Important Questions : Directing Class 12 Notes | EduRev

Class 12 : Important Questions : Directing Class 12 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


 
CHAPTER -7 
DIRECTING 
CONCEPT MAPPING: 
• Concept and importance 
• Elements of Directing  
- Supervision-concept, functions of a supervisor. 
- Motivation-concept, Maslow’s hierarchy of need: Financial and non-financial 
incentives. 
- Leadership-concept, styles-authoritative, democratic and laissez faire. 
- Communication- concept, formal and informal communication; barriers to 
effective communication, how to overcome the barriers. 
 
Key Concepts in Nutshell 
• Meaning of Directing: It refers to instructing, guiding, communicating and inspiring 
people in the organisation . 
• Importance of Directing: (1). It initiates action.  (2).It integrates employees’ efforts. 
(3)It is the means of motivation. (4)It facilitates implementing changes.                                               
(5)It creates balance in the organization. 
• Elements of  Directing: (1)Supervision (2)Communication (3)Leadership 
(4)Motivation 
• Concept of Supervision: Supervision refers to monitoring the progress of work of one’s 
subordinates and guiding them properly. 
• Functions of a Supervisor:(1)Facilitates control (2)Optimum utilization of 
resources(3)Maintenance of discipline (4)Feedback (5)Improves communication 
(6)Improves motivation 
• Motivation- Motivation process of stimulating people to accomplish desired goals. It 
depends up on satisfying the needs of people. 
• Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: - According to Maslow, man does every work to satisfy 
his need. A man has various needs and their order can be determined. The needs of a 
human being serve as a motivation for him. On the basis of priority human needs can 
be divided into five parts (i) Physiological needs, (ii) Safety needs, (iii).Affiliation or 
social needs, (iv) Esteem needs and (v) Self-actualization needs. 
Page 2


 
CHAPTER -7 
DIRECTING 
CONCEPT MAPPING: 
• Concept and importance 
• Elements of Directing  
- Supervision-concept, functions of a supervisor. 
- Motivation-concept, Maslow’s hierarchy of need: Financial and non-financial 
incentives. 
- Leadership-concept, styles-authoritative, democratic and laissez faire. 
- Communication- concept, formal and informal communication; barriers to 
effective communication, how to overcome the barriers. 
 
Key Concepts in Nutshell 
• Meaning of Directing: It refers to instructing, guiding, communicating and inspiring 
people in the organisation . 
• Importance of Directing: (1). It initiates action.  (2).It integrates employees’ efforts. 
(3)It is the means of motivation. (4)It facilitates implementing changes.                                               
(5)It creates balance in the organization. 
• Elements of  Directing: (1)Supervision (2)Communication (3)Leadership 
(4)Motivation 
• Concept of Supervision: Supervision refers to monitoring the progress of work of one’s 
subordinates and guiding them properly. 
• Functions of a Supervisor:(1)Facilitates control (2)Optimum utilization of 
resources(3)Maintenance of discipline (4)Feedback (5)Improves communication 
(6)Improves motivation 
• Motivation- Motivation process of stimulating people to accomplish desired goals. It 
depends up on satisfying the needs of people. 
• Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: - According to Maslow, man does every work to satisfy 
his need. A man has various needs and their order can be determined. The needs of a 
human being serve as a motivation for him. On the basis of priority human needs can 
be divided into five parts (i) Physiological needs, (ii) Safety needs, (iii).Affiliation or 
social needs, (iv) Esteem needs and (v) Self-actualization needs. 
 
