Q. 1. ‘One major problem of consumers is lack of information of available products.’ Elaborate this statement with the support of four examples. What are your rights in this context?
Ans : One major problem of consumer is lack of information of available products.’
(i) Label printed on the item is incomplete or inadequate.
(ii) Shopkeeper is not giving the information of all the different varieties of a product to choose from.
(iii) Product is not having any leaflets or handouts to understand about the use of product.
(iv) The information which is being given by seller is incomplete or wrong.
Our right in this context is ‘Right to be informed, it indicates the right to be given the basic information needed to make a wise choice.
Q. 2. Home Science offers a wide range of self-employment opportunities. Support this statement with one example from each of its four fields.
Ans : Home Science offers a wide range of self-employment opportunities. This statement is true and can be justified by following examples :
Food and nutrition - (i) Organising hobby classes. (ii) Supplying packed lunch box.
Child development - (i) Opening day care centre. (ii) Opening a play school.
Textile and clothing - (i) Opening a boutique
Home management - (i) Conducting classes on flower arrangement and floor decoration.
Q. 3. In what four ways does ICDS help in promoting health of children?
Ans : ICDS helps in promoting health of children in following ways :
(i) Supplement Nutrition - ICDS has started midday meal for children which is provided to them in school. It is nutrition meal made by keeping in mind the nutritional needs of children.
(ii) Immunisation - Children are immunised against all killer diseases so that they do not suffer from them.
(iii) Health check up - Children need a regular health check up so as to observe their growth and to see that they are not suffering from any illness. (iv) Nutrition and Health education - Women are educated about the nutrition and health of the children, i.e., how they have to take care of their children.
Q. 4. List four factors affecting the savings of a family.
Ans : Factors affecting the savings of a family are :-
(i) Size of family - If large family, saving will be less.
(ii) If living in joint family, one can save on rent, maids, child care etc.
(iii) If income of family is more, one can save more.
(iv) If expenditure habits are simple, one can save more.
(v) If there are more earning members in the family, there will be more saving.
Q. 5. What four points should be kept in mind while planning meals for a patient suffering from diarrhoea ?
Ans : Points to be kept in mind while planning meals for a patient suffering from diarrhoea are :-
(i) Small amount of food should be given to patient at regular intervals.
(ii) Avoid use of extremely hot and cold foods.
(iii) Fried and spicy foods should be avoided.
(iv) Avoid the use of fibrous food.
(v) More liquid should be given.
Q. 6. Trace motor development of an infant from six to nine months.
Six month — Sits easily in a chair and hold dangling moving objects.
Seven months — Ability to sit independently.
Eight months— Can get himself to sitting position and back to lying.
Nine months— Can stand holding furniture, i.e., table, chair, bed, etc. can crawl on abdomen.
Q. 7. State four unhygienic practice adopted by cook which can lead to illness in a family ?
(i) He might not wash his hands before cooking food,so germs of dirty hands may enter the food.
(ii) He might be licking the food with the spoon and then put it back into the vessel.
(iii) He might be walking into the kitchen with dirty shoes.
(iv) He might be sick and can spread sickness to the entire family.
Q. 8. What is standardization mark ? Name its various types.
Ans : Standardization marks are given by the government agencies. Government has taken various steps to determine and maintain the quality of food stuffs and other items of consumer use. Government has fixed some minimum standards. Products which confirm to these standards and found to be of good quality after certain tests are given standard mark.
Standard mark ensures the quality of the product and guarantee that the goods have been tested and found to be of good quality. FPO, ISI and AGMARK.
Q.9. What are the physical and psychological needs of the blind child studying in your school? How can school help these children to make adjustments ?
Ans : Physical Needs — Children need to be trained to do their daily routine jobs like toilet, bath, dressing and feeding, etc., orientation and mobility training for such children is a must from the early age. These children must be made familiar and comfortable with their bodies and surroundings, they live in.
Psychological Needs — Children needs to be loved to be loved to feel secure. This enables one to interact in a correct way and with confidence.
The school can help these children by making adjustment by :—
(i) Organised classes on ground floor.
(ii) Make them familiar with the school environment.
(iii) Involve them in extra curricular activities like music, declamation, craft work.
(iv) Provide vocational guidance and train them for jobs.
Q. 10. Write four checks related to workmanship which you will keep in mind while purchasing a pant.
Seams — Shoud be either french or plain finished by interlocking.
Button — Should be properly attached, button hole should be neat.
Zipper — Good quality matching colour zip should be properly attached.
Hemline — Should be finished neatly with matching coloured strong thread.
Q. 11. The immersion rod you purchased last week is out of order. What are your rights and duties as a consumer ?
Ans : Rights :
(i) Right to safety — It refers to the right to be safeguarded against items, products processes and services which are hazardous to health of life.
(ii) Right to be informed — We have the right to be given the basic information about product. Shop keeper should give us full information regarding the product.
(iii) Right to be heard — We have the right to put forth our voice and shopkeeper should listen to our grievances.
(iv) Right to redressal — It is the right to fair settlement and compensation for faulty goods and services.
(i) We should look for complete information on the goods we purchase.
(ii) Seek redressal in case of dissatisfaction.
Q. 12. Differentiate between direct and indirect income and name one source of each.
Ans : Real direct income comprises of all those commodities and facilities which are available to the family without the use of money. The sources of real direct income to family are :—
(i) Commodities and facilities provided by the skill of the family members. For example, a home maker who is stitching for the family members is adding to the total family’s income.
