Important Questions : Market & Price Determination Class 12 Notes | EduRev

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Class 12 : Important Questions : Market & Price Determination Class 12 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


41 XII ?  Economics
AK
UNIT 4
FORMS OF MARKET & PRICE
DETERMINATION
POINTS TO REMEMBER
q Market implies a system with the help of which the buyers and seller of a
commodity or service come to contact with each other and complete the act
of sale and purchase.
q Perfect competition is that type of market in which there are very large
number of sellers, sell homogenous goods at constant price without any
competition to consumer who have perfect knowledge about the market.
q Under perfect competition, price remains constant therefore, average and
marginal revenue curves also remain constant and parallel to ox-axis.
Page 2


41 XII ?  Economics
AK
UNIT 4
FORMS OF MARKET & PRICE
DETERMINATION
POINTS TO REMEMBER
q Market implies a system with the help of which the buyers and seller of a
commodity or service come to contact with each other and complete the act
of sale and purchase.
q Perfect competition is that type of market in which there are very large
number of sellers, sell homogenous goods at constant price without any
competition to consumer who have perfect knowledge about the market.
q Under perfect competition, price remains constant therefore, average and
marginal revenue curves also remain constant and parallel to ox-axis.
42 XII ?  Economics
AK
q Under perfect competition price is determined by an industry (a group of
producers and consumers) with the forces of demand and supply. No
individual firm or buyer can influence the price or supply of the product. So
industry is price maker and firm is price taker.
MONOPOLY MARKET
q Monopoly is that type of market where there is a single seller, selling a
product which does not have close substitutes.
q Under monopoly, due to absence of free entry and exit, firm earn abnormal
profit in the long run.
q Under monopoly, monopolist himself determines price of the product
according to the elasticity of demand as he has full control over the supply
of the product.
q Under monopoly elasticity of demand for the good is less than one, therefore,
demand curve has steeper slope. (Ed < 1).
q Under monopoly, average revenue and marginal revenue has negative
slope, as per unit price falls with increase in output sold.
q A monopolist may charge different price from different buyers for the same
good it is called price discrimination.
MONOPOLISTIC COMPETITION
q Monopolistic competition is that type of market in which there are large
number of firms, sell differentiated product to the consumers who have
imperfect knowledge about the product and there is tough competition
between firms.
q Under monopolistic competition due to lack of control over supply each firm
determines the price of their product, keeping in view the price level set by
other firms.
q Under monopolistic competition elasticity of demand for the product is greater
than one therefore demand curve (AR curve) has flatter slope.
q Each firm has to incur selling costs (expanditure on advertisement etc.) to
promote its sales. This is because, there is a large number of close substitute
available in the market.
Page 3


41 XII ?  Economics
AK
UNIT 4
FORMS OF MARKET & PRICE
DETERMINATION
POINTS TO REMEMBER
q Market implies a system with the help of which the buyers and seller of a
commodity or service come to contact with each other and complete the act
of sale and purchase.
q Perfect competition is that type of market in which there are very large
number of sellers, sell homogenous goods at constant price without any
competition to consumer who have perfect knowledge about the market.
q Under perfect competition, price remains constant therefore, average and
marginal revenue curves also remain constant and parallel to ox-axis.
42 XII ?  Economics
AK
q Under perfect competition price is determined by an industry (a group of
producers and consumers) with the forces of demand and supply. No
individual firm or buyer can influence the price or supply of the product. So
industry is price maker and firm is price taker.
MONOPOLY MARKET
q Monopoly is that type of market where there is a single seller, selling a
product which does not have close substitutes.
q Under monopoly, due to absence of free entry and exit, firm earn abnormal
profit in the long run.
q Under monopoly, monopolist himself determines price of the product
according to the elasticity of demand as he has full control over the supply
of the product.
q Under monopoly elasticity of demand for the good is less than one, therefore,
demand curve has steeper slope. (Ed < 1).
q Under monopoly, average revenue and marginal revenue has negative
slope, as per unit price falls with increase in output sold.
q A monopolist may charge different price from different buyers for the same
good it is called price discrimination.
MONOPOLISTIC COMPETITION
q Monopolistic competition is that type of market in which there are large
number of firms, sell differentiated product to the consumers who have
imperfect knowledge about the product and there is tough competition
between firms.
q Under monopolistic competition due to lack of control over supply each firm
determines the price of their product, keeping in view the price level set by
other firms.
q Under monopolistic competition elasticity of demand for the product is greater
than one therefore demand curve (AR curve) has flatter slope.
q Each firm has to incur selling costs (expanditure on advertisement etc.) to
promote its sales. This is because, there is a large number of close substitute
available in the market.
43 XII ?  Economics
AK
OLIGOPOLY
q Oligopoly is the form of market in which there are few sellers. All the firms
produce a certain amount of output of total market supply.
q All the firms under oligopoly produce homogenous or differentiated product.
q Under oligopoly entry of firms is not restricted but difficult.
q Under oligopoly demand curve is undefined.
q All the firms are interdependent in respect of price determination under
oligopoly market.
q On the basis of production, oligopoly can be categorised in two categories.
(i) Collusive oligopoly is that form of oligopoly in which all the firms
determine price and quantity of output on the basis of cooperative
behaviour.
(ii) Non-collusive oligopoly is that form of oligopoly is which all the firms
determine the price and quantity of output according to the action and
reaction of the firms.
Page 4


