Q. 21. How emphasis can be created in any portion of a dress ?
Ans : There is some portion in every dress in which dominant idea is expressed. This is called emphasis. To lay emphasis, buttons, belt, lace, etc. of contrasting and dark colours may be used. Emphasis can be laid on a portion by repeated use of certain elements.
Q. 22. What difficulties are faced in the selection of clothes for old age people.
Ans : Some problems are faced regarding the clothes of old people. There is less flexibility in body so clothes should be loose and comfortable, there willl be easy movement of body parts. Eye-sight also gets weak so big buttons should be used instead of hooks. Clothes should be light and easy to wear.
Q. 23. What are the different ways of paying for your purchases ?
Ans : There are different ways of paying money for our purchases —
(i) Cash payment — It is a direct way to buying, you give the money to the salesman and get the item you have purchased. The advantage of this is that you cannot spend more than you have, you stay within your budget.
(ii) Credit cards — You may carry credit cards for your purchases and bills are debited from card holder’s account at the end of month. The advantage is that one does not have to carry cash but one tends to spend more than one’s budget.
Q. 24. What do you understand by solvent method ?
(i) Brush the garment properly before removal of stain.
(ii) Place a piece of blotting paper under the stained part of the garment.
(iii) Apply the cleansing agent on the reverse side of the stained spot.
(iv) Sponge the stain in a circular motion, starting from outer edge of the stain to the centre.
(v) Stain is absorbed by the blotting paper.
Q. 25. Your friend wants to buy coffee, jam, pickles and spices. What would be your advice to her to ensure quality of these products ? Support your answer with adequate reasons.
Ans : May friend wants to buy coffee, jam, pickles and spices. To ensure quality to these products, I would advice her to do following things :—
(i) Buy from reliable shop such as cooperative stores, super bazar, Kendriya Bhandar.
(ii) Look for standardization mark and buy items only with these marks.
Jam — FPO / Spices — AGMARK / Pickles — FPO / Coffee — ISI
(iii) Hygiene — The product should be hygienically prepared and packed and from a reputed standard company.
Buying products with standardized marks from reputed shop will ensure that you are not being cheated and products are not adulterated in any form.
Q. 26. What do you understand by adolescence ?Show the variations in development patterns in adolescence ?
Ans : Adolescence can be defined as a period of transition from childhood to adulthood. In other words, an adolescent is neither a child nor an adult. It covers individuals from 12 to 18 years of age. At the end of adolescence the individual is expected to take on self responsibility.
The span of adolescence has two phases. In the first phase, the body changes start taking place. At this time, the adolescents become aware of the physical changes they are going through. This phase spans from 12 to 15 years and forms the early adolescent period.
In the second phase, young people get accustomed to some of the body changes. They start demanding independence because of their physical maturity. The second phase covers the period from 15 to 18 years and is generally referred to as late adolescence.
There is considerable variation in development patterns among adolescents. The only way to provide a definite frame of reference for understanding various stages of life is to use arbitrary age designation, since neither the biological nor psychological maturity is achieved so precisely or all at once.
The characteristic features of adolescents differ from earlier stages because of the onset of physical and sexual growth. It must be made clear that these changes do not occur in sequence but accompany each other.
Q.27. What is Nutrition? What are its functions ?
Ans. Nutrition can be defined as “small chemical components of food capable of performing, functions related to body’s ability to work, grow, develop and maintain good health”.
Alternatively, nutrients can be defined as “chemical compounds in foods that perform one or more specific functions in the body.” These substances are proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals.
One needs energy to carry on the life process like respiration, circulation, digestion and absorption. These are involuntary functions going on in our body. Walking, playing, eating, wood craft, gardening and singing etc. are the voluntary functions. Energy is required for doing both voluntary and involuntary functions. Carbohydrates and fats are the nutrients furnishing most of the energy requirements of the body.
Body goes through constant anabolic and catabolic activities, together termed as metabolism. With activities the tissues wear out and need to be repaired. New tissues are also added on during the period of rapid growth and development. Synthesis of new tissues is very noticeable during pregnancy, adolescence and in childhood. Protein is the important nutrient responsible for the repair and maintenance and growth of new tissues in the body.