• Financial or Monetary Incentives: Financial incentives are those incentives which 
are evaluated in terms of money. These are helpful to satisfy Physiological and Safety 
Needs. It includes the following (i) Pay and allowances, (ii) Productivity-linked wage 
Incentives, (iii) Bonus, (iv) Profit sharing, (v) Co-partnership (iv) Suggestions, (vi) 
Retirement benefits, (vii) Perquisites. 
• Non-financial or Non-monetary Incentives: Non-financial incentives are not directly 
related with money. These incentives help in the satisfaction of top hierarchy needs 
like social, esteem and self-actualization. It includes the following (i).Status (ii) 
Organizational climate (iii) Career advancement opportunity (iv) Job enrichment (v) 
Employee recognition programmes (vi) Job security (vii) Employee participation (viii) 
Employee empowerment. 
• Meaning of Leadership : It refers to influence others in a manner to do what the 
leaders wants them to do. 
Leadership Styles:  
I. Autocratic Leadership Style:- 
 (a).Meaning: It refers to that leadership style in which the leader tends to run the show all by 
him-self. 
(b).Characteristics: (i) Centralized Authority, (ii) Single –man Decision, (iii) Wrong Belief 
Regarding Employee, (iv) Only Downward Communications. 
(c). Advantages: (i) Quick and Clear Decisions, (ii) Satisfactory Work, (iii) Necessary for Less 
Educated Employees. 
(d).Disadvantages: (i) Lack of Motivation, (ii) Agitation by Employees, (iii) Possibility of 
Partiality. 
II. Democratic Leadership Style :- 
(a). Meaning: It refers to that leadership style in which the leader consult with his sub 
ordinates before making any final decisions. 
(b).Characteristics: -(i)Cooperative Relations,(ii)Belief in Employees, (iii) Open 
Communication. 
(c ).Advantages : (i) High Morale, (ii)Creations of More Efficiency and Productivity, (iii) 
Availability of Sufficient Time for Constructive Work. 
(d).Disadvantages: (i) Requirement of Educated Subordinates, (ii) Delay in Decisions, (iii)Lack 
of Responsibility in Managers. 
 
III. Laissez-faire or Free-rein Leadership Style: - 
Page 3


 
CHAPTER -7 
DIRECTING 
CONCEPT MAPPING: 
• Concept and importance 
• Elements of Directing  
- Supervision-concept, functions of a supervisor. 
- Motivation-concept, Maslow’s hierarchy of need: Financial and non-financial 
incentives. 
- Leadership-concept, styles-authoritative, democratic and laissez faire. 
- Communication- concept, formal and informal communication; barriers to 
effective communication, how to overcome the barriers. 
 
Key Concepts in Nutshell 
• Meaning of Directing: It refers to instructing, guiding, communicating and inspiring 
people in the organisation . 
• Importance of Directing: (1). It initiates action.  (2).It integrates employees’ efforts. 
(3)It is the means of motivation. (4)It facilitates implementing changes.                                               
(5)It creates balance in the organization. 
• Elements of  Directing: (1)Supervision (2)Communication (3)Leadership 
(4)Motivation 
• Concept of Supervision: Supervision refers to monitoring the progress of work of one’s 
subordinates and guiding them properly. 
• Functions of a Supervisor:(1)Facilitates control (2)Optimum utilization of 
resources(3)Maintenance of discipline (4)Feedback (5)Improves communication 
(6)Improves motivation 
• Motivation- Motivation process of stimulating people to accomplish desired goals. It 
depends up on satisfying the needs of people. 
• Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: - According to Maslow, man does every work to satisfy 
his need. A man has various needs and their order can be determined. The needs of a 
human being serve as a motivation for him. On the basis of priority human needs can 
be divided into five parts (i) Physiological needs, (ii) Safety needs, (iii).Affiliation or 
social needs, (iv) Esteem needs and (v) Self-actualization needs. 
 
