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Important Questions & Answers: Social Institutions - Continuity & Change - 4 - Notes | Study Sociology Class 12 - Humanities/Arts

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Q.64. Give in brief the important characteristics of the caste system.

  • Membership is based on birth: No one can determine his caste with his wish. Membership of caste is based on birth. Membership of a person was determined by his caste in which he took birth.
  • Restrictions on social relations: Society has been divided into different castes. One is from a higher caste and the other is from a lower caste. Sense of higher and lower exists in the caste system. People of higher castes lived in villages or cities and people of lower castes lived out of the city or village and they used to keep themselves away from higher castes.
  • Restrictions on eatables: There were some clear rules in the caste system which tell us that with which caste a person can keep his social relations and with whom he can share his food. Whole food was divided into two parts ‘Kachha Food’ and ‘Pakka Food’. Kachha food was made with water and Pakka food was made with oil.
    The general rule was that a person can accept Kachha food only from the members of his own caste or from any Brahmin or from his Guru. That is why most of the castes accepted kaccha food given by brahmins but brahmins did not accept Kachha food from any other caste. Brahmins accepted Pakka food from specific castes only. Brahmins accepted Pakka food only from Kshatriya people and Vaishya people.
  • Restriction on occupation: According to the rules of the caste system, castes had their specific traditional occupation. A person had to adopt the occupation of his own caste even if the other occupations were more profitable. A man had no choice except to adopt his caste’s occupation. But some occupations were free to be adopted by anyone like trade, agriculture, the job in the military, etc. Even many castes were free to adopt any occupation but many castes had to practice their traditional functions like carpenter, blacksmith, barber, potter, etc.
  • Restrictions on marriage: The caste system was again divided and different castes were divided into sub-castes. These sub-castes restricted its members to marry out of its group. Endogamy is an important feature of the caste system. It means to marry in the group. Yet in some specific conditions, there were some restrictions. But, generally, they had to marry in their own caste. If anyone violated this rule then he was generally thrown out of his caste and was restricted to enter any other caste.
  • Segmental division of society: Hindu society was divided into many parts by caste system and the status, place, and function of every part were determined by it. That is why members of a particular conscious of being the members of a group. Because of this segmental division of society, the area of interaction for a person is generally restricted to his own caste. Panchayats gave punishments to the person who violated the rules of caste. Different castes had different traditions and ways of living.
  • Endogamy: There were strict restrictions related to marriage. One was not allowed to marry out of his caste but he has to marry in his own sub-caste. If anyone violated this rule then he was generally thrown out of his caste. Anulom marriage was also allowed to a certain extent. That is why boys of higher caste used to marry girls of a lower caste. Endogamy was the main basis of the caste system.


Q.65. Explain the social theory of the origin of the caste system.

Racial Theory: Many scholars have given the racial theory about the origin of the caste system. According to Risley, Maclver, Weber, Crober, etc. racial element is very important in the origin of the caste system. Ghurye, Dutt and Majumdar also supported it. According to Risley, three factors were responsible for the origin of the caste system-

  • Racial exchange
  • Interrelation due to exchange, and
  • Sense of class difference.

The caste system in India was started after the arrival of the Indo-Aryan people. The society of this race was divided into four parts and they also applied this concept to India. Firstly, Aryans defeated the original inhabitants of India, and then they established one-sided marital relations with them because females among the Aryans were less in numbers. From here the custom of Anuloma marriage was started. Pratiloma marriage was not given sanction because Aryans refused to marry their daughters with Indian people. When the needs of Aryans fulfilled then they stopped the custom of Anuloma marriage. Racial mixture increased due to Anuloma marriage and different castes came into being.
According to Ghurye, Aryan people had given themselves higher status than the original inhabitants of India. They started the policy of living away from original inhabitants to maintain racial purity. They kept themselves in higher three varnas and had given the status of a slave to the original people of India. With the passage of time society was divided into groups of higher or lower status.
Majumdar was of the view that cultural conflict and racial exchange led to the origin of the groups of higher and lower status in India. Many reasons were there of racial mixtures, like less number of females in India, developed Dravidian culture, their matrilineal system, worship of gods and goddesses, wish to live life at one place, different customs, etc. After the conquest of the Aryan people over the Dravidian people, mutual exchange and cultural conflict were started among them. That is why many social groups came into being which became endogamous. From here the status of every group or caste was determined according to racial purity and on the basis of living away from other groups.
The racial theory has been criticized because it has explained the restrictions of marital relations but has not explained the rules of food and food sharing. Muslims and Christians are unable to take the form of a caste. Even they have cultural differences.


