Home Science Answer Key Set 9 (Q21-Q38) Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

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Humanities/Arts : Home Science Answer Key Set 9 (Q21-Q38) Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

The document Home Science Answer Key Set 9 (Q21-Q38) Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev is a part of the Humanities/Arts Course Home Science Class 12 Model Sample Papers.
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Q. 21. How vertical lines effect the body shape of the wearer ?
Ans :
Vertical lines help in creating illusion of height in short person. These lines stand upright and lend higher aspiration and nobility to the wearer.
Single vertical line — More slendering effect.
Narrow vertical line — Appearance of more height than the widely spread lines.

Q. 22. Which two things would you keep in mind while selecting the colour of a dress to be used for a two year old girl on a special occasion ?
Ans :
I would like to select dark and bright colour clothes or dress for a two year old girl to be worn in a party because dark colour will not get dirty soon and bright colour will look nice on the child. It will make the child look more cheerful and charming.

Q. 23. What are the qualities of readymade garment for low income group ?
Ans :

(i) It implies fair standard of workmanship, material and designs.
(ii) It is in the low price range and has few convenience features.
(iii) Lower quality buy is best for you if the item suits your need. The items is necessity and you cannot afford to spend more.

Q. 24. List your points that you will keep in mind while taking daily care of your clothing.
Ans :

(i) Clothes like shirts, pants, sarees, etc. should be put on hangers. This helps in retaining their crease.
(ii) Insecticides like odonil be kept in almirah.
(iii) Used and sweated clothes should not be hanged in the same almirah where washed clothes are kept.
(iv) Clothes should be stored out. Han dkerchiefs, socks, vests should be kept in small drawers.

Q. 25. List four elements of design which you will keep in mind while bying a dress for a three year old.
Ans :
Elements of design which I will keep in mind while buying a dress for a three year old are :
(i) Texture — It should be soft. (ii) Proportion (iii) Harmony (iv) Rhythm (v) Emphasis (vi) Colour — It should be bright colour.

Q. 26. Explain the sexual developments among the adolescence.
The physical and sexual development take place more or less at the same time. There is development of the reproductive system in both boys and girls. Onset of puberty brings about changes in the sex organs. The word puberty has been derived from the Latin word ‘Pubertas’ meaning ‘age of manhood’. This refers to the first phase of adolescence (12-15 years) or early adolescence.
Two types of changes occur during puberty. Firstly, the development of reproductive organs which are referred as primary sex characteristics. In females, there is enlargement of external and internal sex organs. Secondly the linings of uterus and vagina are strengthened. This follows with the onset of first menstruation which is known as Menarche.
In males, there is enlargement of sex organs which is accompanied with the increased testicular cell growth and growth of prostate gland. This growth is responsible for production of semen. This is followed by Nocturnal Emmission or ejaculation among adolescent boys. This is known as Spermarche.
Second type of changes are known as secondary sex characteristics. These are related to and are dependent on the development of primary sex characteristics but are not directly a part of reproductive system.
There is growth of body hair especially under the armpits and in pubic regions among adolescent boys and girls. Sweat glands become active leading to emergence of pimples or acne.
In boys, there is beginning of beard growth and more coarse body and facial hair. The voice deepens. The girl acquire a sharpel figure because of the development of breasts.

Q.27. What is Poverty Line ?
The nutritional status is directly related to the poverty line. “Poverty Line is drawn on the basis of the barest minimum desirable calorie intake. It is an imaginary line. According to the poverty line meal intake of 2100 cal/day and 2400 cal/day are consumed by urban and rural population. Nearly half of the Indian population is living below the poverty line. Very often these people are living in climatically unfavourable conditions and have low income. The resultant semistarved population suffers from morbidity, high mortality and low longevity.
It is also suggested that the total calorie intake from proteins, fats and carbohydrates should be in the ratio of 1:1:4.
Better medical facilities provided under the five year plans have led to marked decline in the incidence of suffering or morbidity. Medical facilities are being provided to all expectant women. These facilities have provided Indians with longevity of life. It has also lowered the infant mortality rate. Efforts are also being made to improve per capita income, thereby reducing the incidence of poverty and hunger.