• Financial or Monetary Incentives: Financial incentives are those incentives which 
are evaluated in terms of money. These are helpful to satisfy Physiological and Safety 
Needs. It includes the following (i) Pay and allowances, (ii) Productivity-linked wage 
Incentives, (iii) Bonus, (iv) Profit sharing, (v) Co-partnership (iv) Suggestions, (vi) 
Retirement benefits, (vii) Perquisites. 
• Non-financial or Non-monetary Incentives: Non-financial incentives are not directly 
related with money. These incentives help in the satisfaction of top hierarchy needs 
like social, esteem and self-actualization. It includes the following (i).Status (ii) 
Organizational climate (iii) Career advancement opportunity (iv) Job enrichment (v) 
Employee recognition programmes (vi) Job security (vii) Employee participation (viii) 
Employee empowerment. 
• Meaning of Leadership : It refers to influence others in a manner to do what the 
leaders wants them to do. 
Leadership Styles:  
I. Autocratic Leadership Style:- 
 (a).Meaning: It refers to that leadership style in which the leader tends to run the show all by 
him-self. 
(b).Characteristics: (i) Centralized Authority, (ii) Single –man Decision, (iii) Wrong Belief 
Regarding Employee, (iv) Only Downward Communications. 
(c). Advantages: (i) Quick and Clear Decisions, (ii) Satisfactory Work, (iii) Necessary for Less 
Educated Employees. 
(d).Disadvantages: (i) Lack of Motivation, (ii) Agitation by Employees, (iii) Possibility of 
Partiality. 
II. Democratic Leadership Style :- 
(a). Meaning: It refers to that leadership style in which the leader consult with his sub 
ordinates before making any final decisions. 
(b).Characteristics: -(i)Cooperative Relations,(ii)Belief in Employees, (iii) Open 
Communication. 
(c ).Advantages : (i) High Morale, (ii)Creations of More Efficiency and Productivity, (iii) 
Availability of Sufficient Time for Constructive Work. 
(d).Disadvantages: (i) Requirement of Educated Subordinates, (ii) Delay in Decisions, (iii)Lack 
of Responsibility in Managers. 
 
III. Laissez-faire or Free-rein Leadership Style: - 
 
(a). Meaning : It refers to that leadership style in which the leader gives his sub ordinates 
complete freedom to make decisions. 
(b)Characteristics (i)Full faith in subordinates, (ii) Independent Decision-making system,(iii) 
Decentralisation of Authority (iv)Self-Directed Supervisory and Controlled. 
(c). Advantages.(i)Development of Self-confidence in Sub ordinates, (ii) High-level 
Motivation,(iii)Helpful in Development and Extension of the Enterprise. 
(d). Disadvantages.(i).Difficulty in Cooperation, (ii)Lack of Importance of Managerial Post, (iii) 
Suitable only for Highly Educated Employees.  
 
Communication: Communication refers to process of exchange of ideas between or among 
persons and creates understanding. Communication process involves the elements of source, 
encoding, channel, receiver, decoding and feedback. 
Formal Communications refers to all official communications in the form of orders, memos, 
appeal, notes , circular, agenda, minutes etc. 
Informal Communications are usually in the form of rumours, whispers etc. They are 
unofficial, spontaneous, unrecorded, spread very fast and usually distorted. 
Barriers may exist for effective communications. Some of these barriers include-semantic 
barriers, organizational barriers, language barriers, transmission barriers, psychological 
barriers and personal barriers. 
Manager should take appropriate measures to overcome these barriers and promote 
effective communication in the organization such as 
Improving communication effectiveness: 
 i. Clarify the ideas before communication  ii. Communicate according to the needs of receiver.  
iii. Consult others before communicating iv. Be aware of language   v. Convey things of help 
and value to listeners   vi. Ensure proper feedback vii. Communicate for present as well as 
future   viii. Follow up communications and ix. Be a good listener. 
 
KEY CONCEPT QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS 
Q1) What is meant by Directing? Explain the importance of directing?  6M 
Ans: Directing is telling people what to do and seeing that they do it to the best of their ability. 
It includes making assignment, explaining procedures, seeing their mistakes are corrected, 
providing on the job instructions and issuing orders. 
Importance of Directing: - 
1. It initiates action  
Page 4


 
CHAPTER -7 
DIRECTING 
CONCEPT MAPPING: 
• Concept and importance 
• Elements of Directing  
- Supervision-concept, functions of a supervisor. 
- Motivation-concept, Maslow’s hierarchy of need: Financial and non-financial 
incentives. 
- Leadership-concept, styles-authoritative, democratic and laissez faire. 
- Communication- concept, formal and informal communication; barriers to 
effective communication, how to overcome the barriers. 
 
