Incorporation of Companies - Procedural Aspects
(a) Application for Availability of Name of company
As per section 4(4) a person may make an application, in such form and manner and accompanied by such fee, as may be prescribed, to the Registrar for the reservation of a name set out in the application as—
(a) the name of the proposed company; or
(b) the name to which the company proposes to change its name.
As per Rule 9 of Companies (incorporation) Rules 2014, an application for the reservation of a name shall be made in Form No. INC.1 along with the fee as provided in the Companies (Registration offices and fees) Rules, 2014.
According to section 4(2), the name stated in the memorandum of association shall not—
(i) will constitute an offence under any law for the time being in force; or
(ii) is undesirable in the opinion of the Central Government.
Section 4(3) provides that without prejudice to the provisions of section 4(2), a company shall not be registered with a name which contains—
unless the previous approval of the Central Government has been obtained for the use of any such word or expression.
Section 4(5)(i) lays down that upon receipt of an application under sub-section (4), the Registrar may, on the basis of information and documents furnished along with the application, reserve the name for a period of 60 days from the date of the application.
Rule 8 of Companies (Incorporation) Rules, 2014 states that in determining whether a proposed name is identical with another, the differences on account of certain aspects may be disregarded, the details of the same is stated in that rule. Rule 8 of Companies (Incorporation) Rules 2014 is annexed at Annexure this lesson.
(b) Preparation of Memorandum and Articles of Association
The Memorandum of Association is the charter of a company. It is a document, which amongst other things, defines the area within which the company can operate.
Section 4(1) states that the memorandum of a company shall state—
Section 5(1) states that the articles of a company shall contain the regulations for management of the company.
The details of conditions as to Memorandum and Articles of Association is contained in chapter 4 of this study.
Filing Of Documents with Registrar of Companies
Section 7(1) states that there shall be filed with the Registrar within whose jurisdiction the registered office of a company is proposed to be situated, the following documents and information for registration, namely:— (a) Application for Incorporation of Companies: Rule 12 of Companies (Incorporation) Rules 2014 states that an application for incorporation shall be filed with ROC in form INC-2 (in case of one person company or INC-7 in case of other companies.
Memorandum and Articles of Association of the company duly signed
(b) Section 7(1)(a) the filing of the memorandum and articles of the company duly signed by all the subscribers to the memorandum in such manner as may be prescribed;
Rule 13 of Companies (Incorporation) Rules 2014 states that
The Memorandum and Articles of Association of the company shall be signed in the following manner, namely:-
(1). The memorandum and articles of association of the company shall be signed by each subscriber to the memorandum, who shall add his name, address, description and occupation, if any, in the presence of at least one witness who shall attest the signature and shall likewise sign and add his name, address, description and occupation, if any and the witness shall state that “I witness to subscriber/subscriber(s), who has/have subscribed and signed in my presence (date and place to be given); further I have verified his or their Identity Details (ID) for their identification and satisfied myself of his/her/their identification particulars as filled in”
(2). Where a subscriber to the memorandum is illiterate, he shall affix his thumb impression or mark which shall be described as such by the person, writing for him, who shall place the name of the subscriber against or below the mark and authenticate it by his own signature and he shall also write against the name of the subscriber, the number of shares taken by him.
(3). Such person shall also read and explain the contents of the memorandum and articles of association to the subscriber and make an endorsement to that effect on the memorandum and articles of association.
(4). Where the subscriber to the memorandum is a body corporate, the memorandum and articles of association shall be signed by director, officer or employee of the body corporate duly authorized in this behalf by a resolution of the board of directors of the body corporate and where the subscriber is a Limited Liability Partnership, it shall be signed by a partner of the Limited Liability Partnership, duly authorized by a resolution approved by all the partners of the Limited Liability Partnership:
Provided that in either case, the person so authorized shall not, at the same time, be a subscriber to the memorandum and articles of Association.
(5). Where subscriber to the memorandum is a foreign national residing outside India-
Explanation.- For the purposes of this clause, it is hereby clarified that, in case of Person is of Indian Origin or Overseas Citizen of India, requirement of business Visa shall not be applicable.
(c) Declaration from the professional
Section 7(1)((b) requires filing of a declaration in the prescribed form by an advocate, a chartered accountant, cost accountant or company secretary in practice, who is engaged in the formation of the company, and by a person named in the articles as a director, manager or secretary of the company, that all the requirements of this Act and the rules made thereunder in respect of registration and matters precedent or incidental thereto have been complied with;
Rule 14 of The Companies(Incorporation) Rules 2014 states that for the purposes of clause (b) of subsection (1) of section 7, the declaration by an advocate, a Chartered Accountant, Cost accountant or Company Secretary in practice shall be in Form No. INC.8.
