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# Horizontal alignment III Notes | EduRev

## : Horizontal alignment III Notes | EduRev

``` Page 1

CHAPTER 16. HORIZONTAL ALIGNMENT III NPTEL May 3, 2007
Chapter 16
Horizontal alignment III
16.1 Overview
In this section we will deal with the design of transition curves and setback distances. Transition curve ensures
a smooth change from straight road to circular curves. Setback distance looks in for safety at circular curves
taking into consideration the sight distance aspects. A short note on curve resistance is also included.
16.2 Horizontal Transition Curves
Transition curve is provided to change the horizontal alignment from straight to circular curve gradually and
has a radius which decreases from innity at the straight end (tangent point) to the desired radius of the circular
curve at the other end (curve point) There are ve objectives for providing transition curve and are given below:
1. to introduce gradually the centrifugal force between the tangent point and the beginning of the circular
curve, avoiding sudden jerk on the vehicle.This increases the comfort of passengers.
2. to enable the driver turn the steering gradually for his own comfort and security,
3. to provide gradual introduction of super elevation, and
4. to provide gradual introduction of extra widening.
5. to enhance the aesthetic appearance of the road.
16.2.1 Type of transition curve
Dierent types of transition curves are spiral or clothoid, cubic parabola, and Lemniscate. IRC recommends
spiral as the transition curve because:
1. it fullls the requirement of an ideal transition curve, that is;
(a) rate of change or centrifugal acceleration is consistent (smooth) and
(b) radius of the transition curve is1 at the straight edge and changes to R at the curve point (L
s
/
1
R
)
and calculation and eld implementation is very easy.
16.2.2 Length of transition curve
The length of the transition curve should be determined as the maximum of the following three criteria: rate
of change of centrifugal acceleration, rate of change of superelevation, and an empirical formula given by IRC.
Introduction to Transportation Engineering 16.1 Tom V. Mathew and K V Krishna Rao
Page 2

CHAPTER 16. HORIZONTAL ALIGNMENT III NPTEL May 3, 2007
Chapter 16
Horizontal alignment III
16.1 Overview
In this section we will deal with the design of transition curves and setback distances. Transition curve ensures
a smooth change from straight road to circular curves. Setback distance looks in for safety at circular curves
taking into consideration the sight distance aspects. A short note on curve resistance is also included.
16.2 Horizontal Transition Curves
Transition curve is provided to change the horizontal alignment from straight to circular curve gradually and
has a radius which decreases from innity at the straight end (tangent point) to the desired radius of the circular
curve at the other end (curve point) There are ve objectives for providing transition curve and are given below:
1. to introduce gradually the centrifugal force between the tangent point and the beginning of the circular
curve, avoiding sudden jerk on the vehicle.This increases the comfort of passengers.
2. to enable the driver turn the steering gradually for his own comfort and security,
3. to provide gradual introduction of super elevation, and
4. to provide gradual introduction of extra widening.
5. to enhance the aesthetic appearance of the road.
16.2.1 Type of transition curve
Dierent types of transition curves are spiral or clothoid, cubic parabola, and Lemniscate. IRC recommends
spiral as the transition curve because:
1. it fullls the requirement of an ideal transition curve, that is;
(a) rate of change or centrifugal acceleration is consistent (smooth) and
(b) radius of the transition curve is1 at the straight edge and changes to R at the curve point (L
s
/
1
R
)
and calculation and eld implementation is very easy.
16.2.2 Length of transition curve
The length of the transition curve should be determined as the maximum of the following three criteria: rate
of change of centrifugal acceleration, rate of change of superelevation, and an empirical formula given by IRC.
Introduction to Transportation Engineering 16.1 Tom V. Mathew and K V Krishna Rao
CHAPTER 16. HORIZONTAL ALIGNMENT III NPTEL May 3, 2007
1. Rate of change of centrifugal acceleration
At the tangent point, radius is innity and hence centrifugal acceleration is zero. At the end of the transition,
the radius R has minimum value R. The rate of change of centrifugal acceleration should be adopted such that
the design should not cause discomfort to the drivers. If c is the rate of change of centrifugal acceleration, it
can be written as:
c =
v
2
R
0
t
;
=
v
2
R
L s
v
;
=
v
3
L
s
R
:
Therefore, the length of the transition curve L
s1
in m is
L
s1
=
v
3
cR
; (16.1)
where c is the rate of change of centrifugal acceleration given by an empirical formula suggested by by IRC as
below:
c =
80
75 + 3:6v
; (16.2)
subject to :
c
min
= 0:5;
c
max
= 0:8:
2. Rate of introduction of super-elevation
Raise (E) of the outer edge with respect to inner edge is given by E = eB = e(W + W
e
). The rate of change
of this raise from 0 to E is achieved gradually with a gradient of 1 in N over the length of the transition curve
(typical range of N is 60-150). Therefore, the length of the transition curve L
s2
is:
L
s2
= Ne(W + W
e
) (16.3)
3. By empirical formula
IRC suggest the length of the transition curve is minimum for a plain and rolling terrain:
L
s3
=
35v
2
R
(16.4)
and for steep and hilly terrain is:
L
s3
=
12:96v
2
R
(16.5)
and the shift s as:
s =
L
2
s
24R
(16.6)
The length of the transition curve L
s
is the maximum of equations 16.1, 16.3 and 16.4or16.5, i.e.
