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Important questions for chapter 1 history Notes - Class 10

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Q.1. Explain liberalism in political and economic fields prevailing in Europe in the
19th century. [2008]
Ans. Politically, liberalism stood for
(i) Constitution;
(ii) A representative government ruling by consent;
(iii) A parliamentary system and;
(iv) ownership of private property;
(v) End of the privileges of aristocracy. Drawback over that it did not grant equal rights
to men and women, women had to struggle for their political rights.
Economically, liberalism stood for
(i) Freedom of markets;
(ii) End of state restrictions on movement of goods and capital;
(iii) A customs union or Zollverein was formed by Prussia in 1834, which many
German states joined
(iv) This union reduced the number of currencies from over thirty to two and abolished
tariff barriers;
(v) A network of railways led to great mobility and gave an impetus to national unity. It
boosted economic nationalism.
Q.2. How did Romanticism seek to develop a particular form of nationalist
sentiment during 18th century? Explain. [2009, 2011(T-2)]
OR
“Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation in Europe.”
Support the statement with examples. [2010]
Ans. Romanticism criticised glorification of reason and science and focussed instead on emotions, intuitions and mystical feelings. The poets and romantic artists tried to create
a sense of shared collective heritage, a common cultural past, as the basis of
nationalism. Some Romantics, like the German philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder,
tried through folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances to popularise the true spirit of the
nation.
The Polish artist, Karol Kurpinski encouraged National Struggle through his operas and
music, turning folk dances like the ‘polonaise’ and ‘mazurka’ into national symbols.
Language also played an important role in developing nationalist feelings. The Grimm
Brothers promoted German language to oppose French domination through their
collection of folk tales. The Polish used language as a weapon against Russian
domination.
Q.3. In which year was the unification of Italy completed? Mention two features of
the unification movement. [2011(T-2)]
Ans. Unification of Italy took place in 1860. Despite formidable hurdles which beset
the path of unification of Italy, the feeling of liberty, equality and patriotism could not
remain suppressed among Italians for a long time. Some patriots, supporters of
democracy, writers, philosophers and many secret institutions resolved to launch a
combined struggle to achieve liberty and liberalism for Italy.
Q.4. Why were 1830s called the years of great economic hardship in Europe? Give
any three reasons. [2011 (T-2)]
Ans. The 1830’s called the year of great economic hardship in Europe. During the first
half of the nineteenth century there was enormous growth of population required good
amount of jobs. By the rise of population, unemployment also increased. The job
seekers or unemployed people migrated from villages to cities for earning bread. The
conditions of towns were also worse because of heavy production and cheap rates
products of England (it happened because of industrial revolution of England). In
agriculture, the peasants were suffered because of less agrarian facilities and high
inflation. The rise of food prices or a year of bad harvest led to widespread poverty.
Q.5. Explain any three reasons for the nationalist upsurge in the 19th century
Europe. [2011 (T-2)]
Ans. War and territorial expansion definitely helped to create the environment of
nationalism but cultural movement gave momentum to this feeling. The glorification of
reason and science by the romantic artists and poets create a sense of shared collective
heritage a common cultural past, as the basis of a nation. At the same time folk songs,
folk poetry and folk dances promoted the spirit of the nation. Vernacular language is
one of the important aspects which grows the feeling of nationalism.
Q.6. Explain the role of language in developing the nationalist sentiments in
Europe. [2011 (T-2)]
Ans. At that time most of the people were illiterate. They were able to understand only
vernacular regional or simple language. That is why use of the vernacular or regional
language easily carry out the modern nationalist message to the large audience easily.
Nationalist sentiment also attached with local language. The message conveyed in
vernacular language affect powerfully. Folk lore, folk tales and the activities concerned
with vernacular language gave the feeling of nationalism and tied the people by the
thread of national love and honour.
Q.7. “Italy had a long history of political fragmentation”. Support the statement
by giving any three points. [2011 (T-2)]
Ans. Italians were scattered over several dynastic states as well as the multinational
Habsburg Empire. During the middle of the 19th century, Italy was divided into seven
states, of which only one state – Sardinia – Piedmont – was ruled by an Italian princely
house. The north was under Austrian Habsburgs, the centre was ruled by the Pope and
the southern regions were under the domination of the Bourbon kings of Spain. Even
the Italian language had many regional and local variations.
Q.8. Explain how Ireland got incorporated into the United Kingdom in 1801?