Key Concepts in Nutshell 
• Meaning of Directing: It refers to instructing, guiding, communicating and inspiring 
people in the organisation . 
• Importance of Directing: (1). It initiates action.  (2).It integrates employees’ efforts. 
(3)It is the means of motivation. (4)It facilitates implementing changes.                                               
(5)It creates balance in the organization. 
• Elements of  Directing: (1)Supervision (2)Communication (3)Leadership 
(4)Motivation 
• Concept of Supervision: Supervision refers to monitoring the progress of work of one’s 
subordinates and guiding them properly. 
• Functions of a Supervisor:(1)Facilitates control (2)Optimum utilization of 
resources(3)Maintenance of discipline (4)Feedback (5)Improves communication 
(6)Improves motivation 
• Motivation- Motivation process of stimulating people to accomplish desired goals. It 
depends up on satisfying the needs of people. 
• Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: - According to Maslow, man does every work to satisfy 
his need. A man has various needs and their order can be determined. The needs of a 
human being serve as a motivation for him. On the basis of priority human needs can 
be divided into five parts (i) Physiological needs, (ii) Safety needs, (iii).Affiliation or 
social needs, (iv) Esteem needs and (v) Self-actualization needs. 
 
• Financial or Monetary Incentives: Financial incentives are those incentives which 
are evaluated in terms of money. These are helpful to satisfy Physiological and Safety 
Needs. It includes the following (i) Pay and allowances, (ii) Productivity-linked wage 
Incentives, (iii) Bonus, (iv) Profit sharing, (v) Co-partnership (iv) Suggestions, (vi) 
Retirement benefits, (vii) Perquisites. 
• Non-financial or Non-monetary Incentives: Non-financial incentives are not directly 
related with money. These incentives help in the satisfaction of top hierarchy needs 
like social, esteem and self-actualization. It includes the following (i).Status (ii) 
Organizational climate (iii) Career advancement opportunity (iv) Job enrichment (v) 
Employee recognition programmes (vi) Job security (vii) Employee participation (viii) 
Employee empowerment. 
• Meaning of Leadership : It refers to influence others in a manner to do what the 
leaders wants them to do. 
Leadership Styles:  
I. Autocratic Leadership Style:- 
 (a).Meaning: It refers to that leadership style in which the leader tends to run the show all by 
him-self. 
(b).Characteristics: (i) Centralized Authority, (ii) Single –man Decision, (iii) Wrong Belief 
Regarding Employee, (iv) Only Downward Communications. 
(c). Advantages: (i) Quick and Clear Decisions, (ii) Satisfactory Work, (iii) Necessary for Less 
Educated Employees. 
(d).Disadvantages: (i) Lack of Motivation, (ii) Agitation by Employees, (iii) Possibility of 
Partiality. 
II. Democratic Leadership Style :- 
(a). Meaning: It refers to that leadership style in which the leader consult with his sub 
ordinates before making any final decisions. 
(b).Characteristics: -(i)Cooperative Relations,(ii)Belief in Employees, (iii) Open 
Communication. 
(c ).Advantages : (i) High Morale, (ii)Creations of More Efficiency and Productivity, (iii) 
Availability of Sufficient Time for Constructive Work. 
(d).Disadvantages: (i) Requirement of Educated Subordinates, (ii) Delay in Decisions, (iii)Lack 
of Responsibility in Managers. 
 
III. Laissez-faire or Free-rein Leadership Style: - 
 
(a). Meaning : It refers to that leadership style in which the leader gives his sub ordinates 
complete freedom to make decisions. 
(b)Characteristics (i)Full faith in subordinates, (ii) Independent Decision-making system,(iii) 
Decentralisation of Authority (iv)Self-Directed Supervisory and Controlled. 
(c). Advantages.(i)Development of Self-confidence in Sub ordinates, (ii) High-level 
Motivation,(iii)Helpful in Development and Extension of the Enterprise. 
(d). Disadvantages.(i).Difficulty in Cooperation, (ii)Lack of Importance of Managerial Post, (iii) 
Suitable only for Highly Educated Employees.  
 