Q.66. Give in brief the evolutionary and religious theory of the origin of the caste system.

  • Evolutionary Theory: This theory was given by Denzil Ibbetson. According to him, the caste system was not originated on the basis of four varnas but was originated by the organizations which were formed on an economic basis. According to him, earlier people were living like wanderers and there was no existence of a caste system. Blood relations were there among people and there was no feeling of higher or lower in them. But slowly and slowly and by living with each other economic development was started and people started to do agricultural work.
    With the passage of time economic life became complex and a need was felt for the division of labor. It became the duty of the king to make such a policy that could be based on the division of labor and occupational differences. With this many new classes came into being. Community feeling was developed while living with each other. With time these groups had made their unions secure their interests. Every union had adopted the policy of endogamy to save its occupational secrets. In this way, due to endogamy, the caste system came into being. Slowly and slowly these groups had made their place in the social hierarchy.
    This theory has also been criticized because unions on the basis of occupation are these in all societies. Then why the caste system was developed in India. The economic factors could be taken as one of the factors of origin but cannot be taken as the only factor.
  • Religious Theory: This theory was given by Hokart and Senart. According to Hobart, the origin of the caste system and division of Indian society took place due to religious customs and theories. In ancient Indian society, religion was very important and animals were also sacrificed to gods. In the custom of sacrifice, chanting of mantras and worship was also involved in which many persons were required. Slowly and slowly people, who were doing religious work started segregating. According to Hobart, the occupation of every caste goes on from generation to generation. The main base of occupation was not economic but was religious.
    According to Senart, restrictions related to food came due to religious factors, and people were divided into castes and sub-castes. But some sociologists are of the view that the caste system is not a religious institution but is a social institution. That is why this theory is not correct. The caste system is very complex and the theories related to its origin are diverse.


Q.67. What are the changes coming in the Caste System? Write in detail.

  • End to discrimination and untouchability: In 1955, the Indian government passed the law ‘Untouchability Offence Act’ and tried to eradicate untouchability: Now if anyone says ‘Untouchable’ to any person of lower caste then he will be considered a criminal. The government has adopted the policy of reservation in government institutions to uplift the lower castes. On the basis of this policy, special provisions are given to lower caste people. In modern times, a person of every caste is doing every type of work. The government gives scholarships to the people of backward classes so that they should be able to get any status in society with some hard work. In this way, the discrimination on the basis of untouchability has been reduced to a great extent.
  • Change in the caste hierarchy: The hierarchy which was determined by the caste system in Indian society has been changed completely. Lower castes have been uplifted in society by a number of processes like urbanization, industrialization, Sanskritisation, etc. In modern times, no caste is considered inferior to the other castes. Even people of higher castes are ready to marry in the lower castes. In this way, social mobility came into being in Indian society and now we hardly find the hierarchy of castes anywhere.
  • Changes in the restrictions of food and drink: During ancient times, the feeding of the caste was determined by the caste system. Food was divided into two parts and feeding relations of a caste were pre-determined. But in modern times it was very difficult to adopt these restrictions. When people of different castes came in contact with each other in cities then these restrictions came to an end slowly. Cooks in hotels belong to different castes and people eat in hotels by sitting with each other and without asking each other’s caste. In cities, people work with each other and that is why they started eating with each other. In this way, a number of changes came in the feeding restrictions of a caste.
  • Decline in the status of Brahmins: Changes in the caste system were started even under the rule of the British. Firstly, the British government treated all the people of different castes equally. According to them, no one is brahmin or Kshatriya but all of them are Indians. They started to give western education to Indian people instead of religious education. Everyone was free to get an education in various educational institutions. In this way, there was no question of the superiority of brahmins because humans started to attain social status according to their ability and not on the basis of their caste. Lower castes raised their status by progressing economically.
  • Freedom in the selection of occupation: In ancient Indian society, the occupation of a person was determined to right after his birth and it was according to his caste. A person had to adopt the occupation of his caste, even against his wish. He was not allowed to adopt any other occupation except his pre-determined profession. But because of many reasons, society started giving importance to personal ability. Now humans are free to adopt the occupation of their choice. It means that person can choose the occupation according to his ability. Even the concept of profit has been linked with this. No occupation is higher or lower in his eyes. Now, he chooses the occupation in which he sees more profit. In this way, the freedom, which a person has got in a selection of occupation, has brought changes in the caste system.
  • Change in status of the woman: During the prevalence of the caste system, the woman was spending her life only by living in the four walls of the house. She was neither free to get an education nor she was free to speak on any subject. In this way, she had to spend her life in a suppressed way. But in modern times, she has got freedom in all sectors of life and she is now no more under the control of males. Now she is economically self-dependent. The status of females has been completely changed. People feel happy in the case of the birth of a baby girl. Now, there is no difference between a boy or girl child. Even the government has given reservations to females in different sectors. Now every female is free to marry anywhere she wishes.