Intake of Vitamins and minerals provide protection from deficiency diseases. Vitamin A protects us from blindness while Vitamin D provides protection against rickets, osteomalacia and osteoporosis.Intake of iron and iodine protects one against anaemia and goitre.Water and roughage regulate the various body activities. Water helps in the disposal of wastes from the body. Roughage facilitates peristaltic movements to prevent constipation and also get rid of some more body waste.Food satisfies the emotional needs in an individual.One tends to eat more, when one is in a happy frame of mind and in the company of good friends.
Social and cultural events are often accompanied by refreshments and feasts shared with the friends and relatives. Refreshments bring people together and ease the general atmosphere. People tend to try out foods outside their meal patterns at social get together, thus bridging the cultural differences.
Q.28. Write a short notes on Anaemia.
Ans. Anaemia is a state in which the concentration of haemoglobin in the blood falls below the normal levels.” Various nutrients essential for normal blood levels are iron, folic acid, B12 (cynocobalamine), pyridoxine, vitamin C, protein, calcium, copper and cobalt.
The decline in the haemoglobin levels is slow and gradual and may take months to be noticed. The deficiencies will be noticed only when there is exertion.
Anaemia is more common among younger women than in men.Women/girls lose about 30 mg iron per period.
Pregnant woman loses approximately 40 mg during parturition. Lactating women provide 175mg iron in six months of breast feeding.
Symptoms of Anaemia
There is physical fatigue, lassitude (state of tiredness), breathlessness on exertion, giddiness, headache, pallor and tingling feeling in toes and finger (Paraesthesiae).Tingling sensation is marked if folic acid deficiency is also present.As anaemia progresses the patient complains of dim vision, lack of sleep (insomnia), loss of appetite (anorexia), indigestion (dyspepsia), with burning sensation and upset stomach.Anaemia can cause pain in chest (angina). It happens only during physical exertion and among older individuals.The nails become brittle, longitudinally ridged, fissured, spoon shaped and concave and the condition is called koilonychia.Involvement of nerves and mental changes is noticed in patients suffering from pernicious anaemia.Deficiency of iron among pregnant woman leads to ‘pica’, a desire to eat chalk, mud, clay, sand and slate etc.
Types of Anaemia
1. Hypochromic Microcytic Anaemia (less colour, small cell anaemia). In this case the RBCs are small and pale. It occurs due to the deficiency of iron in the body.
2. Hypochromic Macrocytic Anaemia: (less colour, big cell anaemia). The RBCs have the normal haemoglobin but the cells are big and not mature. This type of anaemia is also known as megaloblastic anaemia.This is caused due to the deficiency of folic acid and cynocobalamine (B12). The red blood cells are large and irregular.
3. Pernicious Anaemia is caused due to the absence of “intrinsic factor” present in the stomach. It is needed for the absorption of dietary B12. Anaemia patients improve with liberal intake of quality food.
Recommended Dietary Allowances
All young girls and women in their productive years of life are prone to anaemia (due to menstruation and repeated pregnancies).
Adult man requires 28mg/day, where as the adult and lactating women have an iron requirement of 30mg/ day. The requirements go up to 38mg/day during pregnancy. Iron needs of children between 10-15 years range between 19-34 mg/day. Adolescent boys and girls need 50 mg and 30 mg of iron respectively”.
Q.29. How do you expand space by furniture management ?
Ans. Keep only the necessary furniture in a room.
Two small sofas look better than four chairs.
Two small seating units place together occupy less space.
Big pieces of furniture should be placed against the wall.
Folding and light furniture should be used whenever possible.
In one roomed apartment, two beds may look bulky.
Instead, a sleek double bed with cushions will look better.
Try to achieve balance in the room. No one side should look heavier or lighter than the other.
Low lying furniture when arranged in a room gives the feeling of spaciousness.
Use of multipurpose furniture like sofacum bed, built in furniture like folding study table, extendable dining table and box beds etc. provides space advantage.
Now-a-days modular furniture is also available. we can use such furniture to have a sleek look and promote better organisation.
Q.30. What is congnitive development of a child ?Discuss different stages of it.
Ans. The cognitive development of a child means the development of his various mental processes and capabilities by which he understands and adjusts with his environment.