Communication: Communication refers to process of exchange of ideas between or among 
persons and creates understanding. Communication process involves the elements of source, 
encoding, channel, receiver, decoding and feedback. 
Formal Communications refers to all official communications in the form of orders, memos, 
appeal, notes , circular, agenda, minutes etc. 
Informal Communications are usually in the form of rumours, whispers etc. They are 
unofficial, spontaneous, unrecorded, spread very fast and usually distorted. 
Barriers may exist for effective communications. Some of these barriers include-semantic 
barriers, organizational barriers, language barriers, transmission barriers, psychological 
barriers and personal barriers. 
Manager should take appropriate measures to overcome these barriers and promote 
effective communication in the organization such as 
Improving communication effectiveness: 
 i. Clarify the ideas before communication  ii. Communicate according to the needs of receiver.  
iii. Consult others before communicating iv. Be aware of language   v. Convey things of help 
and value to listeners   vi. Ensure proper feedback vii. Communicate for present as well as 
future   viii. Follow up communications and ix. Be a good listener. 
 
KEY CONCEPT QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS 
Q1) What is meant by Directing? Explain the importance of directing?  6M 
Ans: Directing is telling people what to do and seeing that they do it to the best of their ability. 
It includes making assignment, explaining procedures, seeing their mistakes are corrected, 
providing on the job instructions and issuing orders. 
Importance of Directing: - 
1. It initiates action  
 
2 It integrates employees’ efforts  
3. It is the means of motivation  
4. It facilitates implementing changes.  
5. It creates balance in the organization 
Q2) Mention the elements of directing?       1M 
Ans:  1) supervision 2) motivation 3) leadership    4) communication 
Q3) Explain how directing is a pervasive function of management   1M 
Ans: Directing is a pervasive function as every manager from top executive to superior 
performs it. 
Q4).‘Directing is the least important function of management.’  Do you agree with this 
statement?  Give any two reasons in support of your answer.   4 M 
A:  No, I don’t agree with this statement. 
Importance of direction: Direction may be regarded as the heart of the management process. 
It is explained under the following parts: 
a).Initiates action:  All organizational activates are initiated through direction. 
b).Integrates employees’ efforts:  At all levels of management the subordinates under the 
managers.  
 Managers integrate the work of subordinates. 
c).Means of motivation :  Directing helps in motivating employees towards organizational 
goals  
Q5).“The post of supervisor should be abolished in the hierarchy of managers”.  Do you 
agree?  Give any three reasons in support of your answer.    6M 
A).No, I don’t agree,  because a supervisor performs the following functions to achieve 
organization goals. 
Functions of the supervisor:  
a).Planning the work.  The supervisor has to determine work schedule for every job.   
b).Issuing orders:  Supervisor issues orders to the workers for achieving coordination in his 
work. 
c).Providing guidance and leader ship:  The supervisor leads the workers of his department. 
d).Explains the policies and programmes of the organization to his sub ordinates and provide 
guidance 
e).Make necessary arrangement for supply of materials and ensure they are efficiently 
utilized. 
f). Deviations from the target if any are to be rectified at the earliest. 
g).  To help the personnel departments in recruitment and selection of workers. 
Page 5


 
CHAPTER -7 
DIRECTING 
CONCEPT MAPPING: 
• Concept and importance 
• Elements of Directing  
- Supervision-concept, functions of a supervisor. 
- Motivation-concept, Maslow’s hierarchy of need: Financial and non-financial 
incentives. 
- Leadership-concept, styles-authoritative, democratic and laissez faire. 
- Communication- concept, formal and informal communication; barriers to 
effective communication, how to overcome the barriers. 
 
Key Concepts in Nutshell 
• Meaning of Directing: It refers to instructing, guiding, communicating and inspiring 
people in the organisation . 
• Importance of Directing: (1). It initiates action.  (2).It integrates employees’ efforts. 
(3)It is the means of motivation. (4)It facilitates implementing changes.                                               
(5)It creates balance in the organization. 
• Elements of  Directing: (1)Supervision (2)Communication (3)Leadership 
(4)Motivation 
• Concept of Supervision: Supervision refers to monitoring the progress of work of one’s 
subordinates and guiding them properly. 
• Functions of a Supervisor:(1)Facilitates control (2)Optimum utilization of 
resources(3)Maintenance of discipline (4)Feedback (5)Improves communication 
(6)Improves motivation 
• Motivation- Motivation process of stimulating people to accomplish desired goals. It 
depends up on satisfying the needs of people. 
• Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: - According to Maslow, man does every work to satisfy 
his need. A man has various needs and their order can be determined. The needs of a 
human being serve as a motivation for him. On the basis of priority human needs can 
be divided into five parts (i) Physiological needs, (ii) Safety needs, (iii).Affiliation or 
social needs, (iv) Esteem needs and (v) Self-actualization needs. 
 