Q.68. Explain in brief the different characteristics of the tribe.

A Tribe has many characteristics which are given below:-

  • Collection of families: A tribe is a group of many families that has common descent. They produce things to fulfill the needs of the tribe. They never accumulate things and do not have any property. These families have a sense of unity among themselves.
  • Common geographical territory: People of a tribe living in a common and definite geographical territory. They are very much different and live away from other parts of society due to this common and definite geographical territory. That is why they are out of the reach of the rest of society. Because they have their own different culture and they never like the interference of anyone in their tribe, they do not keep any type of relations with the rest of the society. They have their own world. They have the community feeling because they five in common territory.
  • Common Language and Common Name: Every tribe has its own different language because of which they are different from each other. A number of tribal languages, in our country, exist according to the number of tribes. Every tribe also has its different name and it is known by that name.
  • Segmentary Society: Every tribal society is different from other societies on many bases like eating habits, languages, geographical area, etc. They are different from each other on many bases and never like to interfere in each other’s matters. They do not discriminate against anyone and that is why they are known as a segmentary society.
  • Common Culture: Every tribe has its different ways of living, religion, language, taboos, etc. But these are the same in one tribe. In the same way, because of these differences, all the humans in one tribe has the same culture.
  • Economic Structure: Every tribe has its own land which practices shifting agriculture on it. They just want to fulfill their needs and that is why their production is also limited. They never accumulate things because of which they do not have any sense of property. That is why there is no class in tribal society. Every member of a tribe has equal rights on all the things and no one is inferior or superior in these societies.
  • Mutual Cooperation: Every member of a tribe gives full cooperation to other members of society so that all the needs of the tribes could be fulfilled. It is the duty of the headman of every tribe to keep the respect of its tribe. Every member of the tribe has to obey the orders of the headman and they give respect to their headman.


Q.69. Explain briefly the political organization of tribes of central India.