The cognitive development starts with his capacity to differentiate.
According to Jean Pragel, the psychologist has described the four stage of cognitive development :
1. Sensory Motor stage : During this stage the child receives stimulus from his environment through his sense organs. He does some natural activities and during the repetition of such activities suddenly he learn a new activity, This activity he repeats again and it becomes the part of his behaviour. Child does these activities e.g., while moving his limbs suddenly his thumb goes into his mouth automatically and he starts enjoying thumb sucking. He repeats this activity again and again. He learns to differentiate. He learns to discriminate between the mother’s breast and the soother. This happens due to the development of his understanding. He continuously receives various kinds of stimuli and with the help of his sense organs and motor abilities interacts with his environment. One year old child learns to overcome obstacles in order to reach his goals. e.g., if he wants to reach at the other end of the room and a table is put as an obstruction he will pass through under the table. 18 months old baby can reach the container of biscuit by standing on the chair if the mother is not around. He can find out his hidden toys. 2 years old becomes more active and is able to recognise symbols. e.g. while watching T.V advertisements he immediately recognises the product. By observing + sign he will recognise it to be a ‘Doctor’ or ‘Hospital’.
2. Pre-operational stage (2 to 7 years) : During this stage, the child gathers experiences and continuously interact with the environment. These experiences form images in the mind of the child. He starts recognising symbols and tries to perceive their meanings. His memory start developing and he becomes imaginative. He is impressed by the imaginary characters of stories and imagines himself like them. He is lost in his imaginary world and toys. He holds a stick like a sword and acts as a king Girls act like their mother by wearing her ‘Duppatta’ or ‘Saree’. She understands the meaning of many symbols.
By observing the sign of ‘+’ understand about hospital.
When mother gets ready, he understands that she is going out of the house. He guesses the weight of object by size.
He is self-centred during this stage.
3. The concrete operational stage (7 to 11 years) : At this stage, the child becomes quit intelligent and worldly wise. He comes out of his imaginary world and is more realistic now. He is able to reason out and make judgement.
He goes to school and learns to cope up with many situations with the help of his reasoning power. Power of differentiation and analysis also start developing. He makes use of his abilities for his friends and their group activities. e.g., any responsibility if given to him by the teacher in school, he is able to carry out well though he needs guidance.
4. The formal operation stage (11 to 16 years) : During this stage intelligence, understanding and other mental capabilities are almost developed. Child is able to analyse the situations. He has foresight and reasoning capacity. He can take advantage of other’s experiences.
He understands symbols, riddles, similes, poems and their meanings.
Cognitive development of a child : One month old child is able to know the difference between mother’s breast and the soother. He rejects the soother when he is hungry.
Q.31. How time, energy and money can be saved by meal planning ?
Ans. Once meals are planned for a day or a week, a list of foods should be prepared then all the items are procured at a time, avoiding unnecessary trips to the market thus saving time, energy and money.
Foods can be purchased at reasonable prices if their rates are compared at different shops or these are procured from wholesale dealers. Items purchased at the last moment in a hurry always cost more.
Foods in a bigger pack cost less but it should be purchased only when there is proper provision for its storage.Shopping should be made at times when the markets are not very crowded.Kitchen items should be arranged systematically near the work place so as to avoid fatigue while working in the kitchen.Time and labour saving kitchen devices like mixi, fridge, cooker, solar cooker etc. should be used.Meal planning helps in pre-preparation of food, e.g., if Rajma is to be cooked for lunch; these can be soaked over-night. Soaked grains are easy to cook and saves time and fuel.
Q.32. What are the advantages of a bank account ?
1. There is no possibility of theft of the money kept in a bank.
2. Bank pays interest on deposits whereas the money kept at home fetches no interest.
3. A person spends economically in order to deposit maximum amount in the bank.
4. One can avail the facility of bank locker by having a bank account. Valuables likes jewellery, share certificates, other important documents etc. can be kept safely in the locker.
5. Transaction of money from different places is possible through bank.
6. Small amounts deposited at regular intervals becomes a considerable amount after sometime. This money can be invested in business etc.
Q.33. How do you prepare soap ? (250 Words) 15
Ans. Cold Method : This is a common household method of soap making. This method is not time consuming.
