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Important Questions & Answers: Variations in Psychological Attributes - Notes | Study Psychology Class 12 - Humanities/Arts

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Very Short Answer Questions

Q.1. Describe the One-factor Theory of Intelligence.

Binet conceptualized Uni or One-factor theory of intelligence in which he described intelligence as consisting of one similar set of abilities which can be used for solving any or every problem in an individual’s environment.


Q.2. Define intellectual disability.

The children who show enormous difficulty in learning even very simple skills or adapting to the environment show intellectual deficiency are referred to as ‘Intellectually disabled’. The American Association on Mental Deficiency defines mental retardation as significantly sub-average general intellectual functioning existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behaviour and manifested during the developmental period, i.e., between 0 to 18 years of age.


Q.3. Explain contextual intelligence with the help of examples .

(i) Contextual intelligence is a component of Sternberg’s Triarchic theory of intelligence which involves adapting to present environment, selecting a more favourable environment than the existing one or modifying the environment to fit needs.
(ii) It is typically associated with ‘practical know how to handle’ or the ability to deal with environmental demands encountered on a daily basis. It may be called ‘street smartness’ or ‘business sense’. People high on this facet turn out to be successful in life.
(iii) For example, a child who joins a new school adjusts to his/her new peer group by sharing and cooperating.
(iv) This triarchic theory of intelligence represents the information–processing approach to understand intelligences.


Q.4. What is simultaneous and successive processing in intellectual functioning?
OR
Differentiate between simultaneous and successive processing giving example.

Information is integrated into our knowledge system simultaneously or successively.In simultaneous processing relations among various concepts is integrated into a meaningful pattern for comprehension. For example, grasping the meaning and relationship between abstract figures in Raven’s Progressive Matrices. Successive processing takes place when you remember all the information serially so that recall of one leads to the recall of another. Learning of digits, alphabets, multiplication tables are examples of successive processing.


Q.5. Classify people on the basis of IQ.
OR
How are IQ scores distributed in a population?

Important Questions & Answers: Variations in Psychological Attributes - Notes | Study Psychology Class 12 - Humanities/Arts


Q.6. Explain linguistic intelligence.

It is the capacity to use language fluently and be sensitive to different shades of word meanings. This involves using language fluently and flexibly. Persons high on this intelligence are ‘word-smart’. Poets and writers are strong in this component of intelligence.


Q.7. Explain naturalistic intelligence.

Naturalistic intelligence involves awareness of our relationship with the natural world which is useful in recognizing the beauty of different species of flora and fauna. Hunters, farmers, tourists, botanists, zoologists, bird watchers possess naturalistic intelligence.


Q.8. What is an interview?

Interview is a face-to-face interaction between two people. For example, an interview between a doctor and a patient, a salesman and a customer, employee selection by an employer.


Q.9. What is CAS?

Cognitive Assessment System (CAS) is a battery of tests which measure basic cognitive functions for individuals between 5 to 18 years of age. The results of assessment can be used to remedy cognitive deficits of children with learning problems.


Q.10. What do you understand by individual differences?

Individual differences refer to distinctiveness and variations among people’s characteristics and behaviour patterns. Individuals vary in terms of physical characteristics such as height, weight, hair colour, etc. They also vary along psychological dimensions like they may be dominant or submissive, intelligent or dull, outgoing or withdrawn, etc. For example, a gifted child has an IQ of 130 while a mentally retarded child has an IQ below 70.


Short Answer Questions

Q.11. Describe the Triarchic Theory of Intelligence.

Sternberg views intelligence as the ability to adapt, to shape and select environment to accomplish one’s goals and those of one’s society and culture. Sternberg proposed the following three types of intelligence:
(i) Componential or Analytical Intelligence: Componential or analytical intelligence is the analysis of information to solve problems. It has three components:
(a) Knowledge acquisition component which is responsible for learning and acquisition of the ways of doing things.
(b) Meta component which involves planning what to do and how to do.
(c) Performance component which involves actually doing things.
For example, while studying mathematics we gather information about the formula to solve the problem, plan out the steps to solve the problem and then actually solve the sum.
(ii) Experiential or Creative Intelligence: This specifies how experiences affect intelligence and how intelligence affects a person’s experiences.
(iii) Contextual or Practical Intelligence: This involves adapting to the present environment or selecting a more favourable environment than the existing one or modifying the environment to fit one’s needs.


