Q. 21. What type of design in clothes should be used by a fatty person ?
Ans : The various elements or art and design should be kept in mind while selecting fabric and style of the dress for a fatty person. One should select vertical lines, it gives illusion of height and thinness. Fatty person should wear single colour dress and should avoid use of contrasting colour, full sleeves and large prints.
Q. 22. Shobha has limited money. Name two suitable places from where she can purchase clothes, keeping in mind her financial condition.
Ans : Two suitable places where Shobha can purchase cloth with limited money are Discount stores and Neighborhood stores.
Discount Stores — Here you get material from factory outlets at cheaper rate or you can shop from weekly ‘haat’ (Bazaar) at cheaper price.
Neighborhood Stores — These provided for the convenience of people in their immediate vicinity. These shops will have limited variety but at low cost. It will save money which would otherwise be wasted in travelling for shopping far-off.
Q. 23. Differentiate between ‘oxidising’ and ‘reducing’ bleaches with the help of examples.
Ans : Oxidising Bleaches have oxygen as a cheif component which is liberated at the stain site. Some of the oxidising bleaches are :—
(i) Sunlight — Wet the stain and put on grass. Oxygen from air brings about bleaching of the stain.
(ii) Sodium Perborate — It is an oxidsing bleach when mixed with hot water, sodium perborate gives oxygen needed to bleach the stain.
(iii) Hydrogen peroxide — It is easily available and is a safe oxidising bleach for removing stain from animal fibres like wool and silk.
Reducing Bleaches — Remove oxygen from stain and reduces them to colourless compounds.
(i) Sodium Hydrosulphate — When dissolved in water and applied to the stain, it absorbs oxygen to bring about bleaching.
(ii) Sodium Disulphite — It is manufactured by the action of sulphurous acid on caustic soda.
Q. 24. Differentate between money income, real income, and psychic income.
Ans : (i) Money Income — Consists of all the income obtained in the form of currency. The various sources of money income are salary, wages, pensions, bonus etc.
(ii) Real Income — Refers to the stream of commodities and facilities which the family enjoys over a given period of time. Real income may be direct or indiredt, e.g.,— free house, free stitching, kitchen garden, etc.
(iii) Psychic Income — Refers to the satisfaction obtained from the money income and real income.
Q. 25. What are the employment potential for Home Science students ?
Ans. (a) Teachers in schools, colleges, polytechnics, catering colleges, industrial institutes etc.
(b) Dieticians in hospitals, nursing homes, health clubs and guest houses.
(c) As chefs, housekeepers and public relation personnel in hotel industry.
(d) Decorators in homes, hotels etc.
(e) Designers for fashion in garment industry.
(f) There is plenty of scope for opportunities related to cosmetics, bakery, confectionery, laundry, foods etc.
(g) Creches are boon for working mothers. Creche manager is a foster mothers esponsible for the well-being of the young ones. There is scope for working in child and family welfare organisations.
(h) There is plenty of jobs being offered to post graduate studies i.e. Foods and Nutrition, Community Resource Management, Child Development, Dietetics and Hospital Management, Textile and Clothing etc.
(i) Research in the various Home Science related fields is on and is forever contributing towards the welfare of the Community.
Q.26. What are the benefits of small family norms ?
(i) It checks over population.
(ii) Better quality of life to every member of the family.
(iii) Strong bonds of love, affection and cooperation develop among family members.
(iv) There is peace and happiness at home with small families.
(v) Children are physically and mentally healthy.
(vi) They are given good quality education and personal attention for total development of all individuals.Restricted family size ensures proper physical, social, mental and emotional development of the children.
(vii) All needs of children in a small family are adequately met resulting in healthy, happy and productive generation.
Q.27. What are the sources and functions of iron in our body ?
Ans. Functions of Iron : Iron is responsible for tissue respiration. It forms an important constituent of haemoglobin. Haemoglobin picks up oxygen from lungs (oxyhaemoglobin) and exchanges it with wastes (CO2) at the tissue level. When sufficient O2 is not available due to low haemoglobin levels, the muscles start feeling tired.Accumulation of wastes makes the individual less energetic. Thus a feeling of fatigue sets in.