Explanation (i) “chartered accountant” means a chartered accountant as defined in clause (b) of sub section (1) of section 2 of the Chartered Accountants Act, 1949 (ii) “Cost Accountant” means a cost accountant as defined in clause (b) of sub-section (1) of section 2 of the Cost and Works Accountants Act, 1959 and (iii) “company secretary” means a “company secretary” or “secretary” means as defined in clause (c) of subsection (1) of section 2 of the Company Secretaries Act, 1980.
(d) Affidavit from the subscribers to the Memorandum
Section 7(1)(c) requires the filing of an affidavit from each of the subscribers to the memorandum and from persons named as the first directors, if any, in the articles that he is not convicted of any offence in connection with the promotion, formation or management of any company, or that he has not been found guilty of any fraud or misfeasance or of any breach of duty to any company under this Act or any previous company law during the preceding five years and that all the documents filed with the Registrar for registration of the company contain information that is correct and complete and true to the best of his knowledge and belief;
Rule 15 of The Companies (Incorporation) Rules 2014 states that
For the purposes of clause (c) of sub-section (1) of section 7, the affidavit shall be submitted by each of the subscribers to the memorandum and each of the first directors named in the articles in Form No.INC.9
(e) Furnishing verification of Registered Office
Under Section 12, a company shall, on and from the 15th day of its incorporation and at all times thereafter, have a registered office capable of receiving and acknowledging all communications and notices as may be addressed to it. The company can furnish to the registrar verification of registered office with in 30 days of incorporation in the manner prescribed. As per rule 25(1) of Companies (Incorporation) Rules 2014, the verification of registered office shall be filed in Form no INC 22.
Where the location of the registered office is finalised prior to Incorporation of a company by the promoters, the promoters can also file along with the Memorandum and Articles, the verification of its Registered office in Form no INC 22.
(f) Particulars of subscribers
Section 7(1)(e) requires the filing of the particulars of name, including surname or family name, residential address, nationality and such other particulars of every subscriber to the memorandum along with proof of identity, as may be prescribed, and in the case of a subscriber being a body corporate, such particulars as may be prescribed;
Rule 16 of Companies (Incorporation) Rules states that
Particulars of every subscriber to be filed with the Registrar at the time of incorporation.
(1) The following particulars of every subscriber to the memorandum shall be filed with the Registrar-
(a) Name (including surname or family name) and recent Photograph affixed and scan with MOA and AOA:
(b) Father’s/Mother’s name:
(d) Date of Birth:
(e) Place of Birth (District and State):
(f) Educational qualification:
(h) Income-tax permanent account number:
(i) Permanent residential address and also Present address (Time since residing at present address and address of previous residence address (es) if stay of present address is less than one year) similarly the office/business addresses :
(j) Email id of Subscriber;
(k) Phone No. of Subscriber;
(l) Fax no. of Subscriber (optional)
Explanation.- information related to (i) to (l) shall be of the individual subscriber and not of the professional engaged in the incorporation of the company;
(m) Proof of Identity:
For Indian Nationals:
− PAN Card ( mandatory) and any one of the following
− Voter’s identity card
− Passport copy
− Driving License copy
− Unique Identification Number (UIN)
For Foreign nationals and Non Resident Indians
− Passport It was clarified by MCA vide Circular No. 16/2014 that, a declaration from foreign national in the prescribed format shall be furnished as an attachment of INC 7 (Application for Incorporation), in case if he does not have a PAN.
(n) Residential proof such as Bank Statement, Electricity Bill, Telephone / Mobile Bill: Provided that Bank statement Electricity bill, Telephone or Mobile bill shall not be more than two months old;
(o) Proof of nationality in case the subscriber is a foreign national.
(p) If the subscriber is already a director or promoter of a company(s), the particulars relating to-
(q) the specimen signature and latest photograph duly verified by the banker or notary shall be in the prescribed Form No.INC.10.
(2) Where the subscriber to the memorandum is a body corporate, then the following particulars shall be filed with the Registrar-
(a) Corporate Identity Number of the Company or Registration number of the body corporate, if any
(b) GLN, if any;
(c) the name of the body corporate
(d) the registered office address or principal place of business;
(e) E-mail Id;
(f) if the body corporate is a company, certified true copy of the board resolution specifying inter alia the authorization to subscribe to the memorandum of association of the proposed company and to make investment in the proposed company, the number of shares proposed to be subscribed by the body corporate, and the name, address and designation of the person authorized to subscribe to the Memorandum;
(g) if the body corporate is a limited liability partnership or partnership firm, certified true copy of the resolution agreed to by all the partners specifying inter alia the authorization to subscribe to the memorandum of association of the proposed company and to make investment in the proposed company, the number of shares proposed to be subscribed in the body corporate, and the name of the partner authorized to subscribe to the Memorandum;
(h) the particulars as specified above for subscribers in terms of clause (e) of sub- section (1) of section 7 for the person subscribing for body corporate;
(g) Particulars of first directors along with their consent to act as directors
Section 7(1)(f) requires filing of the particulars of the persons mentioned in the articles as the first directors of the company, their names, including surnames or family names, the Director Identification Number, residential address, nationality and such other particulars including proof of identity as may be prescribed.
