1. The congress leaders promised before the independence that after the independence each linguistic group would have its own province but this didn’t happen.
2. There were many bandhs and hartals by the Kannada, Malayalam and Marathi speakers for the formation of new provinces.
3. Potti Sriramulu fasted for 58 days and on 15 Dec. 1952 he died. This led to the formation of Andhra on 1st Oct 1953.
After the formation of Andhra, A states Reorganization commission was set up, which submitted a report in 1956 recommending the redrawing of district and provincial boundaries to form compact provinces of Assamese, Bengali, Oriya, Tamil, Malayalam, Kannada and Telugu speakers rash. So finally, Bombay was formed in 1960 forming the separation of Marathi and Gujarati speakers.
In 1966, Punjab was also divided into Punjab and Haryana.
Q11. Do you think that the tasks before the nation at the time of freedom have been completed? Give your comments.
Ans. No because of the following reasons:
1. Despite constitutional guarantees, the untouchables or, as they are now referred to, the Dalit’s face violence and discrimination.
2. In many parts of India they are not allowed access to water source,temples, parks and other public places.
3. There have been clutches between different religious groups and states.
4. The gulf between the rich and poor has grown over the years.
5. Some parts of India and some group of Indians have benefited a great deal from Economic Development.
6. They live in large houses and dine in expensive restaurants, send their children to private school & take expensive foreign holidays.
7. At the same time many others continued to live below poverty line. Housed in urban area’s slums or living in remote villages on land that yield little, they can’t afford to send their children to school.
Q12. Who was appointed as Chairman of the Drafting Committee of the Constitution?
Ans. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar.
Q13. Write a short note on India’s foreign policy.
1. India gained freedom after the Second World War.
2. A new international body – The United Nations was formed in 1945.
3. At this time colonial empires were collapsing and many countries were attaining independence.
4. Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, who was also the foreign minister of India, developed free Indian’s foreign policy in this context.
5. Non alignment formed the bedrock of this foreign policy.
6. This was also the period when the cold was emerged, that is, power rallies and conflicts between the USA and USSR with both countries creating of military alliances.
7. The non –aligned movement urged countries not to join either of the two major – alliance.
8. Non aligned countries such as India played an active role in mediating between the American and Soviet Alliances.
9. They tried to prevent was by taking more stand against war.
10. However, many non- aligned countries including India got involved in wars.
Q14. After Independence why was there a reluctance to divide the country on linguistic lines?
Ans. India had been divided on the basis of religion: despite the wishes and efforts of Gandhi, freedom had come not to one nation but to two. As a result of the partition of India, more than a million people had been killed in riots between Hindu & Muslims.
Q15. What were the major objectives of new nation?
1. Lifting India and Indians out of poverty by building a modern technical and industrial base
2. In 1950, the planning commission was set up to help design suitable politics for economic development.
3. In 1956, the Second Five Year Plan was formulated.
4. This focused strongly on the development of heavy industries such as steel, and on the building of large dams.
5. These sectors would be under the control of the State.