1. Explain the main idea of UDP?
The basic idea is for a source process to send a message to a port and for the destination process to receive the message from a port.
2. What are the different fields in pseudo header?
3. Define TCP?
TCP guarantees the reliable, in order delivery of a stream of bytes. It is a full-duplex protocol, meaning that each TCP connection supports a pair of byte streams, one flowing in each direction.
4. Define Congestion Control?
It involves preventing too much data from being injected into the network, thereby causing switches or links to become overloaded. Thus flow control is an end to an end issue, while congestion control is concerned with how hosts and networks interact.
5. State the two kinds of events trigger a state transition?
6. What is meant by segment?
At the sending and receiving end of the transmission, TCP divides long transmissions into smaller data units and packages each into a frame called a segment.
7. What is meant by segmentation?
When the size of the data unit received from the upper layer is too long for the network layer datagram or data link layer frame to handle, the transport protocol divides it into smaller usable blocks. The dividing process is called segmentation.
8. What is meant by Concatenation?
The size of the data unit belonging to single sessions are so small that several can fit together into a single datagram or frame, the transport protocol combines them into a single data unit. The combining process is called concatenation.
9. What is rate based design?
Rate- based design, in which the receiver tells the sender the rate-expressed in either bytes or packets per second – at which it is willing to accept incoming data.
10. Define Gateway.
A device used to connect two separate networks that use different communication protocols.
11. What is meant by quality of service?
The quality of service defines a set of attributes related to the performance of the connection. For each connection, the user can request a particular attribute each service class is associated with a set of attributes.
12. What are the two categories of QoS attributes?
The two main categories are,
13. List out the user related attributes?
User related attributes are SCR – Sustainable Cell Rate PCR – Peak Cell Rate MCR-Minimum Cell Rate CVDT – Cell Variation Delay Tolerance.
14. What are the networks related attributes?
The network related attributes are, Cell loss ratio (CLR) Cell transfer delay (CTD) Cell delay variation (CDV) Cell error ratio (CER).
15. What is RED?
Random Early Detection in each router is programmed to monitor its own queue length and when it detects that congestion is imminent, to notify the source to adjust its congestion window.
16. What are the three events involved in the connection?
For security, the transport layer may create a connection between the two end ports. A connection is a single logical path between the source and destination that is associated with all packets in a message. Creating a connection involves three steps:
17.What is Silly Window Syndrome?
If the sender or the receiver application program processes slowly and can send only 1 byte of data at a time, then the overhead is high.This is because to send one byte of data, 20 bytes of TCP header and 20 bytes of IP header are sent. This is called as silly window syndrome.