Q. 1. Write four points that you would consider while planning meals for a person suffering from diarrhoea.
Ans : Points to be considered while planning a diet for a diarrhoea patient are :
(i) Small amount of food should be given to patient at regular intervals.
(ii) Fried and spicy foods should be avoided.
(iii) Avoid the use of fibrous foods.
(iv) More liquids should be given.
Q. 2. Give four reasons to your brother for keeping a record of his daily expenses.
Ans : Four reasons for keeping a record a daily expenses are :
(i) It helps in the reduction of wasteful expenditure.
(ii) They help in keeping a check on spending behavior.
(iii) Maintaining household accounts facilitates the achievement of family goals.
(iv) By maintaining record, one gets the idea about money availability and expenditure requirement.
(v) It is easier to maintain balance between income and expenditure.
Q. 3. Define adulteration. Specify two health hazards of consuming metanil yellow.
Ans : Adulteration is lowering the quality of food by adding cheap/ inferior substances to it or by removing and important part of it or by the presence of harmful substances in the food.
Health hazard of consuming Metanil yellow are :
(i) It causes degeneration of r eproductive organs causing sterility, stomach trouble etc.
(ii) It is harmful for bones, eyes, skin and lungs.
(iii) It also cause mental retardation.
Q. 4. Write two standard marks given to food items and two advantages of giving them.
Ans : Standardization Marks - F.P.O., Agmark.
Advantages of standard marks :-
(i) They ensure quality of products.
(ii) Certifies industrial products.
(iii) Circulates information regarding standardization.
(iv) Gives assistance in production of quality products.
Q. 5. Present two examples each to show how meal planning is influenced by season and occasion.
Ans : Meal planning is influenced by season and occasion.
(i) The appetite is at the low level during summer season. So planning is done accordingly. One tends to take in more fluids during summer to keep the body cool.
(ii) On the other hand, one plans more energy giving foods during winter season to maintain body temperature.
(i) Occasion of Marriage makes the person plan more rich and heavy food.
(ii) During festivals also, one plans more lavish and rich food.
Q. 6. Give four reasons why Mrs. Verma prefers to leave her two year old child in creche and not with her ten year old daughter.
(i) Her daugh ter is not mature to look after th e younger sibling.
(ii) Her studies will be affected because she will remain absent from school.
(iii) She can not attend to any emergency in absence of her parents.
(iv) She will not be able to feed the child or attend to the child needs properly.
Q. 7. List four conditions when apine apple tin can be declared adulterated by PFA ?
(i) If it contains rotten pineapple.
(ii) If it contains unpermitted colours or excess of permitted colours.
(iii) If it contains unpermitted preservatives or excess of permitted preservatives.
(iv) If the tin chemically reacts with the food and makes it poisonous.
Q. 8. Elaborate at least three points in favour of the saying ‘saving is essential for safe future’.
(i) Fulfilling Family Needs —As the family is expanding, their needs increase. Money has to be saved to buy property, car, higher education, etc.
(ii) Meeting Emergencies —Emergencies are unpredictable and can finish off the major chunk of one’s saving. One amy find it difficult to face such emergencies if he is not in a habit of savings.
(iii) Secured old Age —Savings are very important for a secure future. The capacity to work hard and earn more money is synonymous with young age. The ability to struggle also reduces such insecurities often encourage people to save for securing the future.
Q. 9. List six points you will check in a dress to ensure quality while purchasing it.
(i) Dress should have good appearance.
(ii) It should be comfortable to wear.
(iii) Colour should not fade.
(iv) It should be wrinkle free.
(v) It should be durable and long lasting.
(vi) Fabric of the dress should be smooth.
Q. 10. Explain with example the principles of meal planning.
Ans : Principles of meal planning are :—
(i) Nutritional needs — The protein requirements are high among growing children hence they should be given sufficient amount of proteins. The calorie requirements are high among active adolescent boys and girls, athletes and labourers, thus, require more of energy giving foods.
(ii) Personal likes and dislikes — The meals planned for any individual or group should take preferences. As far as possible, their should be no compromise of nutritional needs on account of personal preferences.
(iii) Serving attractive meals — A well planned meal should be appealing to eyes. An attractive served meal creates and intense desire to eat it.
(iv) Planning nutritional meals in their family budget — Food is expensive hence should be served according to the budget. Serve seasonal foods as they are cheaper.
(v) Good food combinations — It enables one to plan balanced meal for the family. E.g., Pulses are good sources of protein but when cooked in combination with green leafy vegetables improves considerable iron and minerals content.
(vi) Using left over food — It is important to incorporate left over food to make a new dish. Thus,monotony of eating similar food and wastage is avoided. (vii) Saving time, energy and fuel — Planning of meals saves unnecessary trips to the market, thus, saving time, energy and fuel.
Q. 11. Give one influence, each of purchasing power of family, availability of food and age of the individual on planning of meals.
Purchasing Power — Food should be selected according to family’s economic status. Those who cannot afford expensive food should plan alternative foods which are low cost.