L
s
= Max : (L
s1
; L
s2
; L
s3
) (16.7)
Introduction to Transportation Engineering 16.2 Tom V. Mathew and K V Krishna Rao
Page 3

CHAPTER 16. HORIZONTAL ALIGNMENT III NPTEL May 3, 2007
Chapter 16
Horizontal alignment III
16.1 Overview
In this section we will deal with the design of transition curves and setback distances. Transition curve ensures
a smooth change from straight road to circular curves. Setback distance looks in for safety at circular curves
taking into consideration the sight distance aspects. A short note on curve resistance is also included.
16.2 Horizontal Transition Curves
Transition curve is provided to change the horizontal alignment from straight to circular curve gradually and
has a radius which decreases from innity at the straight end (tangent point) to the desired radius of the circular
curve at the other end (curve point) There are ve objectives for providing transition curve and are given below:
1. to introduce gradually the centrifugal force between the tangent point and the beginning of the circular
curve, avoiding sudden jerk on the vehicle.This increases the comfort of passengers.
2. to enable the driver turn the steering gradually for his own comfort and security,
3. to provide gradual introduction of super elevation, and
4. to provide gradual introduction of extra widening.
5. to enhance the aesthetic appearance of the road.
16.2.1 Type of transition curve
Dierent types of transition curves are spiral or clothoid, cubic parabola, and Lemniscate. IRC recommends
spiral as the transition curve because:
1. it fullls the requirement of an ideal transition curve, that is;
(a) rate of change or centrifugal acceleration is consistent (smooth) and
(b) radius of the transition curve is1 at the straight edge and changes to R at the curve point (L
s
/
1
R
)
and calculation and eld implementation is very easy.
16.2.2 Length of transition curve
The length of the transition curve should be determined as the maximum of the following three criteria: rate
of change of centrifugal acceleration, rate of change of superelevation, and an empirical formula given by IRC.
Introduction to Transportation Engineering 16.1 Tom V. Mathew and K V Krishna Rao
CHAPTER 16. HORIZONTAL ALIGNMENT III NPTEL May 3, 2007
1. Rate of change of centrifugal acceleration
At the tangent point, radius is innity and hence centrifugal acceleration is zero. At the end of the transition,
the radius R has minimum value R. The rate of change of centrifugal acceleration should be adopted such that
the design should not cause discomfort to the drivers. If c is the rate of change of centrifugal acceleration, it
can be written as:
c =
v
2
R
0
t
;
=
v
2
R
L s
v
;
=
v
3
L
s
R
:
Therefore, the length of the transition curve L
s1
in m is
L
s1
=
v
3
cR
; (16.1)
where c is the rate of change of centrifugal acceleration given by an empirical formula suggested by by IRC as
below:
c =
80
75 + 3:6v
; (16.2)
subject to :
c
min
= 0:5;
c
max
= 0:8:
2. Rate of introduction of super-elevation
Raise (E) of the outer edge with respect to inner edge is given by E = eB = e(W + W
e
). The rate of change
of this raise from 0 to E is achieved gradually with a gradient of 1 in N over the length of the transition curve
(typical range of N is 60-150). Therefore, the length of the transition curve L
s2
is:
L
s2
= Ne(W + W
e
) (16.3)
3. By empirical formula
IRC suggest the length of the transition curve is minimum for a plain and rolling terrain:
L
s3
=
35v
2
R
(16.4)
and for steep and hilly terrain is:
L
s3
=
12:96v
2
R
(16.5)
and the shift s as:
s =
L
2
s
24R
(16.6)
The length of the transition curve L
s
is the maximum of equations 16.1, 16.3 and 16.4or16.5, i.e.