• Financial or Monetary Incentives: Financial incentives are those incentives which 
are evaluated in terms of money. These are helpful to satisfy Physiological and Safety 
Needs. It includes the following (i) Pay and allowances, (ii) Productivity-linked wage 
Incentives, (iii) Bonus, (iv) Profit sharing, (v) Co-partnership (iv) Suggestions, (vi) 
Retirement benefits, (vii) Perquisites. 
• Non-financial or Non-monetary Incentives: Non-financial incentives are not directly 
related with money. These incentives help in the satisfaction of top hierarchy needs 
like social, esteem and self-actualization. It includes the following (i).Status (ii) 
Organizational climate (iii) Career advancement opportunity (iv) Job enrichment (v) 
Employee recognition programmes (vi) Job security (vii) Employee participation (viii) 
Employee empowerment. 
• Meaning of Leadership : It refers to influence others in a manner to do what the 
leaders wants them to do. 
Leadership Styles:  
I. Autocratic Leadership Style:- 
 (a).Meaning: It refers to that leadership style in which the leader tends to run the show all by 
him-self. 
(b).Characteristics: (i) Centralized Authority, (ii) Single –man Decision, (iii) Wrong Belief 
Regarding Employee, (iv) Only Downward Communications. 
(c). Advantages: (i) Quick and Clear Decisions, (ii) Satisfactory Work, (iii) Necessary for Less 
Educated Employees. 
(d).Disadvantages: (i) Lack of Motivation, (ii) Agitation by Employees, (iii) Possibility of 
Partiality. 
II. Democratic Leadership Style :- 
(a). Meaning: It refers to that leadership style in which the leader consult with his sub 
ordinates before making any final decisions. 
(b).Characteristics: -(i)Cooperative Relations,(ii)Belief in Employees, (iii) Open 
Communication. 
(c ).Advantages : (i) High Morale, (ii)Creations of More Efficiency and Productivity, (iii) 
Availability of Sufficient Time for Constructive Work. 
(d).Disadvantages: (i) Requirement of Educated Subordinates, (ii) Delay in Decisions, (iii)Lack 
of Responsibility in Managers. 
 
III. Laissez-faire or Free-rein Leadership Style: - 
 
(a). Meaning : It refers to that leadership style in which the leader gives his sub ordinates 
complete freedom to make decisions. 
(b)Characteristics (i)Full faith in subordinates, (ii) Independent Decision-making system,(iii) 
Decentralisation of Authority (iv)Self-Directed Supervisory and Controlled. 
(c). Advantages.(i)Development of Self-confidence in Sub ordinates, (ii) High-level 
Motivation,(iii)Helpful in Development and Extension of the Enterprise. 
(d). Disadvantages.(i).Difficulty in Cooperation, (ii)Lack of Importance of Managerial Post, (iii) 
Suitable only for Highly Educated Employees.  
 
Communication: Communication refers to process of exchange of ideas between or among 
persons and creates understanding. Communication process involves the elements of source, 
encoding, channel, receiver, decoding and feedback. 
Formal Communications refers to all official communications in the form of orders, memos, 
appeal, notes , circular, agenda, minutes etc. 
Informal Communications are usually in the form of rumours, whispers etc. They are 
unofficial, spontaneous, unrecorded, spread very fast and usually distorted. 
Barriers may exist for effective communications. Some of these barriers include-semantic 
barriers, organizational barriers, language barriers, transmission barriers, psychological 
barriers and personal barriers. 
Manager should take appropriate measures to overcome these barriers and promote 
effective communication in the organization such as 
Improving communication effectiveness: 
 i. Clarify the ideas before communication  ii. Communicate according to the needs of receiver.  
iii. Consult others before communicating iv. Be aware of language   v. Convey things of help 
and value to listeners   vi. Ensure proper feedback vii. Communicate for present as well as 
future   viii. Follow up communications and ix. Be a good listener. 
 
