Important Definitions - Conservation of Plants & Animals Class 8 Notes | EduRev

Science Class 8

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Class 8 : Important Definitions - Conservation of Plants & Animals Class 8 Notes | EduRev

The document Important Definitions - Conservation of Plants & Animals Class 8 Notes | EduRev is a part of the Class 8 Course Science Class 8.
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1) Deforestation : The clearing of forests and using the land for other purposes is called deforestation.

 The causes for deforestation are:

 i) Procuring land for cultivation.

 ii) Building houses and factories.

iii) Using wood as fuel or making furniture etc.  The natural causes of deforestation are forest fires and draught.

2) Consequences of deforestation :

The consequences of deforestation are :

i) Increase in the temperature and pollution level on the earth.

ii) Increase in the level of carbon dioxide in the  atmosphere leading to global warming.

iii) Lowering of ground water level.

iv) Disturbs the balance in nature.

v) Decrease in rainfall leading to draught.

vi) Soil erosion and decrease in soil fertility leading to desertification.

vii) Decrease in the water holding capacity of soil leading to   floods. 

3) Conservation of forest and wildlife:

Forest and wildlife can be conserved by setting up areas like Biosphere reserves Wildlife sanctuaries, National parks, etc.

i) Biosphere reserves are large areas of protected land for conservation of biodiversity and the traditional life of the tribals living there.

ii) National parks are areas reserved for wildlife where they can freely use the habitats and natural resources.

iii) Wildlife sanctuaries are areas where animals are protected from any disturbance to them or their habitat. 

4) Biosphere Reserve:

i) Biosphere reserves are large areas of protected land for conservation of biodiversity and the traditional life of the tribals living there. 

ii) Biodiversity is the variety of plants, animals and microorganisms found in the area. The Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve consists of a National park called Satpura and two wildlife sanctuaries called Bori and Pachmarhi.  

5) Flora and fauna:  

i) Flora are the plants found in a particular area.

ii) Fauna are the animals found in a particular area. Eg: The flora of Pachmarhi consists of sal, teak, wild mango, jamun, silver ferns etc.

The fauna of Pachmarhi consists of wild dog, cheetal, wolf, leopard, blue bull, barking deer etc.

6) Endemic Species: Endemic species are those species of plants and animals found only in a particular area and not found anywhere else. Eg: Sal and wild mango are the endemic flora of  Pachmarhi. Bison, Indian giant squirrel and flying squirrel are the endemic fauna of this area

7) Wildlife Sanctuary: Wildlife sanctuaries are areas where animals are protected from any disturbance to them or their habitat. The killing or capturing of animals in wildlife sanctuary is strictly prohibited.

8) National Park are areas reserved for wildlife where they can freely use the habitats and natural resources. Eg: Satpura National Park is the first Reserve Forest in India.

9) Endangered Animals are those animals whose numbers are diminishing and might face extinction. Eg: Tiger is one of the many animals which are slowly diminishing. To protect the tigers in our country the government launched the Project Tiger to ensure the survival of tiger population.

Dinosaurs have already become extinct. Red Data Books are books which keeps a record of all endangered plants and animals. 

10) Ecosystem: An ecosystem consists of all the plants, animals and microorganisms living in an area along with the non living components like climate, water, soil etc. 

11) Migration is the movement of animals from its own habitat to some other habitat for a particular time period every year due to climatic changes or for breeding. Birds which fly very long distances to reach another land are called migratory birds.

12) Recycling of paper: About seventeen full grown trees are required to produce one tonne of paper. Paper can be recycled about five to seven times for use. We should save, reuse and recycle paper to save not only trees but also to save the energy, water and chemicals used to make paper.

13) Reforestation: Reforestation is the restocking of destroyed forests by planting new trees. We should plant at least as many trees as we cut. We have already caused a lot of damage to our forests. If we have to regain our green wealth, reforestation is the only option.

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