ICAI Notes of Ch 4 - Inventories (Part - 2) CA Foundation Notes | EduRev

Fundamentals of Accounting for CA CPT

CA Foundation : ICAI Notes of Ch 4 - Inventories (Part - 2) CA Foundation Notes | EduRev

The document ICAI Notes of Ch 4 - Inventories (Part - 2) CA Foundation Notes | EduRev is a part of the CA Foundation Course Fundamentals of Accounting for CA CPT.
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4. TECHNIQUES OF INVENTORY VALUATION

4.1 HISTORICAL COST METHODS

Under historical cost methods, cost of goods refers to the historical cost of acquisition of goods. It is the value of resources required to obtain the inventory in its present condition and includes “cost of purchase and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories up to their present location and condition”. 

 The purchase price including duties and taxes (other than those which are subsequently recoverable by the enterprise from the taxing authorities), freight inwards and other expenditure directly attributable to the acquisition of goods. Trade discounts, rebates, duty drawbacks and other similar items are deducted in determining the costs of purchase. 

 Other costs are included in the cost of inventories only to the extent that they are incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. While determining cost of inventories, certain costs are excluded and recognised as expenses in the period in which they are incurred. Examples are: (i) costs arising due to abnormal amount of wasted materials, labour or other production costs, and (ii) storage costs are excluded in calculation of cost of inventories unless these costs are necessary in the production process prior to a further production stage, (iii) administrative overheads that do not contribute to bring the inventories to their present location and condition; and (iv) selling and distribution costs. Interest and other borrowing costs are usually considered as not relating to bringing the inventories to their present location and condition and are, therefore, usually not included in the cost of inventories.

There is no unique formula for determination of historical cost of inventories. The different techniques for valuation of inventory have been discussed below:

(i) Specific Identification Method

Pricing under this method is based on actual physical flow of goods. It attributes specific costs to identified goods and requires keeping different lots purchased separately to identify the lot out of which units in inventories are left. The historical costs of such specific purpose inventories may be determined on the basis of their specific purchase price or production cost.

This method is generally used to ascertain the cost of inventories of items that are not ordinarily interchangeable, otherwise it requires the use of FIFO (First in first out) or weighted overage price/average price formula.

(ii) FIFO (First in first out) Method

The actual issue of goods is usually from the earliest lot on hand. The inventory of goods on hand therefore, consists of the latest consignments. Thus, the closing inventory is valued at the price paid for such consignments.

Now, let us take an example to understand the application of FIFO method.

illustration 1 

A manufacturer has the following record of purchases of a condenser, which he uses while manufacturing radio sets:

DateQuantity (units)Price per unit
Dec. 49005.00
Dec. 104005.50
Dec. 113005.50
Dec. 192006.00
Dec. 288004.75
 2,600 


1,600 units were issued during the month of December. 

Solution

The closing inventory is 1,000 units and would consist of -

  800 units received on 28th December; and
  200 units received on 19th December as per FIFO

                                                                                           Rs.

  The value of 800 units @ Rs 4.75                                    3,800
  The value of 200 units @ Rs 6.00                                    1,200
  Total                                                                                   5,000

(iii) LIFO(Last in first out) Method

Though actual issues are made out of the earliest lot on hand to prevent unnecessary deterioration in value, it is sometimes assumed that the issue to be valued is to be according to the price paid for the latest consignments on hand. The closing inventory then is assumed to consist of earlier consignments and its value is then calculated according to such consignments. This method of valuing inventories is known as LIFO basis. Under this basis, goods issued are valued at the price paid for the latest lot of goods on hand which means inventory of goods in hand is valued at price paid for the earlier lot of goods. In the absence of details of issue, the price paid for the earliest consignments is used for valuing closing inventory.

LIFO method is based on an irrational assumption that inventories entering last in the stores are issued or consumed first. However, the flow of goods which is generally observed in business entities is contradictory to this assumption. Therefore, LIFO method is no longer adopted for valuing inventories. Generally, in practice, FIFO and Average Price Method are popular among the business entities.

(iv) Average Price Method

Average price for computing value of inventory is a very simple approach. (All the different prices are added together and then divided by the number of prices). The closing inventory is then valued according to the price ascertained.  

illustration 2 

In the same example of a manufacturer of radio sets given earlier, let us calculate the value of closing inventory using Average Price Method:

Record of purchases

DateQuantity (units)Price per unit
Dec. 49005.00
Dec. 104005.50
Dec. 113005.50
Dec. 192006.00
Dec. 288004.75
 2,600 


Record of issues

DateQuantity (units)
Dec. 5600
Dec. 12400
Dec. 29600
Total1,600


Solution

The simple average in this question is:

[(5.00 + 5.50 + 5.50 + 6.00 + 4.75)/5] = 26.75/5 = Rs 5.35
1,000 units valued at Rs 5.35 would be Rs 5,350.

