Human Geography Class 12 Notes | EduRev

Class 12 : Human Geography Class 12 Notes | EduRev

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Geography- The description of the earth.


  • Physical geography: Geography as an earth science. Study the pattern and processes of the natural environment.Biogeography/ climatology and meteorology/ coastal geography/ environmental management/ geomorphology/ hydrography and hydrology/ pedology/ oceanography etc.
  • Human geography: Study the pattern and processes that shape the human society. Inter-relationship between physical and socio-cultural environment. Social geography/ cultural geography/ development geography/ economic geography/ political geography and geopolitics/ population geography/ transportation geography/ urban geography.

Dualism: Two aspects of a single subject. Two views in geography. Though nature and human are inseparable elements and should be seen holistically.

Metaphors: ‘Face’ of the earth, ‘eye’ of the storm, ‘mouth’ of the river, ‘snout’ of the glacier etc.

Nature of Human Geography: Studies the inter-relationship between the physical environment and socio-cultural environment created by human beings. Physical environment has been modified by human beings and in turn, impacted on human lives.

Naturalisation of Human and Humanisation of Nature: Human can develop technologies after they developed a better understanding of natural laws.

Environmental Determinism: Ellsworth Huntington

The culture of any place can be determined by physical environment. ‘Naturalised human’.

Ex: Central part of Africa- very hot, very few resources, less economic development

Environmental Possibilism: Vidal-de-la-Blach

Culture is determined by social condition.

Ex: Japan

Neo-determinism: Griffith Taylor, Stop and go determinism. Middle path.

Possibility can be created within the limit without the damaged of the environment. Sustainable development.

Development of Human Geography: Late 15th century. The Age of Discovery.

Various schools of thought:

  • Welfare or Humanistic School: The Social well-being of the people such as housing, health, and education.
  • Radical School: Marxian theory to explain the basic cause of poverty, deprivation, and social inequality.
  • Behavioural School: Perception of space by social categories based on ethnicity, race, and religion.
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