41 XII ?  Economics
AK
UNIT 4
FORMS OF MARKET & PRICE
DETERMINATION
POINTS TO REMEMBER
q Market implies a system with the help of which the buyers and seller of a
commodity or service come to contact with each other and complete the act
of sale and purchase.
q Perfect competition is that type of market in which there are very large
number of sellers, sell homogenous goods at constant price without any
competition to consumer who have perfect knowledge about the market.
q Under perfect competition, price remains constant therefore, average and
marginal revenue curves also remain constant and parallel to ox-axis.
42 XII ?  Economics
AK
q Under perfect competition price is determined by an industry (a group of
producers and consumers) with the forces of demand and supply. No
individual firm or buyer can influence the price or supply of the product. So
industry is price maker and firm is price taker.
MONOPOLY MARKET
q Monopoly is that type of market where there is a single seller, selling a
product which does not have close substitutes.
q Under monopoly, due to absence of free entry and exit, firm earn abnormal
profit in the long run.
q Under monopoly, monopolist himself determines price of the product
according to the elasticity of demand as he has full control over the supply
of the product.
q Under monopoly elasticity of demand for the good is less than one, therefore,
demand curve has steeper slope. (Ed < 1).
q Under monopoly, average revenue and marginal revenue has negative
slope, as per unit price falls with increase in output sold.
q A monopolist may charge different price from different buyers for the same
good it is called price discrimination.
MONOPOLISTIC COMPETITION
q Monopolistic competition is that type of market in which there are large
number of firms, sell differentiated product to the consumers who have
imperfect knowledge about the product and there is tough competition
between firms.
q Under monopolistic competition due to lack of control over supply each firm
determines the price of their product, keeping in view the price level set by
other firms.
q Under monopolistic competition elasticity of demand for the product is greater
than one therefore demand curve (AR curve) has flatter slope.
q Each firm has to incur selling costs (expanditure on advertisement etc.) to
promote its sales. This is because, there is a large number of close substitute
available in the market.
43 XII ?  Economics
AK
OLIGOPOLY
q Oligopoly is the form of market in which there are few sellers. All the firms
produce a certain amount of output of total market supply.
q All the firms under oligopoly produce homogenous or differentiated product.
q Under oligopoly entry of firms is not restricted but difficult.
q Under oligopoly demand curve is undefined.
q All the firms are interdependent in respect of price determination under
oligopoly market.
q On the basis of production, oligopoly can be categorised in two categories.
(i) Collusive oligopoly is that form of oligopoly in which all the firms
determine price and quantity of output on the basis of cooperative
behaviour.
(ii) Non-collusive oligopoly is that form of oligopoly is which all the firms
determine the price and quantity of output according to the action and
reaction of the firms.
44 XII ?  Economics
AK
q Equilibrium Price : Which corresponds to the equality between market
demand and market supply of a commodity.
q Equilibraium quantity which corresponds to the equilibrium price in the
market.
q Market equilibrium is a state in which market demand is equal to market
supply. There is no excess demand and excess supply in the market.
VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS (1 MARK)
1. Define market.
2. What do you mean by homogenous product?
3. How is price determined under perfect competition?
4. What is the common feature shared by perfect and monopolistic competition?
5. If the firms are earning abnormal profits, how will the number of firms in the
industry change?
6. Define the monopoly market.
7. Under which market there is no difference between firm and industry?
8. What is normal profit?
9. Under which form of market the firm is price taker.
10. What is cartel?
11. What is the relationship between AR curve and demand curve in a monopoly
market?
12. What do you mean by price discrimination?
13. Define oligopoly.
14. Define equilibrium price.
15. When does the situation of excess supply arise?
16. What will be the effect on equilibrium price when increase in demand is
more than increase in supply?
17. Under what situation does the equilibrium price remains unaffected when
there is simultaneous increase in demand and supply.
H.O.T.S.
18. What is the relation between average revenue curve and demand curve
under monopolistic competition?
Page 5