  • Central Indian Tribes. Most of the tribes of India live in the areas of Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, and Odisha. Some elements of political organizations in these tribes are generally the same on the basis of the unity of clans. One association of elders of the village is there for the help of the headman which takes care of the administration of the village. Most of the decisions in tribes are taken either with consensus or with public opinion and it is not possible for the head of the tribe to go against this decision.
  • The majority of the people of this area belong to Bhil, Gond, and Oraon tribes. Oraon people have formed one organization ‘PARHA’ which is the organization of many neighboring villages that has one central unit called ‘PARHA PANCH’. Every oration para has many villages. Out of these villages, one village is known as Raha (king), the second is known as Diwan, the third is known as Panri (clerk of the king,) and the fourth one is known as Kotwal village. Other villages do not have much authority and they are known as subjects of the king. King village is known as the head village of Partha. Every village has its own flag and badge which any other village cannot have. The main function of the paratha council is to solve the problems between different villages.
  • The lowest political authority among Santhal people is with the head of the village who is known as Manjhi. Manjhi and other elders of the village meet each other and discuss the matters of the society. The Head of the village gets some gifts at the time of his marriage. He also possesses some land without rent. Manjhi also has civil and moral authority. He is assisted by the deputy’s head for the day to day functions.
  • The Head of the village among Munda people is also known as ‘MUNDA’ but the religious head is known as ‘PAHAN’. 12 villages make one Patti or Parha whose head is known as ‘MANKT. Heads of villages form one group in which Manki is the most powerful. The basic political unit among the Gond people in the village. The Head of the village is known as either Patel or Manda. Some elders of the village help him in doing the functions of the village. These people exist in the Bastar district of Bihar. Yet the Hindu king of Baster does not have any domination over them but still, he is known as the spiritual head of all the Gond groups.


Q.70. What is meant by Family? Explain its definitions.

A family is an important group for social structure. The word family has been taken from the word ‘Fabulous’ which is a Roman word. A family is a social institution in which a husband and wife are socially entitled to procreate and bring up their children. It is a social set up in which people with blood relations live together. After the upbringing of the child, he becomes a citizen of society. In simple words, the meaning of family is the group of husband, wife and their children. But from a sociological point of view, its meaning is not only a collection of people but is by the system of their mutual relationship and its main objectives are to produce children, their upbringing, their socialization, etc.

Definitions
Different sociologists have given different views about the family and some of these definitions are given below-

  • According to Maclver, “Family is a group defined by sex relationship sufficiently precise and enduring to provide for the procreation and upbringing of children.”
  • According to G.P. Murdock, “The family is a social group characterized by common residence, economic cooperation and reproduction. It included adults of both sexes, at least two of whom maintained a socially approved sexual relationship and one or more children, own or adopted, of the sexually cohabitating adults.”
  • According to H.M. Johnson, “Family is a group of two or more individuals related by blood, marriage or adoption and residing together, all such persons are considered as members of one family.”

Yet many differences are there in the definitions given by different sociologists but on one thing their views are the same that a family is a group in which a relationship of male and female are accepted by the society and it is a universal group. Its members are personally connected with each other in the process of reproduction. In short, we can say that mother, father and their children are included in the family and it is developed in every society.


Q.71. Explain different types of families on different bases.

1. Types of the family on the basis of Marriage-It is of two types:

  • Monogamous Family: In this type of family, one male marries one female, and the family on this type of base is known as a Monogamous family. In the modern age, this type of family is known as the right type of family.
  • Polygamous Family: When one male marries more than one female or one female marries more than one male, then, this type of family is known as a polygamous family. It is further of two types:
    • Polyandrous Family: When one female marries more than one male then it is known as polyandrous marriage. The main feature of this type of family is that one female has many husbands. It is again of two types. The first type is a Fraternal polyandrous family in which all the husbands are brothers. The second type is a non-fraternal polyandrous family in which the husbands are not connected.
    • Polygamous Family: When a male marries more than one female then it is known as a polygamous family. In this type of family, one male has many wives. For example, Muslims are permitted to keep four wives. Hindu kings, in ancient times, had many wives. But according to the Hindu Marriage Act of 1955, Hindus are not permitted to keep more than one wife. Many tribes in India are still there who have this type of family-like Nagas, Gonds, etc.