Q.28. Discuss the functions and sources of Iodine in our body ?
Ans. Functions of Iodine :
Iodin e controls the oxidation of carbohydrates and energy metabolism.It controls the functioning of the nerves. Low thyroxine levels are known to reduce the mental ability and activity.
Iodine helps in the normal growth. Individuals living in areas deficient in iodine do not grow well. They will be short and stunted. They also have relatively low lQs.
Sources of Iodine : Iodine is present in water and all foods (vegetable and animal origin) grown in the soil, rich in iodine. The soil of Maharashtra, Kulu and Kangra are deprived of this important mineral, hence these places have high incidence of goitre. Use of iodised water and salt helps in reducing the incidence of endemic goitre in these areas .
Seafoods such as fish, crabs, lobsters, prawns and sea salt are rich sources of iodine.

Q.29. How do you use colours to express personality mood and appearance of a room and to disguise in flows ?
If you are a warm person you will in all probability use red in preference to other colours. Yellow is associated with a sunny personality. Green and blue are the colour of grass, water and sky and are called cool colours.
Set the mood of a room. Use of bright colours in a room expresses warmth, vitality and vigour, friendliness, fun, frolic and lot of activity. The use of white reminds one of purity, cleanliness and peacefulness.
Change the appearance, size and proportion of the room. You can change the appearance of a long and narrow room. The room can be made to look proportionate by painting the longer walls in darker colour. A dark room can be made to appear sunny and bright by using white or light yellowwhite. A small room will appear big if you use white or off white all over it. Use of the right colour scheme can enhance the beauty of a place.
Disguise flaws : Interior decorators often use colours to disguise the architectural flaws and create beautiful interiors. Colours can be used to create focal points.Colour often creates a centre of interest. Use of red coloured floral arrangement against a white wall has a stimulating and a pleasing dims on any individual.Colour makes your home beautiful. The use of colour in accessories such as paintings, wall hangings, sculpture etc. further enhances the beauty of a place.

Q.30. What are the biological factors affecting cognitive development of a child ?
(a) Sense Organs : Sense organs are important because they receive stimuli from the environment. Their proper development helps in receiving correct stimuli and the correct concepts are formed. Defective sense organs collect defective stimuli and as a result wrong concepts can be formed and the cognitive development will not be perfect.
(b) Intelligence : It has been seen that cognitive development of intelligent children is better. Children with low Intelligence Quotient are not able to receive stimuli from the environment properly, thus their cognitive development lags behind. Intelligence affects all mental capacities.
(c) Heredity : Cog n itive developm en t is also influenced by the hereditary traits; one gets from his parents.
Their development is similar to their parent’s cognitive development.
(d) Maturation : As the child gets matured he gets more interactive with his environment. For a good cognitive development interaction with environment is very necessary which the child does with the help of his mental and motor maturation. They help directly in the development of cognition.

Q.31. What are the economic factors affecting meal planning ?
. The amount and kind of food for a family depends on its income. With the decrease in income percentage expenditure on food increases and hence more careful efforts are required to plan meal. Society can be divided into three categories on the basis of income i.e. – lower, middle and high income groups.
With the increase in income choice in selecting foods can be ‘wider for seasonal or non-seasonal, procured locally or from far off places. But people belonging to lower income group can’t afford costly foods such as milk, meat, fruits etc. to their diet. Therefore, it is desirable to adopt such measures as may provide nutritious food at a low cost. Some such measures are as follows :
(i) Use more of less expensive foods like cereals.
Low cost cereals like ragi, jowar, bajra, etc. can be used more in place of rice and wheat.
(ii) Use jaggery in place of sugar.
(iii) Seasonal and locally produced fruits and vegetables should be used.
(iv) To enhance nutritive value, methods like sprouting, fermentation and combination foods (cereal + pulse combination - khichari) should be used.
(v) Methods like pressure cooking should be used to retain nutritive value of foods.
(vi) Cheap nuts like groundnuts can be used.
(vii) By utilising left-overs properly.

Q.32. How special crossed cheques are beneficial ?
Such cheques are more secure. These are of three type:
(i) By writing only ‘Payee A/c’ or “Not Negotiable” in between the parallel lines, the cheque can deposited only in the account of the drawee and not in any other person’s account.
(ii) By writing the name of the bank in the parallel lines, the cheque can only be deposited in the bank which is mentioned in the lines. Such cheques can be transferred in favour of some other person.
(iii) By writing “A/c Payee or Not Negotiable” along with the banks name, in between the parallel lines, the drawee can only deposit the cheque in his account and in the same bank only. Such cheques cannot be deposited in any other account or in any other bank. Such cheques are the safest.