Food Availability — Only those food items should be planned which are available in particular season.
Age — The composition, consistency and quantity of food is affected with age. Infants feed on milk and liquids.
Older people consume simple food with less oil and spices.
Q. 12. What points will you consider while selecting a dress for your mother, to be worn at home, while working?
(i) It should be comfortable and soothing materaial like cotton should be used.
(ii) Material should be durable and long lasting.
(iii) Dress should allow free movement of body.
(iv) The dress should be easy to wash and maintain.
(v) It should not be very expensive as it is to be worn at home only.
Q. 13. You want to purchase a readymade salwar kameez for your sister. Write three parts and two details of each you will check before purchase.
(i) Cutting — It should be cut according to size and physique. It should be according to the design to be stitched.
(ii) Stitching — Seams should be of even size. There should be enough allowance for alteration. Matching thread should be used for stitching.
(iii) Finishing — Plain seams should be finished with interlocking. Embroidery should be done with fast colour thread and strong thread.
Q. 14. What are the dharacteristics of emotional development ?
Ans : Characteristics of children’s emotions are :—
(i) Emotions of children are short lived.
(ii) Emotions of children change quickly — they cry at one moment and start smiling at the same moment.
(iii) Emotions of children are intense — the child feels intensely sad on loosing a toy or not getting food when hungry.
(iv) Children show their physical gesture freely during emotional state — they can hit or bite if feeling jealous of their sibling.
(v) Emotions of children appear frequently — they do not have control on their emotions.
(vi) Individual difference is found in children’s emotional behaviour — some children when experience fear hide themselves behind their mother whereas some will start crying.
(vii) Intensity of children’s emotions changes with age — some emotions are subdued whereas some get intensified.
Q. 15. How can we help partially blind children ?
Ans : We can help partially blind children in the following ways :—
(i) Parents and other people should have sympathetic attitude towards such children.
(ii) Children should be allowed to sit in front row of the class.
(iii) Books with big print and desk with proper light are of considerable help to the children.
(iv) The board should be green/grey instead of black.
(v) Use of unglazed paper and use of soft black pencils improve the visibility for such children.
(vi) Help the child move around the school; help him walk up and down the stairs.
Q. 16. Renu wants to bring variety in meals. Suggest her some ways of doing this.
Ans : Variety in food is must so that all the members may enjoy their food. Variety in meals can be brought by the following method :
(i) Selection of food from different food groups.
(ii) Variety in colour combination and texture — Blending of different colours make food attractive. Example : Urad whole dal, Dum alloo, Onion tomato salad, raita, mint chutney and rice enhances appetite.
Texture in food refers to its state being soft, solid, crisp or liquid. A meal won’t be enjoyable if all the food are of the same texture.
(iii) Variety in taste and flavour — All the tastes like salty, sour, sweet adds novelty to food. Blending of different flavours is also essential for a good meal planning. Example : Bread with butter, Pakora with mint chutney.
(iv) Variety in method of cooking — Texture, taste and flavour of food can be changed by using different methods of cooking. Example : Potato can be served in different forms like chips, raita, cutlets, halwa, etc.
Q. 17. Name of nutrients whose requirement increases during diarrhoea. How can these be compensated ?
Ans : Maintaining nutritional status is a big problem in diarrhoea :—
(i) Energy — Considerable loss of energy demands sufficient intake of calories. It can be met by consuming simply cooked foods like suji kheer, etc.
(ii) Proteins — A large portion of protein consumed is lost in the faeces. The patient should be given protein foods that are easy to digest such as curd, moong dal, dal soup, skimmed milk, etc.
(iii) Vitamins and Minerals — Deficiency of water soluble vitamin in the body is caused by the loss of water. Hence, fruit juices should be included in the diet. Loss of minerals like sodium and potassium leads to deficiency disease. Its loss can be met by giving fruit juices to the patient after adding salt.
Q. 18. What do you mean by the purchase of hygienic goods ?
Ans : The purchase of hygienic goods depend on the cleanliness of the shop and the storage of food products.
These should be purchased only from reliable and recognized shops. Don’t purchase food stuffs if their colour, taste, flavour etc are slightly different from the normal. Manufacturing and expiry date should also be checked of the canned foods.
Q. 19. Differentiate between bearer cheque and crossed cheque.
Bearer cheque — In this type of cheque, name of the person or ‘Bearer’ is written. The biggest disadvantage of this type of cheque is that any person can withdraw money from the bank.
Crossed cheque — In this type of cheque, two parallel lines are drawn on the upper left side of the cheque.
This cheque cannot be encashed by anybody. There is no risk even if it is lost. It can only be deposited in the account of drawee.
Q. 20. List the problems faced by consumers.
Ans : Problems faced by consumers are :
(i) Variation in prices. (ii) Adulteration. (iii) Defective weights and measures. (iv) Hoarding of commodities. (v) Substandard quality. (vi) Inadequate of misleading labels. (vii) Customer persuation by shopkeepers. (viii) False advertisement. (ix) Delayed and inadequate consumer services.