2. Family on the basis of Numbers-Family on the basis of numbers is of three

types:

  • Nuclear Family: Nuclear family is a very small family in which the husband, wife, and their unmarried children live. Other relations are not included in the nuclear family. This type of family exists in modern societies because people are doing jobs in cities. Children make their own nuclear family after their marriage.
  • Joint Family: There are many members in this type of family. Grandfather, grandmother, elder uncle-aunt, younger uncle-aunt, brothers, sisters are included in this type of family. Generally, this type of family exists in the villages.
  • Extended Family: This type of family is generally made only after and with the help of a joint family. The advanced stage of joint family is known as extended family. In this all the brothers, their married children and even their grandchildren five together. This type of family is not possible in modern societies. This type of family was seen during the earlier time when the whole family was engaged in the same occupation but today it is hardly seen.

3. Family on the basis of Nomenclature-It is further of four types:

  • Patrilineal Family: In Patrilineal family descent is of the father which generally exists in today’s life. It means that the son gets the nomenclature of the father and the nomenclature of the father is of great importance.
  • Matrilineal Family: This type of family runs in the name of the mother. It means that the child gets the nomenclature of the mother. This type of family exists in many tribes of India.
  • Bilinear Family: In this type of family descent of both mother and father goes side by side. It means that the child gets the nomenclature of both mother and father.
  • Non-Unilinear Family: In this type of family, the nomenclature is determined on the basis of nearest relative. It is known as the non-unilinear family.

4. Family on the basis of types of relatives-This type of family is of two types:

  • Consanguine Family: In this type of family, blood relations are at the highest place and there are no sexual relations in it. Husband and wife are also there in this type of family but they are not the base of this family. Membership of this type of family can be attained only on the basis of birth. This type of family never comes to an end even after divorce and they are permanent.
  • Conjugal Family: Husband, wife, and their unmarried children are here in this type of family. In this, husband-wife and their relatives are included. This type of family can be broken after the death of either husband or wife or both.

5. Family on the basis of Residence: This type of family is of three types:

  • Patrilocal Family: In this type of family, the bride leaves her father’s house and goes to the house of her husband to live and establish the family. We can see this type of family very often.
  • Matrilocal Family: This type of family is definitely opposite to the Patrilocal family in which a girl never leaves her father’s house after marriage but it lives there only. In this, her husband leaves his father’s house and goes to the house of his wife to live. It is known as the Matrilocal family. We can find this type of family in Garo and Khasi tribes.
  • Neolocal Family: This type of family is different from the other two types. Husband and wife are not living at their father’s house but they make a new house after their marriage and that is why it is known as the Neolocal family. We can find this type of family in the modern age.

6. Family on the basis of Authority-This type of family is of two types:

  • Patriarchal Family: In this type of family whole power is in the hands of males. The Head of the family is male. Descent also depends upon the father. After marriage wife goes to the husband’s house and the property is distributed among the boys of the family. The eldest son of the family gets the most respect. His respect in the home is equal to the respect of the father. In every type of necessary family matters, male’s interference is necessary. It looks at the ancient Hindu society then, according to the Vedic books male was just like a God for the female. The eldest son gets all the rights of the family after the death of his father.
  • Matriarchal Family: In this type of family, the female is dominant in the family, the whole ownership of the property of the family is in the hands of the female. Females of the family have the right over the property. After marriage husband goes to the house of the wife to live. The property was divided among the females of the family. The descent was also moved from females.


Q.72. What are the changes that are coming in the institution of the family? Explain in detail.
Or
Explain the changes which are coming in the structure and functions of the family.

