Management Of Natural Resources
Resource : A source of supply held in reserve, which is useful to man or can be transformed into more valueable and useful item for mankind.
Natural resource: A Natural resource is a source obtained from nature.
Fig: Natural Rresources
Conservation of natural resources: Conservation is the management for the benefit of all life including human kind of the biosphere so that it may yeild sustainable benefit to the present generation while maintaining its potential to meet the needs and aspiration of the future generations
The three R's to save natural resources:-
Pollution in GANGA
The Ganga runs its course of over 2500 km from Gangotri in Himalayas to Ganga sagar in bay of Bengal. It is being turned into a drain by more than a hundred towns and cities in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal.
Ganga along with its tributaries is the largest and very important river basin of the country. Ganga's pollution load and the toxicity kills fish in large sections of river. It has been treated as a symbol of purity but today it is very much polluted due to following factors.
Fig: Pollution in Ganga
(i) Disposal of untreted sewage, garbage and excreta by more than a hundred towns and cities situated along the river in uttrakhand uttar pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal.
(ii) Daily Human activities like bathing, washing of clothes immersion of ashes or unburnt corpses.
(iii) Dead bodies of animals and humans
(iv) Wallowing of cattle
(v) Discharge of chemical effluents by the industries
Ganga action plan: Ganga action plan was launched in 1985 Ganga action plan is a multi crore project to clean river Ganga. To reduce domestic load on the Ganga, some of the schemes to be implemented in three states (UP, Bihar and West Bengal) through which the river runs under the Ganga Action Plan are:
(i) Interception and diversion
(ii) Treatment of waste water
(iii) River front development
(iv) Electric crematorium
(v) Construction of community toilets
(vi) Conversion of dry toilets to flush toilets
Why do we need to Manage our Resources ?
Over-exploitation and non-Judicious utlisation has become a threat to our natural resources with the phenomenal rise in human population and tremendous developement of science and technology, natural resources are being heavily exploited all over the world.
If we judiciosly distribute the resources available to us we can maintain a harmony between population growth and utilization of natural resources. So that nature can sustain for longs.
AIMS of conservation:
(i) To increase the preservation of a quality environment that have aesthetic and recreational values.
(ii) To ensure a continuous yield of useful plants, animals and materials by establishing a balanced cycle of harvest and renewal.
Forests and wild life:-
Forests are the invaluable wealth of a country and renewable natural resource. Forests constitute 90% of the global biomass.
Forests are uncultivated and inhabited land area managed for diverse purposes of forestry. Whether covered with trees, shrubs, climbers, etc or not.
Do you know ?
Importance of forest
Forests have three broad functions
Fig: Forest Functions
Deforestation:- Destruction of forest is known as deforestation. It has been estimated that forests in India have declined from about 7000, million hectares in 1900 to 2890 million hectares in 1975. It has furthur gone down to 2300 million hectares by 2000.
Tropical rain forests are most productive type of forests in the world.
Major cause of deforestation:-
(i) Growing food needs
(ii) Raw materials for industrial use
(iii) Forest fire
(iv) Damage caused by pests.
Stake holders are persons or the company that has invested in business and owns a part of it or some one who has an intrest in the success of a system or organisation.
The four stake holders of forest are:-
(a) The people who live in or around forest
(b) The forest department
(c) The industrialist
(d) The wild life and nature enthusiasts
Wild life resources
Life in any form, plant or animal, which exists in its natural habitat is called wild life.
Reasons for depletion of wild life :-
(i) Deforestation for various reasons like urbanization, cultivation dam building, road construction, establishment of industries have caused a considerable loss of wild life.
(ii) Indiscriminate hunting by man for meat skin and for sport.
(iii) Natural calamities like flood, drought, fire, epidemic have played a major role in depletion of wild life.
(iv) Cutting of plants for obtaining timber and fuel deprived wild animals their most palatable food.
Importance of wild life:-
Management and conservation of wild life:-
Preservation, protection and utilization of wild life in such a way that it is not destroyed and can be used later.
The Indian Board of wild life (IBWL) in march 1980 launched a national wild life action plan for conservationof wild life in India.
Establishment of protected areas:-
The protected areas for wild life conservation are the santuries and national parks.
What is conservation?
Conservation may be defined as the controlled utilization of natural resources for the benefit of all life so that it may yield sustainable benefit to the present generations as well as the future generations
In situ conservation:- When conservation of natural resources is done in their natural habitats, it is called in situ conservation for e.g.: National parks, wild life sanctuaries bio sphere.
Ex situ conservation:- When conservation of natural resources is done outside their habitals it is called exsitu conservation for e.g. : Botanical gardens, zoos, seed banks, pollen storage, tissue culture.
National Parks and sanctuaries
Fig: Natural Park and Sancturies
1. Jim Corbett National Park, Uttaranchal (tiger).
2. Kanha National Park, M.P. (tiger).
3. Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary, Rajasthan (winter home of migratory birds, most commonly Siberian crane).
4. Nandankanan Biological Park near Bhubaneswar (captive breeding of white tigers).
5. Simplipal Biosphere Reserve, Orissa (tigers)
6. Gir Sanctuary, Gujarat (Asiatic lion, chital, sambhar).
7. Kaziranga Sanctuary, Assam (one horned rhinoceros).
8. Sariska Sanctuary, Haryana (tiger).
9. Sultanpur Bird Sanctuary, Haryana (birds).
10. Bandipur Sanctuary, Karnataka (Indian elephant).
11. Madumalai Sanctuary, Tamil Nadu (Indian elephant).
12. National Botanical Garden, West Bengal (rare species of plants).
13. Desert National Park, Rajasthan (black buck, great Indian bustard, chinkara neelgai).