodies in fungi or unicellular organisms (Protozoa). These germs are highly resistant and can withstand boiling temperature, i.e., 100°C for a pretty long period upto 90 minutes. These germs also do not require oxygen for germination. The infectious germs are found in horses, goats, sheep and sometimes in the intestines of man.
This disease generally follows an injury or accident when the germs present in the soil or surface of contact, get into the body. It may occur due to the contamination of wound while dressing. It may also be caused by surgical instruments or during injection and vaccination. The disease has an incubation period of 3 to 21 days and it is characterised by the following symptoms :
(i) Stiffness and pain in neck
(ii) Locking of jaws
(iv) Tonic involuntary muscular contraction
It can be prevented if immediate steps are taken, otherwise this disease can be fatal. Infants can be immunized by D.P.T. doses at required intervals. In case of accidents or injuries, immediate A.T.S. injection stops the possibility of occurrence of this disease.
The most common commnicable disease in India is Malaria. It is a disease caused by the bite of an infected insect called mosquito. This insect is the female Anopheles. The Anopheles are generally found in stagnant water which may have growth of vegetation or not. It is found in shady and dark places. Different species of Anopheles mosquitoes have different breeding places.
They breed and survive in humid conditions and under suitable temperature. There are four stages in the life cycle of a mosquito :
(iii) Pupae and
The knowledge of these stages is essential for taking anti-mosquito measures for the prevention of Malaria.
Malaria is caused by the germ Genus Plasmodium. The female Anopheles mosuqito serves as the carrier of this infection from a patient or man infected with the germs of malaria to a healthy person.
When a female Anopheles bites and sucks the blood of a malaria patient, it sucks the malaria germs alongwith blood. The germs become infectious in the body of such mosquitoes and when a healthy person is bitten by such infectious mosquitoes, the germs of malaria are injected in his body and he gets the disease. The incubation period or the first attack of fever after mosquito bite is of about 10 days. The parasites mature and propagate within the human host. They enter his liver cells and develop there.
This disease has typical symptom of fever with chill.
The fever may come every day or every third day. There is swelling of spleen under the last left rib. The fever may go off after sweating.
Prevention of Malaria Malaria can be prevented from spreading by taking the following measures :
(i) Destruction of mosquito larvae
(ii) Destruction of adult mosquito
(iii) Prevention from mosquito bite
(iv) Taking preventive medicine
(i) Destruction of Mosquito Larvae and Eggs : The spreading of malaria can be prevented to a great extent by prevention the laying of eggs and destruction of larvae. This can be done by :
(a) physical methods
(b) by using insecticides, or
(c) by biological method.
(1) Physical method includes periodic cleaning of water storage places such as pots, tanks etc.
(2) Draining out and filling up of water collection places. Intermittent drying of irrigation water channels also helps.
(3) Use of Larvicidal fishes is also very effective in killing the larvae.
(ii) Destructi on of Adult Mosquito : Adult mosquitoes can be destroyed by :
(1) Spraying of D.D.T. or Gammexane
(2) By clearing the hiding places of mosquitoes such as bushes and jungles.
(iii) Prevention from Mosquitoe Bite : This can be done by using :
(1) Use of mosquito nets
(2) Wearing proper clothes
(3) Use of mosquito repellants
(iv) Taking Preventive Medicines : The occurrence of malaria can be prevented by taking preventive medicines in advance before entering a malaria prone zone or when occurrence of malaria is suspected. For this purpose chloroquin tablet should be taken once a week and taken one week in advance before reaches a place of malaria prone zone. Continuation of this medicine for 3 to 4 weeks after leaving this zone is also recommended.
The government has initiated malaria eradication programmes but success has not been achieved. Public awareness and support is needed for the success of this programme.
(6) Tuberculosis It is a disease, though curable but still deadly, caused by a bacteria called “Mycobacterium Tuberculosis”. It is killing more people in the world than other infectious diseases including malaria and AIDS. Around the world it kills nearly three million people in a year. It is a socioeconomic disease found almost everywhere in the world. Majority of the cases of T.B. are found in developing countries. About 40% of the Indian population is infected with T.B. bacteria or bacilli. Instead of vanishing, this disease is staging a comeback and the number of cases of T.B. have also risen in Europe and North America in the recent past. The factor that is considered to be the cause of increase in the number of cases of T.B. is the H.I.V. virus. H.I.V. is therefore considered as a dangerous ally of T.B. because many H.I.V. infected people develop Tuberculosis. Tuberculosis affects all races, it can occur at any age, it is found more in males than females but it is not hereditary. When we talk of T.B. we generally mean T.B. of lungs but T.B. also attacks some other body parts resulting in bone T.B., liver T.B. or T.B. of adrenal glands etc.
Spread of T.B.
Tuberculosis infection is generally spread from a person in one’s neighbourhood or by inhalation of air or dust containing Tubercle Bacilli or T.B. germs. Infection spreads from the person who has developed T.B. in the lungs and who, by coughing, sneezing or even talking, spreads the bacteria in tiny droplets in the air. When, breathed in, these bacteria enter the lungs of a healthy person and are lodged in the deepest region where oxygen is absorbed from the lungs. These bacteria remain inactive like a snake in the basket till the cover of the basket is removed. Under certain conditions, they become active and cause the T.B. disease. H.I.V. germ acts as an evil agent that lifts the cover of baskets and activates T.B. germs. Inhalation of infected air or dust particles containing germs from the dried infected sputum also spreads the infection.
Some social factors are also responsible for spreading Tuberculosis. These are:
(i) Insanitary conditions outside and inside the house or working place.
(ii) Poverty: Low income group is the most affected group.
(iii) Some occupations are responsible for the occurrence of T.B.. These occupations are where persons work in brick kilns, stone quarries, foundries and potteries etc. The disease that can cause T.B.. is Silicosis which excites the dormant germs of T.B. Another profession is the textile industry where workers can develop T.B.
(iv) Malnutrition due to wrong habits can lead to T.B.
(v) Social customs, such as useless spitting here and there and use of common utensils for eating. Using common cigarettes or hooka.
Symptoms of T.B.
The disease is characterized by coughing for days together, low intensity fever, loss of appetite and loss of weight of the body.
Prevention of Tuberculosis
The disease can be controlled In the following manner :
(i) Inoculation with B.C.G. vaccine as a preventive measure.
(ii) Health education of people to arouse public awareness and to get the cooperation of people for the prevention of this disease.
(iii) Early detection of suspected cases by sputum examination and radiography.
(iv) Isolation of patient for the required period of possible infection transmission.
(v) Improvement of living conditions.
(vi) Stopping bad customs.
(vii) Taking full treatment course in case of catching an infection.