Q.33. How do you make detergent ?
Detergents are made of vegetable oils by chemical reactions.
1. Synthetic chemicals are used in it.
2. These are put in a reactor kettle and stirred continuously. There is an equipment in the little for stirring.Kettle gets heated quickly in this reaction. It is then snowed to cool.
3. Now concentrated sulphuric acid is added to this solution. On mixing, heat is produced. Now it is allowed to cool.
4. The solution is of dark colour. Alkaline like caustic sod or caustic potash is added to it.
5. After mixing thoroughly, it is sprayed in a tower and allowed to dry. Now the detergent is left as dry powder.
6. This dry powder is packed on boxes or polythene bags.

Q.34. Prepare a Sample Menu of a Day’s Diet for a Pregnant Lady


Meal Time







1. Early

(i) Tea 1 cup Milk, Sugar



(ii) Biscuits 4 Maida,Sugar, Ghee, Egg.


2. Break-

(i) Apple





(ii) Omelette


Egg, Ghee


(iii) Bread

2 slice

Bread, Butter


and Butter


(iv) Milk

1 glass

Milk, Sugar.


3. Mid

(i) Carrot

1 glass

Carrot, Tomato



Tomato juice


4. Lunch

(i) Sambhar


Arhar dal, Cabbage,



Peas, Carrot,




(ii) Raita

1 katori

Potato, Curd


(iii) Salad

1 plate



Radish, Salad leaves


(iv) Rice

1 plate



5. Evening

(i) Sprouted Moong 1 plate Sprouted moong,



Tomato, Onion Chaat


Green Chillies


(ii) Rasgullah


Paneer, Sugar


(iii) Tea

1 cup

Milk, Sugar


6. Dinner

(i) Mutter 1 katori Peas,Paneer,Onion,






(ii) Potato

1 katori

Potato, Spinach,




Onion, Tomato






(iii) Chapaties


Wheat flour


(iv) Salad

1 small

Cabbage, Radis plate Carrot, Lemon


(v) Fruit

1 katori

Milk, Banana,




Orange, Sugar


7. Bed  Time

Almond milk 1 glass Milk, Sugar, Almonds

7 Almonds



Q.35. What are the basic psychological problems of the adolescents in the home and school situations? Suggest measures for the proper adjustment of the adolescents both in homes and schools.
Ans :
Adolescence, says the famous psychologist Hall, is a period of storm and stress. He pointed out that it is an upheaval which disrupts the peaceful growth process of the individual. It begins with the onset of puberty i.e. when an individual starts moving in the direction of sexual growth and development. It is marked by the development of primary as well as secondary sexual characteristics. It ends with the full sexual growth of the individual. The whole development activity during this stage is carried out primarily by the sex hormones.
The beginning of adolescence marks the beginning of a process when an individual starts defining himself.
This is referred to as the ‘search of identity’. If the adolescent does not find himself able to successfully resolve his search for identity, he may suffer from an identity crisis. Sometimes adolescents who suffer from identity crisis may take to adolescence conies, youth culture, drug abuse, etc.
Adolescence also brings in a situation of role stress and role conflict for the individual. The adolescent is required to play the role of a boy as well as of an adult.
Facing up to some adult psychological problems may bring undue stress upon him. This may lead to the feelings of guilt, loss of interest in various activities, sleep problems and even suicidal thoughts on part of the adolescence.
Adolescence also sees the rise of the tendency for self assertion and independence in the student. If the teacher demands too much of a student, he may either become a rebel or may retaliate against the teacher.
Sometimes the adolescent may find the school activities as too boring and may engage himself in some destructive activities. He may move towards drug abuse, alcoholism, and gang culture, etc.
For making proper adjustments in schools and homes, the adolescent needs to develop adequate self control and a sense of maturity. The parents and teachers should help them in resolving their identity crisis successfully so that there remains no fear of their going deviant. If they decide their future aims and goals they will start working constructively in particular directions. They also need to make a realistic appraisal of life stresses and should develop proper understanding of their role during the adolescence. They should, therefore, overcome any sort of role stress or role conflict.