It is required for muscular contractions.
Heme - enzymes have iron in them. These enzymes brings about the oxidation of proteins, fats and carbohydrates within the cell.
Iron together with proteins provides proper colour and composition to blood. It prevents anaemia.It accounts for the capacity to work in an individual.
To be energetic, one must take adequate amounts of iron in the diet.
Sources of Iron : Excellent sources of iron are the organ meats i.e. liver, heart and kidney.Good sources comprise of egg, yolk and meat.
Dark green leafy Vegetables – Knolkhol, amaranth, radish-leaves, onion stalks and mint etc. have large amount of iron. Fair amount of iron in green leafy vegetables is bound with oxalates and thus not entirely available.Part of the iron present in whole grain cereals, pulses, legumes and some vegetables is found to be in combination with phytic acid. Iron in this bound form is less readily absorbed in the system.
Beans, peas, soyabeans, bajra, wheat, rice bran and rice flakes are rich in iron. Spices like coriander, cuminseeds, fenugreek seeds are rich in iron. However, their contribution is not significant because of low intake.Raisins and jaggery if consumed in fair amounts can account for substantial iron intake.De-oiled coconut meal, gingelly and mustard seeds are also rich sources of iron. Potatoes contribute iron in appreciable amounts as they are consumed in plenty.
Q.28. What is Fatigue ? How it can be reduced ?
Ans. Fatigue can be defined as a feeling of extreme physical and mental tiredness. This happens with prolonged indulgence in heavy work and the resultant reduction in the capacity to work.
Physiological fatigue : Energy is stored in the form of glycogen in the body. During muscular activity, the oxygen you breathe-in combines with glycogen to give energy. The muscular activities also give rise to waste products like lactic acid and carbon dioxide. The presence of these waste materials in the blood gives rise to fatigue.This type of fatigue is called physiological fatigue. During rest or deep breathing, oxygen replaces the waste materials and the individual feels refreshed.
Psychological fatigue : One may feel exhausted even though the capacity to do the work is there. This type of fatigue often results because of boredom or frustration and is referred to as psychological fatigue. Monotonous, disinteresting and undesirable work leads to boredom fatigue. Frustration fatigue results when there is no job satisfaction and one fails to achieve the desired goals.Inexperience, mental worries, lack of motivation and appreciation often lead to disappointments and frustrations. Hence the resultant psychological fatigue.
For accomplishing the goals efficiently, one must try to reduce or eliminate fatigue. Some possible ways of reducing fatigue are listed below :
(i) Physiological fatigue can be reduced by having short periods of rest in between heavy activities. Rest periods relieve physiological fatigue. The number and duration of these periods will depend on an individual’s energy consumption. Studies have indicated that at least three-fourth of energy lost in work is recouped during the first five minutes of a rest period. Resting restores the capacity to work and one feels refreshed for doing more jobs. Your school timetable is planned keeping in mind these considerations and providing rest periods in the form of short breaks, library periods etc. (ii) Psychological fatigue can be reduced by keeping the following points in mind.
Making the work more interesting.
Having proper and well-planned place of work.
Having efficient work equipments that is in proper working condition.
Motivating workers to develop skill at work.
Making the work environment more pleasant and enjoyable.
Setting a number of small goals. Achieving one goal after the other is like moving up on the ladder to success.
Allowing a free time in daily work schedule.
Appreciating the workers and their work.
Q.29. Discuss the factor which affects the emotional development of a child.
Ans. 1. Hereditary factors : It has been seen that some similarities are found between the emotional development of parents as well as children.
2. Maturation : As the child develops mentally, he gets matured emotionally also. It has been proved through experiments by psychologists that development of emotions of the child depends upon the level of maturation the child has.