Q.12. Explain how the PASS model helps us to understand intelligence.

According to the model developed by J.P. Das, Jack Naglieri and Kirby (1994),intellectual activity involves three functional units of brain, namely A-Arousal/Attention, S-Simultaneous processing, S-Successive processing and P-Planning respectively:
(i) Arousal/Attention: An optimal level of arousal focuses our attention to the relevant aspects of a problem. Too much or too little arousal would interfere with attention.
(ii) Simultaneous and Successive Processing: Information is integrated into our knowledge system simultaneously or successively. In simultaneous processing,relations among various concepts are integrated into a meaningful pattern for comprehension. For example, grasping the meaning and relationship between abstract figures in Raven’s Progressive Matrices. Successive processing takes place when you remember all the information serially so that recall of one leads to the recall of another. Learning of digits, alphabets,multiplication tables are examples of successive processing.
(iii) Planning: After the information is attended to and processed, planning is activated.
For example, planning a time schedule of study by giving more time or studying with a friend.


Q.13. Differentiate between Culture-fair and Culture-biased tests.

Depending upon the extent to which an intelligence test favours one culture over another, intelligence tests are classified as Culture-Fair or Culture-Biased tests. Culturefair tests are fair to a particular culture such as Non-verbal or Performance tests while culture-biased tests show a bias to the culture in which they are developed. For example,tests based on norms of urban society are culture-fair for urban society while culturebiased for rural society. Similarly, test made for western societies are culture-biased for Indian societies.


Q.14. Differentiate between ‘technological intelligence’ and ‘integral intelligence.’ Elaborate the concept of intelligence in Indian tradition.
OR
Explain the competencies of Indian notion of intelligence.
OR
Explain the role of culture on intelligence in Indian tradition.

Technological intelligence:
(i) Promoted by technologically advanced societies.
(ii) Fosters skills of generalization, abstraction, speed, minimal moves and mental manipulation.
(iii) Focuses on attention, observation, analysis, performance and achievement (individualist orientation)

Integral intelligence:
(i) Promoted and valued in Asian and African societies.
(ii) Fosters cognitive and non-cognitive skills and processes.

(iii) Holistic perspective where emphasis is given to connectivity with social and world environment.
(iv) Collectivistic orientation and self-reflection.

Intelligence in Indian concept
(i) Talks of integral intelligence
(ii) Sanskrit word ‘Buddhi’ is used to represent intelligence
(iii) The following competencies are identified as features of intelligence in the Indian tradition.
(a) Cognitive capacity—sensitivity to problem solving and effective communication.
(b) Social competence—commitment to elders, concern for young and the needyand understanding others’ perspective.
(c) Emotional competence—self-regulation and self-monitoring of emotions,honesty, politeness, good conduct and self-evaluation.
(d) Entrepreneurial competence—commitment, persistence, patience hard-work,vigilance and goal-directed behaviours.


Q.15. How is aptitude different from intelligence?

Aptitude refers to the potential ability of a person to perform a particular task which consists of a combination of abilities.
Intelligence refers to the ability of a person to do at any given point of time. According to Wechsler, it is the global and aggregate capacity to think rationally, act purposefully and deal effectivity with the environment.


Q.16. Mention any six indicators of giftedness.

Gifted children show
(i) Advanced logical thinking, questioning and problem solving behaviour.
(ii) High speed in processing information.
(iii) Superior generalisation and discrimination ability.
(iv) Advanced level of original and creative thinking.
(v) High level of intrinsic motivation and self-esteem.
(vi) Independent and non-conformist thinking.
(vii) Preference for solitary academic activities for long periods.


Q.17. How is creativity related to intelligence?
OR
Explain the relationship between creativity and intelligence.