Q. 36. What do you understand by Environment ?What are the safe components of it ?
Life and environment are inter-dependent. The plant and animal life is effected by various environmental factors and in turn they modify their environment in various ways. The word “environment” means to “encircle or surround”. Any thing that surrounds us forms our environment. The plants, animals, air, water and land all forms our environment.
According to S.C. Kewdeigh : “The environment is the sum total of physical and biotic conditions influencing the responses of the organism,.” Environment is further divided into two parts.
1. External Environment : What ever surrounds the individual constitutes external environment. This includes air, water, soil, sun radiations, plants deserts, rocks, building etc.
2. Internal environment : Internal environment consists of individual body, his internal systems and their functions.
The body maintains balance between the external and the internal environment, but some times the state of balance is disturbed due to the environmental disturbances and pollution.
Components of the environment
The environment has two types of components
1. Biotic components
2. Abiotic components
1. Biotic components : It includes living beings including human beings.
2. Abiotic components : It includes all non-living things around the organism.
These two components have an effect on each other.There is interdependence between plants and animals and an interchange of materials takes place between them.Thus a tree provide food and oxygen to animals. The animals on the other hand supply CO2 for photosynthesis to green plants. Dead plants, animals and their execrations serve as food the saprophytic fungi and bacteria and in this process they are converted into organic humus components of soil. Due to further decomposition of organic matter, elements like calcium, potassium, CO2, Nitrogen, phosphorus are released and returned to soil and serve as nutrients to plants. The biological community and non living environment thus interact with each other and an exchange of materials takes place between them.
Scope of Environment
Environment means each and every thing outside the person which influences in any way directly or indirectly the life of the man. It includes all external forces or influences considered together i.e. light, temperature, organism etc. Closely related to the concept of the environment is habitat by it is meant, the particular place in which the man grows and live e.g. in cities, in cold climate, in polluted areas etc. Although all factors taken together to determine the growth and development in certain areas.

Q. 37. Write Short notes on Work Place Environment.
Every person is engaged in some occupation to earn a good living. There are many occupations and have different environmental conditions. The work place environment has great effect on the health of the individuals. These conditions at working places have great effect on the health of the worker. The field of work place environment is very vast. It is not confirmed to industrial environment only but also over small scale industries, agriculture and other small occupations also because of the complexity of life and rapid progress in different fields new work places are replacing old ones along with the increase of such professions the importance of occupational health is also increasing. The work place environment is divided into following categories.
1. Physical environment : Physical environment includes excessive or very low temperature, inadequate lighting or excessive light and effect of poisonous gases, radiations, poor ventilation etc. These environmental factor have a serious effect on worker’s health and are mainly due to wrong planning and other architectural defects. Some of the important area of the physical environment are explained below.
(a) Lighting : Sufficient lighting through windows and doors, artificial light and other provisions should be provided. Poor lighting often causes eye strain, headache, corneal congestion and damage to eye sight.
(b) Ventilation : Adequate ventilation should be provided to remove impure and injurious gases produced during working. This is necessary of preventing workers for inhaling injurious substances through gases. The buildings should have sufficient ventilators so that fresh air can enter the buildings.
(c) Drinking water : Clean and pure drinking water is needed for better functions of the body. So water should be provided at work place, water should be boiled or chemically purified before drinking.
(d) Cleanliness : Premises and surroundings of work place should be kept clean. Dirt and waste material should be removed regularly. Antiseptic like phenyl etc. and deodourants should be used to clean. Vacum cleaner should be used in computer labs etc.
(e) Working space : Working place should not be overcrowded because it will cause risk of injuries, respiratory infections, fatigue and disturbance in working.
(f) Sanitation : There should be good sanitation facilities at the work place. There should be cleaned and disinfected urinals separately for males and females available in the premises.

Q. 38. Discuss briefly the social and psychological environment.
Like family work place also exerts great influence on its members since its members live with other members of the group. In some ways influence of work place on its members is more powerful than that of a family. These influences are more profoundly because community sentiments are enriched by traditions, customs and institutions. Community feelings are developed by socialization process itself by education, through orders and authority, by social favours or disfavours, until these become habits and form grounds of community loyalty and convictions.
Some occupations do not provide for healthy relationships between workers. Such occupations are often boring and monotomous. A worker who is not socially adjusted may face depressions, tension, anxiety and insecurity. The cause may be due to introvert nature, lack of confidence and poor human relationship.
Efforts therefore, should be made to make working conditions attractive and conducive to develop healthy social environment among the workers.
Psychological environment : Certain work places exert a tremendous psychological pressure on workers.
Occupations responsible for such a situation are those where the worker develops some sort of inferiority complex as a consequence of his occupation. These can cause mental illness. Proper remedial steps are needed in such a situation. Circumstances arousing emotions in a worker are those that collide with his pride in himself or with his expectations. In such a case, life can become a mess and tensions may develop if proper reconciliatory steps are not taken. Tensions if allowed to persist can lead to development of escapism, alcoholism, drug addiction and even running away from home. In these cases they need sympathy help and guidance.

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