KEY CONCEPT QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS 
Q1) What is meant by Directing? Explain the importance of directing?  6M 
Ans: Directing is telling people what to do and seeing that they do it to the best of their ability. 
It includes making assignment, explaining procedures, seeing their mistakes are corrected, 
providing on the job instructions and issuing orders. 
Importance of Directing: - 
1. It initiates action  
 
2 It integrates employees’ efforts  
3. It is the means of motivation  
4. It facilitates implementing changes.  
5. It creates balance in the organization 
Q2) Mention the elements of directing?       1M 
Ans:  1) supervision 2) motivation 3) leadership    4) communication 
Q3) Explain how directing is a pervasive function of management   1M 
Ans: Directing is a pervasive function as every manager from top executive to superior 
performs it. 
Q4).‘Directing is the least important function of management.’  Do you agree with this 
statement?  Give any two reasons in support of your answer.   4 M 
A:  No, I don’t agree with this statement. 
Importance of direction: Direction may be regarded as the heart of the management process. 
It is explained under the following parts: 
a).Initiates action:  All organizational activates are initiated through direction. 
b).Integrates employees’ efforts:  At all levels of management the subordinates under the 
managers.  
 Managers integrate the work of subordinates. 
c).Means of motivation :  Directing helps in motivating employees towards organizational 
goals  
Q5).“The post of supervisor should be abolished in the hierarchy of managers”.  Do you 
agree?  Give any three reasons in support of your answer.    6M 
A).No, I don’t agree,  because a supervisor performs the following functions to achieve 
organization goals. 
Functions of the supervisor:  
a).Planning the work.  The supervisor has to determine work schedule for every job.   
b).Issuing orders:  Supervisor issues orders to the workers for achieving coordination in his 
work. 
c).Providing guidance and leader ship:  The supervisor leads the workers of his department. 
d).Explains the policies and programmes of the organization to his sub ordinates and provide 
guidance 
e).Make necessary arrangement for supply of materials and ensure they are efficiently 
utilized. 
f). Deviations from the target if any are to be rectified at the earliest. 
g).  To help the personnel departments in recruitment and selection of workers. 
 
Q6).What is meant by ‘Esteem needs’ and ‘Self-actualization needs’ in relation to 
motivation of the employees?                 4M 
A:  i. Esteem Needs:  these needs are needs for self esteem and need for other esteem .For 
Example:  Self-respect, self-confidence etc. 
ii. Self-actualization Needs:  This is the needs to be what one is capable of becoming and 
includes needs for optimal development. 
Q7).It is through motivation that managers can inspire their subordinates to give their 
best to the organisation’.  In the light of this statement, explain, in brief, the importance 
of motivation.                     5/6M 
A:  Importance of motivation:   
i. Motivation sets in motion the action of people:  Motivation builds the will to work among 
employees and puts them into action. 
ii. Motivation includes the efficiency of work performance:  Performance of employees 
dependence not only on individual abilities but also on his willingness. 
iii. Motivation ensures achievement of organizational goals:  If employees are not motivated, 
no purpose can be served by planning organizing and staffing. 
iv. Motivation creates friendly relationships: Motivation creates friendly and supportive 
relationships between employer and employees. 
V .Motivation leads to stability in the employees: Motivation helps in reducing absenteeism 
and turnover. 
vi. Motivation helps to change negative / indifferent attitudes of an employee 
Q8).“All managers are leaders, but all leaders are not managers.”  Do you agree with 
this statement?  Give any three reasons in support of your answer.             3/4 M 
A:  Yes, I agree with this statement.  
Difference between leadership and management : 
 
Basis Leadership Management 
Origin Leadership originates out of 
individual influence 
Management originates out 
of official power and rights. 
 
Formal Rights A leader has no formal rights A manager has certain 
formal rights 
Follower & 
subordinates 
A leader has followers A manager has 
subordinates 
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