What were the symbols of this new British nation? [2011 (T-2)]
Ans. The population of Ireland was divided into two categories – Catholics and
Protestants. The Britishers helped the Protestants to dominate the large Catholic
population. Catholics opposed that suppression under the leadership of Wolfe Tone and
his United Irishmen but they were failed. At last, Ireland was forcibly incorporated into
the United Kingdom in 1801. The symbols of New Britain Kingdom (Nation) was – the
British flag, i.e., Union Jack, the national anthem, i.e., God Save the King, and the
English language were actively promoted. Finally the Irish people were forced to live as
subordinate in their own country.
Previous Year Long Answers
Q.1. Why was Balkans after 1871 the most serious source of nationalist tension in
Europe.
Explain giving four reasons. [Foreign 2008, 2011(T-2)]
Ans.1. The Balkan region comprised modern-day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece,
Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro, and its
inhabitants were broadly called Slavs.
2. With a large area of Balkan region under the Ottoman Empire, the spread of the ideas of
romantic nationalism in the Balkans together with the breaking up of the Ottoman Empire
made the situation even more serious.
3. The Ottoman Empire had not been able to become strong even after reforms and modern
methods after an effort of nearly 91.00 years. Gradually, most of the European subject
nationalities broke away from the Ottoman Empire’s control to declare themselves
independent.
4. The claim for independence and political rights by the Balkan people was based on
nationality. They gave examples of history to prove that they had once been
independent but had subsequently been subjugated by foreign powers.
5. Thus the rebellious nationalities in the Balkans thought of their struggles as attempts to
win back their long lost independence.
6. Soon various Slavic nationalities were struggling to define their identity and
independence making Balkans region one having intense conflict.
7. The internal rivalries and jealousies made the Balkan states distrust and fear each other.
8. As the Balkans had become site for big power fights, the situation became even more
serious. The fights were among the European powers who fought for trade and colonies
and for naval and military powers.
9. Russia, Germany, England and Austria-Hungary wanted to gain control of the Balkan
region causing many wars which culminated in the First World War.
Q.2. Explain any four provisions of Napoleon’s Civil Code of 1804. [Delhi-2008]
OR
State any three provisions of the Civial Code of 1804. [2011 (T-2)]
Ans. Napoleon incorporated revolutionary principles in the administrative field to make
the whole system more rational and effective. His civil code of 1804 was known as
Napoleonic Code.
(i) First, he did away with all the privileges based on birth. Everyone became equal
before the law. He abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom and
manorial duties.
(ii) He secured the right to property.
(iii) Peasants, artisans, workers and new businessmen found a new-found freedom as
guild restrictions were removed in towns also.
(iv) Uniform laws, standardised weights and measures, a common national currency
facilitated the movement and exchange of goods and capital from one region to another.
Q.3. How was the Habsburg Empire a patchwork of many different regions and peoples in Europe? Explain. [Outside India-2008]
Ans. In the mid-eighteenth century Europe, there were no 'nation-states' as we know
them today. Eastern and Central Europe were under autocratic monarchies, having
people of diverse ethnic groups. The Habsburg Empire was one such example. It ruled
over Austria-Hungary, a patchwork of many different regions and peoples. It included
the Alpine regions — the Tayrol, Austria and Switzerland — as well as Bohemia,
where the aristocracy was predominantly German-speaking. It also included Italian-
speaking provinces of Lombardy and Venetia.
In Hungary, half the population spoke Magyar, while the other half spoke a variety of
dialects. In Galicia, the aristocracy spoke Polish. Besides these three dominant groups,
there also lived within the territories a mass of subject peasant peoples — Bohemians,
Slovaks to the north, Slovenes in Carinola, Croats to the south, the Roumans to the east
in Transylvania. The only tie binding these diverse groups together was a common
allegiance to the emperor.
Q.4. When did the first clear-cut expression of nationalism come in France? How
did the French Revolution lead to the transfer of sovereignty from the monarchy
to a body of French citizens? Explain any three measures taken by the French
revolutionaries in this regard. [Outside Delhi-2008]
Ans.
1. The first clear-cut expression of nationalism came to France with the French Revolution
of 1789.
2. The French revolutionaries introduced various measures and practices which proclaimed
that it was the people who would henceforth constitute the nation and shape its destiny.
(i) The ideas of la patrie (the fatherland) and le citoyen (the citizen) emphasised the
notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution. A French flag,
the tricolor, was chosen to replace the royal standard.
(ii) The Estates General was elected by the body of active citizens and renamed National
Assembly.
(iii) A centralised administrative system was put in place and it formulated uniform laws
for all its citizens.
