Q.1: State one reason why you think reservations play an important role in providing social justice to Dalits and Adivasis?
Answer: In addition to providing certain facilities, the Government also made some laws to ensure that concrete steps are taken to end inequalities in our society. One such law or policy is the reservation policy by which a certain percentage of seats in education and Government employment are reserved for Dalits, Adivasis and other backward castes. The reservations play an important role in providing social justice to Dalits and Adivasis since the objective behind this policy is to bring the Dalits and the Adivasis at par with the forward castes in the society.
Q.2: Why do you think the Dalit families were afraid of angering the powerful castes?
Answer: The Dalit families were afraid of angering the powerful castes because the Dalits belonged to the socio-economically poor background of the society and were of meager resources also. Many of them had to work on the fields of the powerful castes for earning their livelihood. These are the reasons because of which Dalit families were afraid angering the powerful castes.
Q.3: Can you list the two different provisions in the 1989 Act?
Ans: Yes. These are:
(i) to occupy land which was taken from them
(ii) no forced displacement.
Long type Questions with their Answers
Q.1: What do you understand by manual scavenging? Or write a note on ‘Manual Scavenging’.
Answer: Manual scavenging means doing the scavenging work by hand. Manual scavenging is the practice of removing human and animal waste or excreta using brooms, tin plates and baskets from dry latrines and carrying it on the head to the disposal grounds some distance away. A manual scavenger is the person who does the job of carrying this filth. This job is mainly done by Dalit women and young girls. Manual scavengers are exposed to subhuman conditions of work and face serious health hazards. They are constantly exposed to infections that affect their eyes, skin, respiratory and gastrointestinal systems. They get very low wages for the work they perform. In 1993, the Government passed the Employment of Manual Scavengers and Construction of Dry Latrines (Prohibition) Act. This law prohibits the employment of manual scavengers as well as the construction of dry latrines.
Q.2: Why did the Safai Karamchari Andolan file a PIL in 2003? What did they complain about in their petition?
Answer: The safai karamcharis filed a PIL in 2003 to get the manual scavenging banned. They complained in their petition that manual scavenging which is an inhuman job still existed like in railways. Since this job violates the fundamental right against exploitation so the petitioners sought enforcement of their fundamental rights.