3. Training : Watson has proved that children learn through conditioning. He did an experiment on a 9 month old baby. The baby was shown a rat and in the background a loud sound was made. After some time it has seen that the baby started crying at the sight of the rat. Thus it was proved that young children’s emotions are influenced by conditioning. Through experiments, it was seen that children start getting scared of the things with which their mothers feels frightened. When the parents expresses affection he also starts responding in the same manner. If there is expression of physical love in the family, he also kisses, hugs and express love by touching.
4. Health : Children with sound health are able to control their emotions in a better way. Children who are weak remain irritable, easily excitable, emotionally unstable.
5. Intelligence : Children who are intelligent are emotionally stable. Children with low intelligence quotient are emotionally unstable.
6. Family relation : Relation of family members with each others and how they express them, affects the emotional behaviour of the child. If the behaviour of the parents is stable and they express their emotions in a subdued and balanced manner, the child will also learn to express his emotion in a balanced manner. If the parents shout in anger, show violent behaviour, the baby also adopts the same behaviour and show temper tantarums, he will throw his toys and other things in a fit of anger.Over pampering makes the child obstinate and indisciplined. Parents who are not able to give time to their children or some how don’t show any affection, their children become submissive or introvert.
7. Social env i ro nme nt : Just like family, neighbourhood school, society members exert influence on the emotional development of the child. If the environment of the society is tense and emotionally charged the child will also become emotionally unstable. If people around are emotionally stable, they express their emotions in a socially approved way. People have control over their emotions the child also imitates and follows the same pattern regarding his emotions. He will learn better control over his emotion and will always try to confirm the socially approved way of expressing his emotion.
Q.30. What should there be facilities in a creche ?
Ans. This is a type of agency which charges fees for taking care of children from morning to evening. Good creches have trained staff to deal with children. Normally children till the age of 4 years join the creche. Some ladies have made it a profession and have opened creches in their homes. Before choosing a ceche, parents should look for following facilities :
(i) Clean and well ventilated hall.
(ii) Clean and hygienic kitchen.
(iii) A small garden.
(iv) Clean toilets for children.
(v) Enough playing material for children.
(vi) Swings and facility for exercises.
(vii) Neat and clean surroundings.
(viii) Dining hall.
(ix) Facility for providing hot food in winter.
(x) One Aya on ten to fifteen children.
(xi) One trained or educated lady who can teach children in a playway method.
(xii) Teacher should inculcate good habits in them.
(xiii) Emphasis on toilet training.
(xiv) If possible once in a month visit of the doctor should be there.
(xv) Capability to deal with sudden accident and firstaid should be there.
Q.31. What are the advantages of Keeping House hold Accounts ?
1. It is easier to spend by keeping household account as it keeps one informed about the expenditure under different heads.
2. Accounting helps in avoiding disputes regarding payments. Shopkeeper cannot cheat in any way of the purchases are made on credit. One is aware of the goods purchased, payments made and balance if any.
3. It helps in comparing like expenditure incurred in one month with that of other month. A check can be applied if the expenditure exceeds in a month than to the previous month.
4. Accounting helps in judicious spending and making savings for future incidental expenses.
5. Children develop the habit of judicious spending if they are made conscious of household accounting.
Q.32. Make a chart of the following stains and show the method of its removal ?
2. Paint Polish
4. Ball Point Pen
Cotton and Linen Clothes
1. Wash with hot water.
2. Oxalic acid or methyl alcohol solution should be used to remove the stains due to medicines.
1. Rub with kerosene and turpentine oil and wash.
2. Can be washed with sodium thiosulphate.
1. Fresh stain-wash with cold water.
2. Soak in salt solution, rub and wash.
1. Keep blotting paper under it and rub with methylated spirit.
1. Soak in oxalic acid and rub. Then wash in dil. solution of boric acid.
1. Soak in methylated spirit solution then wash with soap and water.
2. Rub glycerine, wash with soap.
Woollen, Silken and Synthetic Clothes
1. Soak in methylated spirit and wash.
1. Just like cotton clothes.
1. Wash with cold water.
2. Apply starch solution and rub.
Ball point pen
1. Like cotton clothes.
1. Like cotton clothes.
1. Silk and woollen clothes can be washed as cotton clothes.
2. Synthetics can be washed with kerosene and turpentine oil.
Q.33. Psychological properties of a small group determine its cohesion as well its equality of decision making process. Illustrate your answer.