  • Change in educational functions: With the change in society, changes are also coming in the functions of all the institutions. The functions of the family have been changed completely. In ancient times, a child was educated in the family, and education was generally related to the traditional occupation of the family. It was so because the joint family system was there and whatever professions the father was into, the child had to adopt the same occupation.
    Under the guidance of the father-child got his training. But slowly and slowly, with modernization, children began to go to educational institutions to get an education and because of this, they started to move away from the traditional occupation of the family. He started adopting other occupations. In this way, the traditional function of the family changed and has gone into the hands of educational institutions and other changes that took place in society.
  • Change in the economic functions: During earlier times family was the center of economic activities. Every work-related to earning was done by the family. In this way, all the means of living were available to the family members. But with the advent of industrialization, all those functions of production were taken away by the big industries like, now cloth is made in textile mills. In this way, the economic functions of the family have been taken by industries. So the responsibility of the family of economic production has been taken away by other institutions.
  • Change in religious functions: During earlier times, one of the main functions of the family was to give religious education to its members. Elders of the family taught its members about religion and morality. But with the advent of new scientific inventions and discoveries, the outlook of the people changed from a religious to scientific point of view.
    During earlier societies, religion was of utmost importance but today, religion is not given importance when it comes to societal issues. In earlier times people used to spend a lot of time in religious functions and religious rituals were performed for a number of days. Even now people believe in religion and customs but they can hardly spare time for them. They celebrate festivals and other important days together.
  • Change in social functions: Social functions of the family have been reduced. During earlier times, the husband was just like a God for his wife. It was the duty of the husband to keep his wife happy. The function of the family was the upbringing of children. But now, due to more number of nuclear families in cities and towns, only parents bring up their children.
  • Decreasing family unity. In earlier times joint families were there but today, unity and the system of joint family has come to an end. Everyone has their own ideals. No one tolerates anyone’s interference. They are living with each other, eating, drinking with each other but hardly bother about them. Clearly, they lack unity.


Q.73. Discuss in brief the major characteristics of a joint family.

  • Large in Size: In joint family, members of many generations five who are related with the descent of the father. That is why it is large in size.
  • Feeling of Cooperation: In this system of family, all the members of the family help each other. They all cooperate and work together. In fact, they work for a common cause.
  • Common Property: Ownership of the property is equal for all the members and the head of the family takes care of it.
  • Common Residence: All the members of the joint family live under one roof. Their kitchen is also one where they take food jointly by sitting with each other.
  • A Productive Unit: In this type of family, all the members of the family jointly work together and whatever they earn, share with each other.
  • Common Religion: All the members of the joint family believe in one religion. They take part in all the religious activities of the family jointly.
  • Common Kitchen: In joint family all the members use one kitchen. That’s why they celebrate all the religious activities jointly. Common kitchen enhances love in them.
  • Stability: Joint family is more stable as compared to other types of family. Members of joint family are more in number and that is why earners are more in number. So because of this, all the needs of the members of the family are generally fulfilled. If anyone is sick in the family and is unable to do work even then they can five properly. That is why more stability is there in this type of family and culture is transmitted from one generation to another.
  • Rights: In a joint family, the head of the family has a complete right over the members of the family. Head is of great importance in the family and all the other members of the family respect him. Every member has to obey his orders. The eldest member of the family is the head and he takes responsibility for the functions of the family. It helps in maintaining discipline in the family.


Q.74. What are the demerits of the joint family?

  • Lack of personality and Non-development of individual: Person cannot develop his personality while living in a joint family. The main reason behind this is that he cannot test his abilities. He cannot do anything according to his wish. In fact, he works according to the wish of others. Every member in a joint family has a say in each other life and so, an individual’s own choice is not given credit in joint families. In this way, he never gets a chance to develop his personality.
  • Lower Status of Women: Joint families are generally patriarchal families in which males are dominant. Females are just restricted to produce children or to take care of the kitchen. It is so because she is economically dependent upon others. In this way status of women is low.
  • Carelessness: In joint family everyone knows that whether they will work or not, they will get bread. In this condition, some members a lot and some sit idle. In this condition, some take responsibility for the whole family and others waste their time by not doing anything.
  • Conflicting Situation: In joint family conflicts and quarrels generally takes place. With this, the peace of the family comes to an end. Sometimes members of the family hardly speak to each other. In this condition sometimes joint family comes to an end.

Hence, we can say that in a joint family common property is there but no one takes its responsibilities, and in the situation of conflict sometimes property is also destroyed. Some other problems are also emerging because of joint family. That is why joint family is losing its importance. Social mobility has come because of industrialization, urbanization, and means of transport, etc.


Q.75. What is meant by Nuclear Family? Explain it with characteristics.