41 XII ?  Economics
AK
UNIT 4
FORMS OF MARKET & PRICE
DETERMINATION
POINTS TO REMEMBER
q Market implies a system with the help of which the buyers and seller of a
commodity or service come to contact with each other and complete the act
of sale and purchase.
q Perfect competition is that type of market in which there are very large
number of sellers, sell homogenous goods at constant price without any
competition to consumer who have perfect knowledge about the market.
q Under perfect competition, price remains constant therefore, average and
marginal revenue curves also remain constant and parallel to ox-axis.
42 XII ?  Economics
AK
q Under perfect competition price is determined by an industry (a group of
producers and consumers) with the forces of demand and supply. No
individual firm or buyer can influence the price or supply of the product. So
industry is price maker and firm is price taker.
MONOPOLY MARKET
q Monopoly is that type of market where there is a single seller, selling a
product which does not have close substitutes.
q Under monopoly, due to absence of free entry and exit, firm earn abnormal
profit in the long run.
q Under monopoly, monopolist himself determines price of the product
according to the elasticity of demand as he has full control over the supply
of the product.
q Under monopoly elasticity of demand for the good is less than one, therefore,
demand curve has steeper slope. (Ed < 1).
q Under monopoly, average revenue and marginal revenue has negative
slope, as per unit price falls with increase in output sold.
q A monopolist may charge different price from different buyers for the same
good it is called price discrimination.
MONOPOLISTIC COMPETITION
q Monopolistic competition is that type of market in which there are large
number of firms, sell differentiated product to the consumers who have
imperfect knowledge about the product and there is tough competition
between firms.
q Under monopolistic competition due to lack of control over supply each firm
determines the price of their product, keeping in view the price level set by
other firms.
q Under monopolistic competition elasticity of demand for the product is greater
than one therefore demand curve (AR curve) has flatter slope.
q Each firm has to incur selling costs (expanditure on advertisement etc.) to
promote its sales. This is because, there is a large number of close substitute
available in the market.
43 XII ?  Economics
AK
OLIGOPOLY
q Oligopoly is the form of market in which there are few sellers. All the firms
produce a certain amount of output of total market supply.
q All the firms under oligopoly produce homogenous or differentiated product.
q Under oligopoly entry of firms is not restricted but difficult.
q Under oligopoly demand curve is undefined.
q All the firms are interdependent in respect of price determination under
oligopoly market.
q On the basis of production, oligopoly can be categorised in two categories.
(i) Collusive oligopoly is that form of oligopoly in which all the firms
determine price and quantity of output on the basis of cooperative
behaviour.
(ii) Non-collusive oligopoly is that form of oligopoly is which all the firms
determine the price and quantity of output according to the action and
reaction of the firms.
44 XII ?  Economics
AK
q Equilibrium Price : Which corresponds to the equality between market
demand and market supply of a commodity.
q Equilibraium quantity which corresponds to the equilibrium price in the
market.
q Market equilibrium is a state in which market demand is equal to market
supply. There is no excess demand and excess supply in the market.
VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS (1 MARK)
1. Define market.
2. What do you mean by homogenous product?
3. How is price determined under perfect competition?
4. What is the common feature shared by perfect and monopolistic competition?
5. If the firms are earning abnormal profits, how will the number of firms in the
industry change?
6. Define the monopoly market.
7. Under which market there is no difference between firm and industry?
8. What is normal profit?
9. Under which form of market the firm is price taker.
10. What is cartel?
11. What is the relationship between AR curve and demand curve in a monopoly
market?
12. What do you mean by price discrimination?
13. Define oligopoly.
14. Define equilibrium price.
15. When does the situation of excess supply arise?
16. What will be the effect on equilibrium price when increase in demand is
more than increase in supply?
17. Under what situation does the equilibrium price remains unaffected when
there is simultaneous increase in demand and supply.
H.O.T.S.
18. What is the relation between average revenue curve and demand curve
under monopolistic competition?
45 XII ?  Economics
AK
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS (3-4 MARKS)
1. Why is firm under perfect competition a price taker and under monopolistic
competition is price maker. Explain?
2. How is the demand curve under monopolistic competition different from
demand curve of a firm under perfect competition?
3. Why is a firm under perfect competition a price taker? Explain.
4. Explain three features of perfect competition.
5. Explain the implication of large number of seller feature of perfect
competition.
6. What will happen if the price prevailing in the market is above the equilibrium
price.
7. Distinguish between monopoly and oligopoly.
8. Explain the concept of excess demand with the help of diagram.
9. Differentiate between ?Collusive and non-collusive oligopoly.
10. Explain the determination of equilibrium price under perfect competition with
the help of schedule.
11. Explain why is the equitibrium price determined only at the output level at
which market demand and market supply are equal.
H.O.T.S.
12. MR = AR in perfect competition but MR < AR in monopoly and monopolistic
competition why?
13. In which condition decrease in demand can not change the price of
commodity?
14. Explain how firms are interdependent in an oligopoly market.
15. In which competition the availability of close substitutes is present? How
does it effect the price?
16. Explain the implication of ?freedom of entry and exit to the firms? under
perfect competition.
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