(i) A certain level of intelligence is required for creativity but beyond that intelligence does not correlate with creativity. Creativity tests involve divergent thinking and assess such abilities such as ability to produce a variety of ideas i.e. ideas which are off-thebeaten- track, ability to see new relationships. It involves expression of spontaneous originality and imagination.
Tests of intelligence involve convergent thinking. The person has to think of the right solution to the problem and the focus is on assessing abilities such as memory, logical reasoning, accuracy, perceptual ability and clear thinking.
(ii) Creativity tests are open-ended. There are no specified answers to questions or problems in creativity tests. Individuals have freedom to use one’s imagination and express it in original ways.
On the other hand, intelligence tests are closed-ended. There are fixed answers to questions.


Long Answer Questions

Q.18. How is creativity related to intelligence?

(i) A certain level of intelligence is required for creativity but beyond that intelligence does not correlate with creativity. Creativity tests involve divergent thinking and assess such abilities such as ability to produce a variety of ideas i.e. ideas which are off-the-beaten-track, ability to see new relationships. It involves expression of spontaneous originality and imagination.
Tests of intelligence involve convergent thinking. The person has to think of the right solution to the problem and the focus is on assessing abilities such as memory, logical reasoning, accuracy, perceptual ability and clear thinking.
(ii) Creativity tests are open-ended. There are no specified answers to questions or problems in creativity tests. Individuals have freedom to use one’s imagination and express it in original ways.
On the other hand, intelligence tests are closed-ended. There are fixed answers to questions.


Q.19. How do psychologists characterise and define intelligence?

Alfred Binet was one of the first psychologists who worked on intelligence. He defined intelligence as the ability to judge well, understand well, and reason well.According to Wechsler, intelligence is defined as the global and aggregate capacity of an individual to think rationally, act with the environment purposefully and deal effectively.


Q.20. Discuss how interplay of nature and nurture influences intelligence. Distinguish between culture-fair and culture-biased tests.
OR
Explain how intelligence is the result of heredity and environment.

Effects of heredity (nurture): Studies of adopted children show that children’s intelligence is more similar to their biological rather than adoptive parents.Effects of environment (nature): Evidence shows that environmental deprivation lowers intelligence while rich nutrition, good family background and quality schooling increase intelligence.
Studies show intelligence of identical twins reared together correlate 0.90. Intelligence of identical twins reared in different environments correlate 0.72. Intelligence of fraternal twins reared together correlate 0.60. Intelligence of brothers and sisters reared together correlate 0.50. Intelligence of siblings reared apart correlate 0.25.
Depending upon the extent to which an intelligence test favours one culture over another, intelligence tests are classified as Culture-Fair or Culture-Biased tests. Culturefair tests are fair to a particular culture such as Non-verbal or Performance tests while culture-biased tests show a bias to the culture in which they are developed. E.g. Tests based on norms of urban society are culture-fair for urban society while culture-biased for rural society. Similarly, tests designed for western societies are culture-biased for Indian Societies.


Q.21. What is IQ? How do psychologists classify people on the basis of their IQ scores

Intelligence Quotient (IQ) refers to mental age divided by chronological age and multiplied by 100. Mental Age (MA) is the measure of a person’s intellectual development relative to the people of his or her age group. Chronological Age (CA) is the biological age by birth.
IQ = (MA/CA) × 100
For example, a 10-year-old child with a mental age of 12 will have an IQ of 120
[(12/10) × 100].
Classification of people based on IQ:
Important Questions & Answers: Variations in Psychological Attributes - Notes | Study Psychology Class 12 - Humanities/Arts


Q.22. To what extent is our intelligence the result of heredity (nature) and environment (nurture)? Discuss.

Effects of heredity: Studies of adopted children show that children’s intelligence is more similar to their biological rather than adoptive parents.Effects of environment: Evidence shows that environmental deprivation lowers intelligence while rich nutrition, good family background and quality schooling increase intelligence.
Studies show intelligence of identical twins reared together correlate 0.90. Intelligence of identical twins reared in different environments correlate 0.72. Intelligence of fraternal twins reared together correlate 0.60. Intelligence of brothers and sisters reared together correlate 0.50. Intelligence of siblings reared apart correlate 0.25.

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