1. 250 gm of caustic soda
2. 4 large cups of water
3. 1 kg of coconut oil
4. 250 gm of grm flour
5. A wooden or earthen big bowl
6. Wooden spoon
1. Dissolve caustic soda in water thoroughly.
2. Keep it for 4 hours undisturbed.
3. Add gram flour in coconut oil.
4. Mix both the solutions. Heat is produced in mixing and the process of saponification starts.
5. After sometime, this mixture is transferred in moulds and allowed to solidify.
6. After solidification, cut it into cakes and allow it to dry in air.
(b) Hot Method : This method is used in making soaps in bulk.
1. Fats; oils and alkalies are purified.
2. Fats, animal or vegetables are melted in a large pan.
3. A dilute solution of caustic soda is added gradually and mixture is boiled by passing steam direction in the pan.
4. By the method of saporlification the soap is formed on the upper surface. Glycerine and other impurities are deposited at the bottom.
5. After removal of the contents from the upper surface, the remaining solution is eated after adding water.
6. Some more caustic soda is added.
7. This mixture is boiled with steam after adding brine solution to it.
8. It is kept a such for sometime.
Four layers are formed, the upper most layer is made up of lather, second layer of soap. It is separated with the help of pipes after adding colour and flavour. It is, then, changed into different forms like cakes, powder etc.
Q. 34. What are the Psycho-Social factors behind drug addiction? Suggest a rehabilitation programme for the drug addicts.
Ans : Drug addiction refers to the phenomenon of drug abuse. Drug addiction implies primarily three things : psychological, dependence on the drug, physical dependence on the Drug, and increased tolerance for the drug.
Drug addiction has multiple etiology. Biological, psychosocial and socio cultural factors interest with each other to produce a drug addict. However, the recent research has shown that psychosocial factors play the most important role in drug addiction. Wingrad (1980) found that drug addicts are more rebellious, unconventional, impulsive have high need for thrill, selfseeking and low self-control. He points out that their rebellious and impulsive behavior is an outgrowth of an improper child rearing practices during the initial years of one’s life. Such children usually experience rigid discipline in the homes and any violations of this discipline were followed by severe punishment from the parent. Such child-rearing which promotes too much of restriction makes him engage in prohibitive activities to overcome the parental fear and excessive authoritarianism. They exhibit a reaction formation against the rigid parental discipline. Often, drug addicts also complain of being unloved and uncared. In such a situation, they resort to drug abuse to overcome feelings of dejection and disaffection. And once they start doing it, Bandura (1977) points out, a pattern of need arousal and need reduction mechanism gets set up which reinforces as well as sustains his drug abusive behaviour.
For rehabilitating drug addicts, a three-fold strategy need to be adoped, viz., early detection, preventive measures and direct action. Apart from this they should also be given psychosocial therapy. Their feelings of helplessness, lack of love should be helped to overcome by family members. They should also not be looked down upon. They need adequate social support also.
Q. 35. What are the Effects of obesity on the Health of an Individual ?
Ans. Individual health is affected due to obesity both (1) Physiologically and (2) Psychologically.
(1) Physiological effects : Obesity is not only a manifestation of malnutrition but a disease in itself. It is detrimental to health and is the cause of increased incidence of disease and death. Medical data and research proves that obesity is the main cause or risk factor for the following disorders : 1. Diabetes
2. Gall bladder disease
3. Varicose Veins
4. Abdominal hernia
5. Osteo-arthritis of the knees, hips and lumbar spine
6. Lowered fertility among women
8. Cardiac ailments
9. Kidney disorders
10. Respiratory disorders
(2) Psychological effects : Psychologically obesity can have serious effects on one’s social and personal life because an obese person has to bear unpleasant adjectives that can affect his behaviour and personality. An obese person has difficulty in adjusting with other healthy and fit persons and therefore may develop strained relations with them. An obese person may develop :
(a) The habit of remaining aloof.
(b) Low self-esteem
Keeping in view the above mentioned facts, the following points should be kept in mind while choosing the diet contents :
(i) Fibre content should be increased in diet.
(ii) Energy rich goods such as cheesy pizzas, simple carbohydrates and fats should be reduced.
(iii) The energy content of food should not be more than necessary.