L
s
= Max : (L
s1
; L
s2
; L
s3
) (16.7)
Introduction to Transportation Engineering 16.2 Tom V. Mathew and K V Krishna Rao
CHAPTER 16. HORIZONTAL ALIGNMENT III NPTEL May 3, 2007
16.3 Setback Distance
Setback distance m or the clearance distance is the distance required from the centerline of a horizontal curve
to an obstruction on the inner side of the curve to provide adequate sight distance at a horizontal curve. The
setback distance depends on:
1. sight distance (OSD, ISD and OSD),
2. radius of the curve, and
3. length of the curve.
Case (a) L
s
< L
c
=
s
R
=
180s
R
degrees
=2 =
180s
2R
degrees (16.8)
Therefore,
m = R R cos


2

(16.9)
For multi lane roads, if d is the distance between centerline of the road and the centerline of the inner lane, then
m = R (R d) cos

180s
2(R d)

(16.10)
m = R R cos


2

(16.11)
Case (b) L
s
> L
c
For single lane:
m
1
= R R cos(=2)
m
2
=
(S L
c
)
2
sin(=2)
The set back is the sum of m
1
and m
2
given by:
m = R R cos(=2) +
(S L
c
)
2
sin(=2) (16.12)
where

2
=
180L c
2R

2
=
180L c
2(Rd)
, and m is given by
m = R (R d) cos(=2) +
(S L
c
)
2
sin(=2) (16.13)
Introduction to Transportation Engineering 16.3 Tom V. Mathew and K V Krishna Rao
Page 4

CHAPTER 16. HORIZONTAL ALIGNMENT III NPTEL May 3, 2007
Chapter 16
Horizontal alignment III
16.1 Overview
In this section we will deal with the design of transition curves and setback distances. Transition curve ensures
a smooth change from straight road to circular curves. Setback distance looks in for safety at circular curves
taking into consideration the sight distance aspects. A short note on curve resistance is also included.
16.2 Horizontal Transition Curves
Transition curve is provided to change the horizontal alignment from straight to circular curve gradually and
has a radius which decreases from innity at the straight end (tangent point) to the desired radius of the circular
curve at the other end (curve point) There are ve objectives for providing transition curve and are given below:
1. to introduce gradually the centrifugal force between the tangent point and the beginning of the circular
curve, avoiding sudden jerk on the vehicle.This increases the comfort of passengers.
2. to enable the driver turn the steering gradually for his own comfort and security,
3. to provide gradual introduction of super elevation, and
4. to provide gradual introduction of extra widening.
5. to enhance the aesthetic appearance of the road.
16.2.1 Type of transition curve
Dierent types of transition curves are spiral or clothoid, cubic parabola, and Lemniscate. IRC recommends
spiral as the transition curve because:
1. it fullls the requirement of an ideal transition curve, that is;
(a) rate of change or centrifugal acceleration is consistent (smooth) and
(b) radius of the transition curve is1 at the straight edge and changes to R at the curve point (L
s
/
1
R
)
and calculation and eld implementation is very easy.
16.2.2 Length of transition curve
The length of the transition curve should be determined as the maximum of the following three criteria: rate
of change of centrifugal acceleration, rate of change of superelevation, and an empirical formula given by IRC.
Introduction to Transportation Engineering 16.1 Tom V. Mathew and K V Krishna Rao
CHAPTER 16. HORIZONTAL ALIGNMENT III NPTEL May 3, 2007
1. Rate of change of centrifugal acceleration
At the tangent point, radius is innity and hence centrifugal acceleration is zero. At the end of the transition,
the radius R has minimum value R. The rate of change of centrifugal acceleration should be adopted such that
the design should not cause discomfort to the drivers. If c is the rate of change of centrifugal acceleration, it
can be written as:
c =
v
2
R
0
t
;
=
v
2
R
L s
v
;
=
v
3
L
s
R
:
Therefore, the length of the transition curve L
s1
in m is
L
s1
=
v
3
cR
; (16.1)
where c is the rate of change of centrifugal acceleration given by an empirical formula suggested by by IRC as
below:
c =
80
75 + 3:6v
; (16.2)
subject to :
c
min
= 0:5;
c
max
= 0:8:
2. Rate of introduction of super-elevation
Raise (E) of the outer edge with respect to inner edge is given by E = eB = e(W + W
e
). The rate of change
of this raise from 0 to E is achieved gradually with a gradient of 1 in N over the length of the transition curve
(typical range of N is 60-150). Therefore, the length of the transition curve L
s2
is:
L
s2
= Ne(W + W
e
) (16.3)
3. By empirical formula
IRC suggest the length of the transition curve is minimum for a plain and rolling terrain:
L
s3
=
35v
2
R
(16.4)
and for steep and hilly terrain is:
L
s3
=
12:96v
2
R
(16.5)
and the shift s as:
s =
L
2
s
24R
(16.6)
The length of the transition curve L
s
is the maximum of equations 16.1, 16.3 and 16.4or16.5, i.e.