Q.5. How has French artist, Frederic Sorrieu, visualised in his first print, of the
series of four prints, his dream of a world made up of 'democratic and social
republics'? Explain. [Delhi-2008]
OR
Describe Frederic Sorrieu’s utopian vision of the world as depicted in his painting
in 1848. [2011 (T-2)]
Ans. The French artist, Fredrick Sorrieu prepared a series of four prints visualising his
dream of the world made up of ‘democratic and social republics’.
His First Print showed people of Europe and America – men and women of all ages
and social classes – marching in a long train, and offering homage to the Statue of
Liberty as they pass by it. Liberty is of course personified as a woman, bearing the
torch of Enlightenment in one hand and the charter of the Rights of Man in the other.
(The artists of this time of French Revolution portrayed Liberty as a female figure.)
On the earth, in the foreground of the image, lay the shattered remains of the symbols
of Absolute institutions. Leading the procession, way past the statue of Liberty, are the
United States and Switzerland which were at that time already nation states. In his print
of Sorrieu; people of the world are grouped together as distinct nations, identified
through their flags and national costume.
France, distinguished by its tricolour flag, has just reached the statue, and she is
followed by Germany with their black and gold flag. (Germany was not yet united, but
in 1848, when this painting was made, it expressed the hopes of the nation.) Peoples of
Austria, kingdoms of two Sicilis, Lombardy, Poland, England, Ireland, Hungary and
Russia follow in that order. From the heavens, Christ, saints and angels gaze upon the
scene. They have been used to symbolise the fraternity among the nations of the world.
Q.6. Explain any four measures introduced by French revolutionaries to create a
sense of collective identity among the people of France. [2009]
Ans. The French revolutionaries introduced various measures to create a sense of
collective identity.
(i) The idea of la patrie (the fatherland) and le citoyen (the citizen) emphasised the idea
of united community enjoying equal rights under a Constitution.
(ii) A new French flag, the tricolour, was chosen to replace the old royal standard.
(iii) The Estates General was elected by the body of active citizens and renamed the
National Assembly.
(iv) New hymns were composed, oaths taken and martyrs commemorated in the name
of the nation.
Q.7. Describe four stages of unification of Germany. [2010, 2011(T-2)]
Ans. (i) Nationalist feelings were widespread among middle-class Germans, who in
1848, tried to unite the different regions of the German confederation into a nation-
state.
(ii) From then on, Prussia took on the leadership of the movement for national unification. Its chief minister (Chancellor) Otto von Bismarck, the architect of this
process, carried it out, with the help of the Prussian army and bureaucracy.
(iii) Three wars were fought over a span of seven years against Austria, Denmark and
France, which ended in Prussian victory and completed the process of unification.
(iv) In January 1871, the Prussian King William I was proclaimed German emperor in a
ceremony held at Versailles. On 18 January, 1871, the new German empire headed by
Kaiser Wilhelm of Prussia was proclaimed.
Q.8. How did culture play an important role in creating the idea of a nation in
Europe?
Explain with four examples. [2009, 2011(T-2)]
Ans. The feeling of nationalism was strengthened, developed and given encouragement
by art, music, literature, drama. These played a big role in it. Their contribution was
equal to the heroic battles fought by heroes.
(i) The Romantics like the German philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder believed that
true German culture could be discovered only among the common people — das volk.
(ii) Language played a very important role in boosting nationalism. The Polish people
opposed the Russian occupation and the ban on Polish language, by using it in the
Churches for all religious ceremonies and for religious instruction. The Polish language
became a weapon in the hands of the nationalists and no amount of Russian atrocities
could stop them. Two Germans, Grimm Brothers, used stories and folktales written in
German to promote the German spirit against the domination of the French. Grimm’s
fairytales became instant classics.
(iii) Operas and music, like that of the Polish Karol Kurpinski, kept the national spirit
alive.
(iv) Folk dances like the polonaise and mazurki became national symbols. e
Q.9. Mention any two economic obstacles that the liberal nationalists wanted to
overcome. In what way did the Zollverein customs union of 1834 try to overcome
these shortcomings? [2011(T-2)]
Ans. During the early nineteenth century, Europe were closely allied to the ideology of
liberalism. In reference to economy this liberalism denotes freedom of market, less
restrictions of state on the movement of goods and capitals. To get rid of these
economic problems that was the main demand of the new emerged middle class.
Existence of countless small principalities, different currencies, number of customs barriers created obstacles to economic exchange and growth for the new commercial
classes. To sort out that problem Prussia including with most of the German states
formed a customs union or Zollverein in 1834.
The Zollverein abolished tariff barriers, reduced number of currencies, create network
of railways for fast and heavy mobility. So a single solution for all these economic
problems was known by the name of Zollverein.