Real indirect income refers to the commodities and facilities which are available to a family with the use of money or in exchange of goods. This source includes the services of paid workers : For example, a company car driver increases your real indirect income.
Q. 13. Write in brief about the social development of a child between 0-3 years of age.
Ans : Age — Social Development
0-3 months — Next to nil at birth. Starts showing little interest in people around but no preferences. By three months start recognising sound. Responds by smiling.
4-6 months — They respond by gurgling, cooing, babbling when they notice someone familiar, recognise parents and siblings, wary of strangers.
7-9 months — Differentate love and scolding. Bond between the infant and the mother gets stronger during this period.
10-18 months — It claps and cries with joy. Shows interest in toys and other children. Become possessive about his things.Baby starts understanding some indication like “no”, “go there”, etc.
18 months to 3 years — Child wants undivided attention of mother. If there is younger sibling, the child may develop jealousy. Parents should take help of older child to take care of younger one so that older one doesn;t feel neglected. Slowly and gradually, they acquire accepted social relationship.
Q.14. What are the different emotions of a child between 0-2 years of age and how are they expressed ?
Ans : The different emotions of a child between 0-2 years of age are as follows :—
Age — Emotion
0-3 months — Excitement, distress, pleasure.
3-6 months — All the above plus delight, anger, fear and disgust.
6-12 months — Love and affection towards adults.
12-18 months — Shows affection towards children and sometimes feeling of jealousy also.
18-24 months — All the above plus joy.
Expression of emotions.
(i) Pleasure and Delight — When the child is well fed and dry, he expresses it by smiling. Little older children express it by clapping, jumping and making joyous sounds.
(ii) Anger — Expression of anger of a child is by throwing things, breaking things, shouting and may express by using language.
(iii) Distress — Baby is distressed when haungry or when wet. They show it by crying.
(iv) Fear — Baby expresses fear by crying, hiding behind mother or running.
(v) Jealousy — Shows its jealousy by pinching and hitting the new one. Some babies start thumb sucking and bed wetting as a reaction or insecurity. (vi) Love and Affection — By smiling, kissing and hugging their parents and beloved ones.
Q. 15. Ravi is a blind boy who is your classmet. How would you help in to adjust in the class ?
Ans : Ravi is a blind boy in our class. We can help him in many ways to adjust in the class.
Physical Needs — Special effort is needed to help him move around the school without knocking things and hurting himself. His classroom should be on ground floor.
Need for love and independence — Every child needs to be loved to feel secure. It must be recognised that total development of the child is slower when compared to a normal child. The strong bonds of love help the child take bigger leaps in the process of development so we should give proper love and affection to the child. Child should be appreciated to encourage him take up new jobs with confidence.
Educational Needs — He should start his education at the same age as normal child. He should be taught through ‘Braille’. He should be trained in music and handicraft to make self-reliant when he grows up. Programmes should be organised according to his abilities. As fellow students, we can question answer for him as a tape recorder so that he can hear and learn.
Q. 16. Briefly give the steps involved in meal planning.
Ans : The different steps involved in meal planning are:
(i) Make a list of foodstuff in different food groups available in the market in a particular season.
(ii) Select various foodstuffs according to your budget. (iii) Make an estimate of the amount to your budget.
(iv) Make an estimate of the amount of foodstuff according to the family size.
(iv) Make a plan keeping in mind the daily nutritional requirement of all members.
Q. 17. Differentiate between liquid, soft and normal diet.
(i) Liquid diet — Food taken as a drink is known as liquid diet. It is given at a time when the patient is incapable of eating and digesting the solid food. Liquid diet is of two types :—
Full liquid diet — Skimmed milk, whey water, vegetable stock, soup, fruit juices, lemon water etc.
Semi-liquid diet — Mashed thin dal, kheer, mashed khachri, strained vegetables etc.
(ii) Soft diet — As the patient starts improving, he should be shifted to a soft diet from the liquid diet. Liquidity of such a diet is in between to that of a normal and liquid diet.
Example — Mashed fruits and vetetables, rice, khichri, bread, curd, raita, cheese etc.
(iii) Normal diet — The diet given to a patient when he is capable of digesting all types of food is known as normal diet. In such cases, it is important to ensure that the given diet is fulfilling the nutritional requirements of the patient.
Q. 18. What is Alum ?
Ans : Common alum is a double salt of hydrated potassium sulphate and aluminium sulphate. It is also called potash-alum and its formula is K2SO4AI2(SO4)324H2O. System of purifing water with alum is called coagulation.
Q. 19. Give format of weekly and monthly expenditure record. And also for annual income, expenditure and savings recond.
Ans : Weekly and monthly expenditure record.
Monday / Tuesday / Wednesday / Thursday / Friday / Saturday / Sunday / Total 1st week / 2nd week / 3rd week / 4th week / Total Annual Income, Expenditure and saving record.
Income / Expenditue / Balance /Saving
Month — January / Febuary / March / April / May / June / July / August / September / October / November / December
Q. 20. Your friend wants to invest some money for the education of his children in future. Suggest him two schemes of investment. Write two advantages of each scheme.
Ans : Advantages of LIC
(i) It gives high rate of interest.
(ii) Your friend will get tax relief on the paid up premium.
Advantages of Fixed Deposit
(i) The rate of interest is higher than saving bank account.
(ii) Loan can be taken against such deposit in case of early requirement.