How does the kidney work? What controls the rate andconcentration of urine? MBBS Notes | EduRev

MBBS : How does the kidney work? What controls the rate andconcentration of urine? MBBS Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


How does the kidney work? 
What controls the rate and 
concentration of urine? 
Review nephron in kidney 
Steps in urine formation and 
concentration 
Glomerular filtration 
Reabsorption 
Tubular secretion 
 
Page 2


How does the kidney work? 
What controls the rate and 
concentration of urine? 
Review nephron in kidney 
Steps in urine formation and 
concentration 
Glomerular filtration 
Reabsorption 
Tubular secretion 
 
Nephron is functional unit of kidney 
Over 1 million nephrons in human 
kidney 
Glomerulus is filtration site in cortex 
Tubules form loop of Henle, extending 
a few centimeters into medulla 
Reabsorption and secretion in tubules 
Page 3


How does the kidney work? 
What controls the rate and 
concentration of urine? 
Review nephron in kidney 
Steps in urine formation and 
concentration 
Glomerular filtration 
Reabsorption 
Tubular secretion 
 
Nephron is functional unit of kidney 
Over 1 million nephrons in human 
kidney 
Glomerulus is filtration site in cortex 
Tubules form loop of Henle, extending 
a few centimeters into medulla 
Reabsorption and secretion in tubules 
More realistic view of nephrons 
 
Page 4


How does the kidney work? 
What controls the rate and 
concentration of urine? 
Review nephron in kidney 
Steps in urine formation and 
concentration 
Glomerular filtration 
Reabsorption 
Tubular secretion 
 
Nephron is functional unit of kidney 
Over 1 million nephrons in human 
kidney 
Glomerulus is filtration site in cortex 
Tubules form loop of Henle, extending 
a few centimeters into medulla 
Reabsorption and secretion in tubules 
More realistic view of nephrons 
 
Filtration at Glomerulus 
Filtration membrane formed 
by podocyte cells lets all of 
plasma components of 
blood filter out of glomerular 
capillaries and into proximal 
convoluted tubule 
Page 5


How does the kidney work? 
What controls the rate and 
concentration of urine? 
Review nephron in kidney 
Steps in urine formation and 
concentration 
Glomerular filtration 
Reabsorption 
Tubular secretion 
 
Nephron is functional unit of kidney 
Over 1 million nephrons in human 
kidney 
Glomerulus is filtration site in cortex 
Tubules form loop of Henle, extending 
a few centimeters into medulla 
Reabsorption and secretion in tubules 
More realistic view of nephrons 
 
Filtration at Glomerulus 
Filtration membrane formed 
by podocyte cells lets all of 
plasma components of 
blood filter out of glomerular 
capillaries and into proximal 
convoluted tubule 
What happens to filtrate to make urine? 
Filtrate contains all non-protein and non-cellular 
parts of blood 
Water 
Dissolved ions 
Dissolved glucose 
Amino acids 
Nitrogenous wastes (nitrites, urea) 
No proteins 
No cells 
Production of urine and thus control of blood 
chemistry involves three processes 
Control over glomerular filtration rate (how fast is blood 
plasma filtering out of blood into tubules of kidney 
Subsequent movement of fluid and dissolved substances 
out of filtrate and back into blood by reabsorption  
Tubular secretion or further removal of certain substances 
from blood 
 
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