Q.10. What is the significance of 1848 for France and the rest of Europe? What did
the liberals demand? [2011 (T-2)]
Ans. With many revolts like revolts of the poor, unemployed workers and starving
peasants during 1848 in Europe, educated middle class of France also started a
revolution for the abdication of the monarch and a republic based on universal male
suffrage had been proclaimed. In other parts of Europe, men and women of the liberal
middle classes combined their demands for constitutionalism with national unification.
They took advantage of the growing popular unrest to push their demands for the
creation of a nation state on parliamentary principles — a constitution, freedom of press
and freedom of association. The issue of extending political rights to women was most
controversial subject matter within the liberal movement in which large number of
women had participated actively.
Q.11. How did the Greek War of Independence mobilise nationalist feeling among
the educated elite across Europe? Give four points. [2011 (T-2)]
Ans. Greece was the part of Ottoman empire since the fifteenth century. The growth of
revolutionary nationalism in Europe motivated the Greeks to start a struggle for
independence which began in 1821. Reaction of the struggle inspired the educated elite
class of Europe and filled them, with nationalistic feeling. Greece got support from
other Greeks also residing at different countries. Poets and artists lauded Greece as the
cradle of European civilisation and mobilised public opinion to support its struggle
against a Muslim empire. One of the English poets Lord Byron organised fund and
participated in the war. Finally, the day of joy came in 1832 and Greece recognised as
an independent nation by the Treaty of Constantinople.
Q.12. “Till mid-eighteenth century there were no nation states in Europe.”
Support the statement with four examples. [2011 (T-2)]
Ans. During the mid-eighteenth century there were no nation states in Europe.
Germany, Italy and Switzerland were ruled by different rulers with autonomous
territories. Autocratic monarchies were there in eastern and central part of Europe.
These areas were occupied by different peoples. They did not see themselves as sharing
a collective identity or common culture. They spoke different languages and belonged to different ethnic groups, like the area of Austria – Hungary included the Alpine region
the Tyrol. Sudetenland and Bohemia were dominated by German-speaking people. It
also included the province of Lombardy and Venetia which had Italian speaking people.
In Hungary, the half of the population spoke Magyar and the other half of the
population spoke different dialects. In the part of Galicia the aristocratic class spoke
Polish.
Besides these three dominant groups, a mass of subject peasant people like –Roumans
to the east in Transylvania, Bohemians and Slovaks to the north, Slovenes in Carniola
and the Croats to the south lived within the boundary. The only tie binding those
different groups together was a common allegiance to the emperor.
Q.13. What was the main objective of the Treaty of Vienna of 1815? Mention any
three important features of the treaty. [2011 (T-2)]
Ans. The main objective of treaty of Vienna was to nullify all the changes that had
come into existence during Napoleonic wars. The Bourbon dynasty restore its power
which had been deposed during the French Revolution. To prevent the expansion of
France in future, a number of states were set up on the boundaries of France.
The kingdom of Netherland including Belgium was set up in the north and Genoa
including Piedmont established in the south. Prussia was given important new
territories on the western frontier, while Austria was given control of northern Italy.
The German confederation of 39 states which was set up by Napoleon was left
untouched. Prussia was given to Russia. The main intention was behind that set up was
to restore the monarchies that had been overthrown by Napoleon and create a new
conservative order in Europe.
Q.14. Describe any four features of the landed aristocracy class of European
continent. [2011 (T-2)]
Ans. European continent was dominated by the landed aristocratic class socially as well
as politically. This landed aristocratic class were united by a common way of life that
cut across regional divisions. They had their own estates and town houses in the
countryside.
By playing the game of diplomacy in her society they spoke French language. The
families of landed aristocratic class got married within their own class. The occupation
of majority population was agriculture. Europe was divided into two major parts on the
basis of occupation.
The western part was served by tenants and small owners of land or small landlords.
While in eastern and central Europe the pattern of landholding was characterised by
vast estate which were cultivated by serfs.
Q.15. How was the Habsburg Empire a patchwork of many different regions and
peoples in Europe? Explain. [2011(T-2)]
Ans. The Habshurg Empire included the Alpine regions – the Tyrol, Austria,
Sudentenland and Bohemia. It also included the Italian – speaking provinces of
Lombardy and Venetia.
In Hungary, half of the population spoke Magyar while other half spoke a variety of
dialects. In Galicia, the aristocracy spoke polish. Besides, there also lived a mass of
subject peasant peoples—Bohemians, Slovaks, Slovenes, Croats, Roumans. The only
tie binding these diverse groups together was a common allegiance to the emperor.
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