Nuclear families are of great importance in modern societies. The nuclear family is a very limited group, on the basis of numbers, in which husband, wife, and their unmarried children live together. Nuclear families came into being after social changes. They are also known as basic families. Many sociologists have given their views about them which are given below:

  • According to G.P. Murdock, “The nuclear family consists typically of a married man and woman with their offsprings, although in individual cases one or more additional persons may reside with them.”
  • According to I.P. Desai, “Nuclear family is a family in which the members are not related to their kin through or by property or income or the right and obligations pertaining to them, as are expected and related by kinship.”
  • According to Haris, “Nuclear family is a small group of those people who except fulfilling the biological role fulfills the institutional responsibilities towards each other which are expected from them to do in the family.”

So on the basis of these definitions, we can say that husband, wife, and their unmarried children are there in a nuclear family. When children get married then they also start living in their separate families. These families are connected on the basis of marriage. They are small in size. In this type of family, only eight types of relations are included.

Characteristics of a nuclear family

  • Limited Size: Nuclear families are formed on the basis of the number of members. That is why the size of a nuclear family is small. In this husband, wife, and their unmarried children are included.
  • Limited relations: In nuclear families, 8 types of relations are included like: Husband-wife, Mother-son, Father-son, Mother-daughter, Father-daughter, sister- sister, sister-brother, brother-brother. In these types of families, blood relations are important. They have formal relations with other members of the family.
  • Common authority: Every member of the family has equal authority. Everyone shares advice and views in the family to solve the problems of the family. In this way, father alone does not have all the responsibilities. In this more importance is given to individual capabilities. Responsibilities and duties are shared among all the members.
  • Importance of all members of the family: In a nuclear family, only two generations live together. In this type of family, everyone has got an equal status. Labour is equally divided among the members of the family. Children have more importance in nuclear families. Parents wish to give good education to their children and they take care of every type of need of their children.
  • Independent Social Unit: The mam characteristic of a nuclear family is its independent nature. It means that the members of the family are dependent upon other members for their needs but they are not dependent upon other relatives. In this way, these families are of independent nature.


Q.76. Explain in brief the significance of the kinship system.

  • With the help of the Kinship system, rights, marriage, family, production, and method of consumption, rights of political power are determined in tribal and agricultural societies. Even in urban societies, we can see the importance of Kinship relations at the time of marriage and family festivals.
  • Kinship, family, and marriage are very deeply related to each other. With the help of the Kinship system, we can determine who marries whom and which name would be given to which relation. From Kinship only we can come to know about the nomenclature, clan, and the family of the person.
  • Family life, relations of family, nomenclature, clan, and rituals related to birth and death are determined by the Kinship, and who will perform all the rituals is also determined by Kinship. For example, in the rituals related to marriage big brother, mother, and sister of the father are of great importance. Who will be the heir of the person is also determined by the Kinship. At the time of social functions, festivals, relatives are of great importance because at these the relationships are strengthened.
  • Kinship system gives strength to society. The kinship system plays an important role in making social organization. If the Kinship system would not be there then the social system will break down and there will be chaos in the society.
  • Kinship system determines sexual relations. Sexual relations in the Kinship system are restricted in our society. If the Kinship system would not be there then there will be a lot of illegal relations and children in the society and social disorders will prevail in society.
  • Kinship System plays an important role in the determination of marriage. You are not supposed to marry in your clan, how many relatives would be left from the mother’s side and the father’s side all depend upon the Kinship system. If this system would not be there then no one will obey the rules related to marriage.
  • Kinship system gives mental peace to an individual. Yet in modern industrial society, our views have been changed from emotional to practical but still, man is tied with the Kinship ties. Humans are based on the group and Kinship. Without Kinship, man is just like a dead man. Our relatives know us very well. They accept themselves as part of the family. If we are in any trouble, then our relatives would help us. Only by living with our relatives we become happy and feel pleasure in their company.
    In this way, we can say that Kinship is of great importance in our society. Nothing will be left in our society if we take out the Kinship system from it.
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