Ans : The psychological properties of a group can be discussed in terms of the perception or cognition of group members or in terms of their motivation or satisfaction, or in terms of group goals, group organization, group interaction and interdependence of group members.
If in the group, one individual receives some impression or perception of other individual that he will act, react, or behave in particular ways then the group cohesion would be strengthened. It will also lead to a better coordination and higher acceptance of views leading to better quality decisions. Moreover, a collective perception of their unity further helps in solving problems or tackling issues.
Similarly, if the members of a group have similar motivations and goals in joining a group they may show better cohesion and better problem solving abilities.Similar motivations, same goals induces in them a sense of belongingness and a unity of purpose. This enables them to respond more enthusiastically, in a coordinated manner to solve the problems the group faces. The decision making over these problems not only gains in speed it also gains in quality.
Similarly, the nature of the role and status relationships in a group also determine the group cohesion and the group’s decision making behaviour. If these rolestatus relationships are clearly defined and delineated decisions easily be planned and executed. It brings order and regularity in the organizations. It also promotes stability and effectiveness of the group. There is clearly defined role, clearly prescribe, behaviours and junctions of the various members, the decision making could be done in a speedy and effective manner. On the other hand if there is a value role or interest conflict in a group the group, cohesiveness would be rather low and the decision making would be a tardy and ineffective.Moreover, conflicting roles and interests may lead to multiple and conflicting views in making interests may lead to multiple the process of decision making. Too many frictions in the decision making also adversely affects the quality of the decision. On the other hand common belief and values lead to combined and integrated judgement, promotes, cooperation, reduces conflict fosters participation and thereby improves the quality of decisions.
Q. 34. What are the effect of Alcohol on the man being ?
Ans. The effects of alcohol on the body can be listed as under :
(a) Alcohol is basically a drug acting directly on the nerve centres. It attacks the brain and nerves and reduces the thinking power and athletics abilities.
(b) The action of alcohol is essentially narcotic, i.e., of inducing drowsiness or insensibility. It is not a stimulant.
(c) Alcohol taken in excess may have a poisonous action and if it is taken in excess habitually, may cause a variety of diseases. It may also cause personality changes and behaviour disorders.
(d) Poisonous effect of alcohol is considerably reduced when it is taken in diluted form or with food.
(e) Alcohol has a little food or fuel value but it is insignificant as compared to its harmful drug action. It destroys vital enzymes and vitamins.
(f) Alcohol has no curative or preventive action. It has a very limited therapeutic or healing action.
(g) Alcohol slows down the Reaction Time and interferes with the Neuromuscular Coordination during activities and therefore has a negative effect on performance.
(h) Long use of alcohol causes liver damage or cirrhosis of liver.
(i) Its long use may result in inflammation of pancreas leading to fat indigestion and diabetes.
(j) It causes gastritis which can lead to gastric ulcers.
(k) It causes high blood pressure.
(l) It may lead to cancer of mouth and Oesophagus or food pipe.
Q. 35. What are the harmful effects of Smoking ?
(a) Regular and heavy smoking increases the heart rate which leads to palpitation of heart.
(b) Heavy smoking is the major factor causing lung cancer, cancer of the mouth and tongue.
(c) Smoking habit leads to chronic Bronchitis.
(d) Cigarette smoking is a leading risk factor for cancer of Oesophagus, Stomach, Pancreas and the Cervix.
(e) Cigarette smoking by pregnant women has a harmful effect on the foetus in the womb.
(f) Smoking may also cause coronary artery disease.