Let us try to analyse the impact of FIFO and Average price method with the help of the following chart:

(v) Weighted Average Price Method

However, it is more logical to compute weighted average price using the quantities purchased in a lot as weights. Under weighted average price method, cost of goods available for sale during the period is aggregated and then divided by number of units available for sale during the period to calculate weighted average price per unit. Thus

Closing inventory = No. of units in inventory X Weighted average price per unit
Cost of goods sold = No. of units sold X Weighted average price per unit.

illustration 3 

On the basis of the data given in illustration 1, calculate the weighted average price and also the value of closing inventory by weighted average price method.

Solution The computation of weighted average price in the referred example is shown below:

QuantityRatePrice paid
unitsRsRs
9005.004,500
4005.502,200
3005.501,650
2006.001,200
8004.753,800
2,600Total13,350


Weighted average price = Rs 13,350/2,600

= Rs 5.135 per unit

Value of closing inventory of 1,000 units = 1,000 x Rs 5.135 = Rs 5,135

It should be noted that if a inventory ledger is maintained, recording receipts/issues daily, the average would be different. A new average rate would be calculated on receiving a fresh consignment. Answer on that basis would be as under:

 Date                          Receipts                                        issues                              Balance

Dec.

Qty.

Units

Rate

amount

Qty.

Units

Rate

amount

Qty.

Units

Rate

amount

4

900

5.00

4,500

 

 

 

900

5.00

4,500

5

 

 

 

600

5.00

3,000

300

5.00

1,500

10

400

5.50

2,200

 

 

 

700

5.28

3,700

11

300

5.50

1,650

 

 

 

1,000

5.35

5,350

12

 

 

 

400

5.35

2,140

600

5.35

3,210

19

200

6.00

1,200

 

 

 

800

5.51

4,410

28

800

4.75

3,800

 

 

 

1,600

5.13

8,210

29

 

 

 

600

5.13

3,078

1,000

5.13

5,132

4.2 NON-HISTORICAL COST METHODS

Non-historical cost methods do not consider the historical cost incurred to acquire the goods. Non- historical cost methods include Adjusted Selling Price method, Standard Cost and Latest Purchase Price method. Adjusted Selling Price method can be explained as follows:

(i) Adjusted selling price method 

This method is also called retail inventory method. It is used widely in retail business or in business where the inventory comprises of items, the individual costs of which are not readily ascertainable. The use of this method is appropriate for measuring inventories of large numbers of rapidly changing items that have similar margins and for which it is impracticable to use other costing methods. The cost of the inventory is determined by reducing from the sales value of the inventory the appropriate percentage of gross margin. The percentage used takes into consideration inventory which has been marked below its original selling price. An average percentage for each retail department is often used. The calculation of the estimated gross margin of profit may be made for individual items or groups of items or by departments, as may be appropriate to the circumstances.

illustration 4

M/s X, Y and Z are in retail business, following information are obtained from their records for the year ended 31st March, 2011:

Goods received from suppliers

(subject to trade discount and taxes)                             Rs 15,75,500

Trade discount 3% and sales tax 11%

Packaging and transportation charges                          Rs 87,500

Sales during the year                                                    Rs 22,45,500

Sales price of closing inventories                                  Rs 2,35,000

Find out the historical cost of inventories using adjusted selling price method.

Solution 

Determination of cost of purchases:

Goods received from suppliers

 

Rs 15,75,500

Less : Trade discount 3%

 

(Rs 47,265)

 

 

Rs 15,28,235

Add: Sales Tax 11%

 

Rs 1,68,106

 

 

Rs 16,96,341

Add: Packaging and transportation charges

 

Rs 87,500

 

 

Rs 17,83,841

Determination of estimated gross profit margin:

 

 

Sales during the year

 

Rs 22,45,500

Closing inventory at the selling price

 

Rs 2,35,000

 

 

Rs 24,80,500

Less: Purchases

 

(Rs 17,83,841)

Gross profit

 

Rs 6,96,659

Gross profit margin

 

28.09%

Inventory valuation:

 

 

Selling price of closing inventories

 

Rs 2,35,000

Less : Gross profit margin 28.09%

 

(Rs 66,012)

 

 

Rs1,68,988


illustration 5

From the following information, calculate the historical cost of inventories using adjusted selling price method:

 Rs
Sales during the year2,00,000
Cost of purchases2,00,000
Opening inventoryNil
Closing inventory at selling price50,000


Solution

Calculation of gross margin of profit:

 Rs
Sales2,00,000
Add: Closing inventory (at selling price)50,000
Selling price of goods available for sale :2,50,000
Less : Cost of goods available for sale2,00,000
Gross margin  50,000


Rate of gross margin 

Cost of closing inventory = 50,000 less 20% of Rs 50,000 =  Rs 40,000

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