L
s
= Max : (L
s1
; L
s2
; L
s3
) (16.7)
Introduction to Transportation Engineering 16.2 Tom V. Mathew and K V Krishna Rao
CHAPTER 16. HORIZONTAL ALIGNMENT III NPTEL May 3, 2007
16.3 Setback Distance
Setback distance m or the clearance distance is the distance required from the centerline of a horizontal curve
to an obstruction on the inner side of the curve to provide adequate sight distance at a horizontal curve. The
setback distance depends on:
1. sight distance (OSD, ISD and OSD),
2. radius of the curve, and
3. length of the curve.
Case (a) L
s
< L
c
=
s
R
=
180s
R
degrees
=2 =
180s
2R
degrees (16.8)
Therefore,
m = R R cos


2

(16.9)
For multi lane roads, if d is the distance between centerline of the road and the centerline of the inner lane, then
m = R (R d) cos

180s
2(R d)

(16.10)
m = R R cos


2

(16.11)
Case (b) L
s
> L
c
For single lane:
m
1
= R R cos(=2)
m
2
=
(S L
c
)
2
sin(=2)
The set back is the sum of m
1
and m
2
given by:
m = R R cos(=2) +
(S L
c
)
2
sin(=2) (16.12)
where

2
=
180L c
2R

2
=
180L c
2(Rd)
, and m is given by
m = R (R d) cos(=2) +
(S L
c
)
2
sin(=2) (16.13)
Introduction to Transportation Engineering 16.3 Tom V. Mathew and K V Krishna Rao
CHAPTER 16. HORIZONTAL ALIGNMENT III NPTEL May 3, 2007
a/2
R R
SD
A
C
m
B
D
Figure 16:1: Set-back for single lane roads (L
s
< L
c
)
m’ m
d
line of sight
R
centre line
of inner lane
2
Figure 16:2: Set-back for multi-lane roads (L
s
< L
c
)
Introduction to Transportation Engineering 16.4 Tom V. Mathew and K V Krishna Rao
Page 5

CHAPTER 16. HORIZONTAL ALIGNMENT III NPTEL May 3, 2007
Chapter 16
Horizontal alignment III
16.1 Overview
In this section we will deal with the design of transition curves and setback distances. Transition curve ensures
a smooth change from straight road to circular curves. Setback distance looks in for safety at circular curves
taking into consideration the sight distance aspects. A short note on curve resistance is also included.
16.2 Horizontal Transition Curves
Transition curve is provided to change the horizontal alignment from straight to circular curve gradually and
has a radius which decreases from innity at the straight end (tangent point) to the desired radius of the circular
curve at the other end (curve point) There are ve objectives for providing transition curve and are given below:
1. to introduce gradually the centrifugal force between the tangent point and the beginning of the circular
curve, avoiding sudden jerk on the vehicle.This increases the comfort of passengers.
2. to enable the driver turn the steering gradually for his own comfort and security,
3. to provide gradual introduction of super elevation, and
4. to provide gradual introduction of extra widening.
5. to enhance the aesthetic appearance of the road.
16.2.1 Type of transition curve
Dierent types of transition curves are spiral or clothoid, cubic parabola, and Lemniscate. IRC recommends
spiral as the transition curve because:
1. it fullls the requirement of an ideal transition curve, that is;
(a) rate of change or centrifugal acceleration is consistent (smooth) and
(b) radius of the transition curve is1 at the straight edge and changes to R at the curve point (L
s
/
1
R
)
and calculation and eld implementation is very easy.
16.2.2 Length of transition curve
The length of the transition curve should be determined as the maximum of the following three criteria: rate
of change of centrifugal acceleration, rate of change of superelevation, and an empirical formula given by IRC.