Q. 36. What is drug addiction ? Discuss different categories of drugs ?
Ans. Use of drugs for so called pleasure or kicks has been going on in the world since long. In India the use of “Charas”, “Ganja” and Opium, though not common was traced in the past. Opium was also consumed in China and their opium eaters were a well known lot in the past. Drugs, as the very name suggests, were used to relieve pain misery and sickness of man in the past but soon their misuse started. Today drug addiction has become a major problem of the world. The young and adolescents have become easy victims of these drugs and drug trafficking has assumed alarming proportions in the world.
Drugs are beneficial to mankind when used properly under strict medical advice but some drugs are harmful when misused or used excessively for non-medical purposes.
The drugs whose misuse can be harmful can be classified into the following four categories :
(i) Narcotics : Drugs under this category produce drowsiness, sleep and numbing effect on muscles.
Nevocaine, Codeine and Morphine are the main drugs of this group. Nevocaine is used by dentists as local anaesthesia (pain killer) for tooth extraction purposes.Morphine is also used as pain killer in cases of severe or unbearable pain. Codeine is generally used in cough syrups. These medicines when misused can lead to addiction and can also be fatal in excess doses.
(ii) Depressants/Sedatives : These ar e used for muscular relaxation and to reduce tension resulting from anxiety. This group contains Bromides and Barbiturates.Barbiturate groups of sedative drugs are derived from Barbituric Acid which is combination of Malonic Acid and Urea. These medicines can lead to coma or even death when taken in large doses.
(iii) Stimulants : Such drugs cause excitement and result in loss of sleep. The excitement is for a short time with accompanying loss of appetite. In this category come Amphetamines. Medically these are used in depression.When taken regularly can lead to addition.
(iv) Hallucinogen : Various forms of Hallucinogens are L.S.D., Heroin and “Ganja” etc. Such drugs cause hallucinations or illusions because these drugs influence one’s mental and visual faculties.
Q. 37. What are the effects of Alcohol on Sportsmen ?
Ans. Ben Weider, who was at one time the president of the International Federation of Bodybuilders had said, “Stay away from liquor if you are an athlete. Don’t drink to be smart, sociable or one of the gang, because even one drink can lead you down the road of athletic failure.” How correct are these words in the case of sportsmen, can easily be assessed from the harmful effects of alcohol which have been enumerated in this chapter earlier. Ill effects of alcohol, which have a bearing on sportsmen and their performances are :
(a) Alcohol interferes with the Neuromuscular Coordination of an athlete.
(b) It slows down the Reaction Time of a sportsman.
(c) It attacks the brain and the nerves, and reduces the thinking power.
(d) It has a negative effect on performance.
(e) Intake of alcohol increases the heart rate and forces the heart to beat forcefully for some time, but relaxes the blood vessels.
(f) It increase the respiratory rate also.
(g) It dilates the capillaries.
Because of decrease in the Neuromuscular Coordination of the muscles of a sportsman, his movements become clumsy and result in wastage of energy in exercise or play. This phenomenon can lead to his early tiring or poor performance.Slowing down of the reaction time makes a sportsman slow in reacting to various game situations and therefore proves to be a misfit in a team very often. Reduction in his thinking powers also renders a player as a misfit or a useless member of a team in various game situations.
Because of an increase in the initial heart rate and respiratory rate, a sportsman reaches the limit or the maximum of his capability early and therefore gets tired soon as compared to a non alcohol consuming player. In some extreme cases, continuation of an activity even after being tired, may lead to death because the player or sportsman may not notice the warning signals while doing an activity due to the influence of alcohol.
The dilation of capillaries, though, helpful in lowering body temperature, increases the risk of exposure to cold weather conditions.
From the above mentioned facts, we can conclude that consumption of alcohol, instead of being helpful has a negative effect on health and performance in sports activities. Thus alcohol and sportsmen do not mix. Very often sportsmen consume alcohol to show off or as members of a bad company. But this is also bad because an occasional drink can lead to habit formation after some time, and can ruin the career of a sportsman.