Section 7(1)(g) states that the particulars of the interests of the persons mentioned in the articles as the first directors of the company in other firms or bodies corporate along with their consent to act as directors of the company in such form and manner as may be prescribed.
Rule 17 of Companies (Incorporation) Rules 2014 states that
The particulars of each person mentioned in the articles as first director of the company and his interest in other firms or bodies corporate along with his consent to act as director of the company shall be filed in Form No.DIR.12 along with the fee as provided in the Companies (Registration offices and fees) Rules, 2014.
As per section 152 (3), no person shall be appointed as a director of a company unless he has been allotted the Director Identification Number under section 154. Section 152(4) provides that every person proposed to be appointed as a director by the company in general meeting or otherwise, shall furnish his Director Identification Number. By virtue of section 153, every individual intending to be appointed as director of a company shall make an application for allotment of Director Identification Number in Form no Dir 3. Any individual who intends to be a director of a company will have to mandatorily apply for DIN first. DIN has to be obtained by the directors of the company before commencing the procedure for incorporation of a company.
(h) Power of Attorney
With a view to fulfilling the various formalities that are required for incorporation of a company, the promoters may appoint an attorney empowering him to carry out the instructions/requirements stipulated by the Registrar. This requires execution of a Power of Attorney on a non-judicial stamp paper of a value prescribed in the respective State Stamp Laws.
Issue of Certificate of Incorporation by Registrar
Section 7(2) states that the Registrar on the basis of documents and information filed under sub-section (1) of section 7, shall register all the documents and information referred to in that sub- section in the register and issue a certificate of incorporation in the prescribed form to the effect that the proposed company is incorporated under this Act.
From the date of incorporation mentioned in the certificate of incorporation, such subscribers to the memorandum and all other persons, as may, from time to time, become members of the company, shall be a body corporate by the name contained in the memorandum, capable of exercising all the functions of an incorporated company under this Act and having perpetual succession and a common seal with power to acquire, hold and dispose of property, both movable and immovable, tangible and intangible, to contract and to sue and be sued, by the said name. (Section 9). The subscribers would become the members of the company.
A Certificate of Incorporation given by the Registrar in respect of any association shall be conclusive evidence that all the requirements of the Act have been complied with in respect of registration and matters precedent and incidental thereto, and that the association is a company authorised to be registered and duly registered under the Act. The Certificate of Incorporation is conclusive evidence that everything is in order as regards registration and that the company has come into existence from the earliest moment of the day of incorporation stated therein with rights and liabilities of a natural person, competent to enter into contracts [Jubilee Cotton Mills Ltd. v. Lewis, (1924) (A.C. 958)]. The validity of the registration cannot be questioned after the issue of the certificate.
In Moosa v. Ebrahim ILR (1913) 40 Cal. 1 (P.C.) the Memorandum of Association of a company was signed by two adults and by a guardian of the other 5 subscribers, who were minors. The Registrar, however, registered the company and issued under his hand a Certificate of Incorporation. It was contended that this Certificate of Incorporation should be declared void. Lord Macnaughten said: "Their Lordships will assume that the conditions of registration prescribed by the Indian Companies Act were not duly complied with; that there were no seven subscribers to the Memorandum and that the Registrar ought not to have granted the certificate. But the certificate is conclusive for all purpose. Thus, the certificate prevents anyone from alleging that the company does not exist".
It is for the purpose of incorporation only that the certificate was made conclusive by the legislature and the certificate cannot legalise the illegal object contained in the Memorandum. Where the object of a company is unlawful, it has been held that the certificate of registration is not conclusive for this purpose, [Performing Right Society Ltd. v. London Theatre of Varieties (1992) 2 KB 433].
Allotment of Corporate identity number
Section 7(3) states that on and from the date mentioned in the certificate of incorporation issued under subsection (2), the Registrar shall allot to the company a corporate identity number, which shall be a distinct identity for the company and which shall also be included in the certificate.
Documents of incorporation to be preserved
Section 7(4) states that the company shall maintain and preserve at its registered office copies of all documents and information as originally filed under sub-section (1) till its dissolution under this Act.
The Procedural aspects involved in incorporation of companies is briefly given below:
Punishment for furnishing false or incorrect information at the time of incorporation
The Companies Act, 2013 imposes severe punsihment for incorporation of a company by furnishing false or incorrect information. The persons furnishing false or incorrect information shall be liable for following punishment:-
Powers of the Tribunal in case of incorporation of a company by furnishing false or incorrect information*
As per Section 7(7), where a company has been got incorporated by furnishing any false or incorrect information or representation or by suppressing any material fact or information in any of the documents or declaration filed or made for incorporating such company or by any fraudulent action, the Tribunal may, on an application made to it, on being satisfied that the situation so warrants:-
Provided that before making any order under this sub-section,—