Introduction to Transportation Engineering 16.1 Tom V. Mathew and K V Krishna Rao
CHAPTER 16. HORIZONTAL ALIGNMENT III NPTEL May 3, 2007
1. Rate of change of centrifugal acceleration
At the tangent point, radius is innity and hence centrifugal acceleration is zero. At the end of the transition,
the radius R has minimum value R. The rate of change of centrifugal acceleration should be adopted such that
the design should not cause discomfort to the drivers. If c is the rate of change of centrifugal acceleration, it
can be written as:
c =
v
2
R
0
t
;
=
v
2
R
L s
v
;
=
v
3
L
s
R
:
Therefore, the length of the transition curve L
s1
in m is
L
s1
=
v
3
cR
; (16.1)
where c is the rate of change of centrifugal acceleration given by an empirical formula suggested by by IRC as
below:
c =
80
75 + 3:6v
; (16.2)
subject to :
c
min
= 0:5;
c
max
= 0:8:
2. Rate of introduction of super-elevation
Raise (E) of the outer edge with respect to inner edge is given by E = eB = e(W + W
e
). The rate of change
of this raise from 0 to E is achieved gradually with a gradient of 1 in N over the length of the transition curve
(typical range of N is 60-150). Therefore, the length of the transition curve L
s2
is:
L
s2
= Ne(W + W
e
) (16.3)
3. By empirical formula
IRC suggest the length of the transition curve is minimum for a plain and rolling terrain:
L
s3
=
35v
2
R
(16.4)
and for steep and hilly terrain is:
L
s3
=
12:96v
2
R
(16.5)
and the shift s as:
s =
L
2
s
24R
(16.6)
The length of the transition curve L
s
is the maximum of equations 16.1, 16.3 and 16.4or16.5, i.e.
L
s
= Max : (L
s1
; L
s2
; L
s3
) (16.7)
Introduction to Transportation Engineering 16.2 Tom V. Mathew and K V Krishna Rao
CHAPTER 16. HORIZONTAL ALIGNMENT III NPTEL May 3, 2007
16.3 Setback Distance
Setback distance m or the clearance distance is the distance required from the centerline of a horizontal curve
to an obstruction on the inner side of the curve to provide adequate sight distance at a horizontal curve. The
setback distance depends on:
1. sight distance (OSD, ISD and OSD),
2. radius of the curve, and
3. length of the curve.
Case (a) L
s
< L
c
=
s
R
=
180s
R
degrees
=2 =
180s
2R
degrees (16.8)
Therefore,
m = R R cos


2

(16.9)
For multi lane roads, if d is the distance between centerline of the road and the centerline of the inner lane, then
m = R (R d) cos

180s
2(R d)

(16.10)
m = R R cos


2

(16.11)
Case (b) L
s
> L
c
For single lane:
m
1
= R R cos(=2)
m
2
=
(S L
c
)
2
sin(=2)
The set back is the sum of m
1
and m
2
given by:
m = R R cos(=2) +
(S L
c
)
2
sin(=2) (16.12)
where

2
=
180L c
2R

2
=
180L c
2(Rd)
, and m is given by
m = R (R d) cos(=2) +
(S L
c
)
2
sin(=2) (16.13)
Introduction to Transportation Engineering 16.3 Tom V. Mathew and K V Krishna Rao
CHAPTER 16. HORIZONTAL ALIGNMENT III NPTEL May 3, 2007
a/2
R R
SD
A
C
m
B
D
Figure 16:1: Set-back for single lane roads (L
s
< L
c
)
m’ m
d
line of sight
R
centre line
of inner lane
2
Figure 16:2: Set-back for multi-lane roads (L
s
< L
c
)
Introduction to Transportation Engineering 16.4 Tom V. Mathew and K V Krishna Rao
CHAPTER 16. HORIZONTAL ALIGNMENT III NPTEL May 3, 2007
(S-L)/2
L
(S-L)/2
R
m1
m2
=2
=2
Figure 16:3: Set back for single lane roads (L
s
< L
c
)

Tcos
P
T
C
D
B A
S Q
Figure 16:4: Curve resistance
16.4 Curve Resistance
When the vehicle negotiates a horizontal curve, the direction of rotation of the front and the r ear wheels are
dierent. The front wheels are turned to move the vehicle along the curve, whereas the rear wheels seldom turn.
This is illustrated in gure 16:4. The rear wheels exert a tractive force T in the PQ direction . The tractive
force available on the front wheels is Tcos in the PS direction as shown in the gure 16:4. This is less than the
actual tractive force, T applied. Hence, the loss of tractive force for a vehicle to negotiate a horizontal curve is:
CR = T T cos (16.14)
16.5 Summary
Transition curves are introduced between straight road and circular curve. Setback distance controls alignment
around obstacles at intersections and curves. Vehicles negotiating a curve are subjected to tractive resistances
due to the curvature.
Introduction to Transportation Engineering 16.5 Tom V. Mathew and K V Krishna Rao
```
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