Indian After Independence Notes - Class 8

Class 8: Indian After Independence Notes - Class 8

The document Indian After Independence Notes - Class 8 is a part of Class 8 category.
All you need of Class 8 at this link: Class 8




01
 
SHORTCUT
Return of democracy after Emergency
The period between 1975 to 1985 was a testing time for Indian democracy. It began with the state of Emergency in which basic democratic rights were denied and ended with the historic electoral victory of the Congress-led by Rajiv Gandhi. The emergence of competitive alternatives ensured that Indian voters could always exercise a reasonable choice. Political viewpoints of Socialists, Hindu nationalists, Communists, as well as sectional interests like those of farmers, dalits, backward castes, and regions among others now came to the fore and asserted their claims.  At the same time a number of non-political movements like environmental movements, feminist movement, civil liberties movement, literacy movements and so on also emerged and became powerful motors of social change. 
02
 
SHORTCUT
Election of 1977
When elections were announced in January 1977, it took everyone by surprise. No one had expected elections to be held. It was a historic election for Indian democracy. The Congress party was defeated at the national level for the first time. Mr Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy was unanimously elected as speaker of the 6th Lok Sabha and later as the President of India.  During his term of office, Mr Sanjeeva Reddy had to work with three governments under Prime Ministers Morarji Desai, Charan Singh and Indira Gandhi. The victorious Janata Party attempted to consolidate itself by dismissing nine Congress governments in the States. The Janata Party had come to power promising a restoration of democracy and freedom from authoritarian rule. The factional struggle in the party soon culminated in the fall of the government within three years leading to fresh elections in 1980. The Congress returned to power in 1980. The Congress immediately paid back the Janata in the same coin by dismissing the Janata and non-Congress governments in nine States. The actions of both the Janata Party and Congress governments weakened the federal principles. The people of many states felt alienated and wanted either greater autonomy from the centre or even wanted to go separate from India itself.
03
 
SHORTCUT
President's Rule
 As per the provision of the Constitution (article 356), the governor of a State can recommend to the President the dismissal of a State government and even dissolution of a State assembly if he or she is convinced that the government is not able to administer the State as per the Constitution. The President may then on the advice of the Prime Minister, dismiss the State government and order the Governor to take over the administration of the State. 
04
 
SHORTCUT
Andhra Pradesh
In Andhra Pradesh, there was a feeling that the Andhra Pradesh leadership was not getting respect from the national Congress leadership. This was perceived as an insult to the pride of the Telugu people. N T Rama Rao (NTR), a popular film actor, chose to take up this cause. He began the Telugu Desam Party (TDP) in 1982 which stood for the honour and self-respect of the Telugu speaking people. He promised some very important welfare measures for the poor including midday meal scheme in government schools, the sale of rice at Rs 2 per Kg to the poor and liquor prohibition. He was surreptitiously dismissed by the Governor in 1984 when he was away in the United States for a surgery.  On his return, NTR challenged the action of the Governor and proved that he had the support of the majority of the MLAs. He was reappointed as the Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh. 
05
 
SHORTCUT
Assom Movement
 Whenever there was any political instability or natural calamity in Bangladesh, thousands of Bangladeshi people moved into the State creating huge discomfort for the locals of Assam. The All Assom Students Union (AASU) was at the forefront of the agitation. It led a number of strikes, agitations and marches directed against the central government to make clear its demands -mainly to remove the so-called outsiders. The main demands were that the local people should be given greater preference in employment, the outsiders should be removed and the resources should be used for the benefit of the locals. An agreement was signed by the Central Govt and the AASU at the initiative of Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi in 1984.To restore normalcy, the Congress government in the State stepped down and allowed elections even before the end of its term. When elections were held the Assom Gana Parishad (AGP - an offshoot of AASU) came to power. It was not possible to really differentiate between old Bengali settlers and fresh immigrants or send back the immigrants. The Central Government also stepped up the deployment of armed forces in the North Eastern region to reduce tension and bring peace. As the Indian armed forces entered this difficult terrain, it led to a suspension of civil liberties and freedom and also to giving abnormal powers to the army. The government thought that this was the only way to bring about peace in the area. Thus what started as a problem between Bengalis and Assamese developed into a complex inter-community conflict in a very sensitive area.
06
 
SHORTCUT
The Punjab Agitation
Another movement for autonomy was taking shape in the State of Punjab. They believed that the State had received an unfair bargain when it was created. It laid claims to the new capital city of Chandigarh. Punjab also claimed more water from Bhakra Nangal dam and greater recruitment of Sikhs in the army. The return of the Congress in 1980 only added to already surcharged atmosphere and the feeling that the Sikhs were being discriminated against. Bhindranwale, the leader of the group of militant Sikhs began to preach separatism and also demanded the formation of a Sikh State- Khalistan. People belonging to non-Sikh communities were subjected to communal attacks. All this finally culminated in the occupation of the Golden Temple by the Sikh separatist groups and the army had to intervene to vacate the premises. A fallout of all this was the assassination of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi in 1984. This was followed by rioting especially in Delhi in which thousands of Sikhs were attacked, murdered and their properties destroyed. Though fresh elections were held in Punjab and SAD won them, the peace was short-lived as Longowal was assassinated by the militants. In April 1986, an assembly at the Akal Takht made a declaration of an independent state of Khalistan. This was a decade of violence and conflict in Punjab. The period of insurgency saw clashes of the Sikh militants with the police, as well as with other religious groups. Over a period of time effective police action broke the back of militancy and as public sympathy declined rapidly, peace finally returned to Punjab by the end of the 1990s. 
07
 
SHORTCUT
New initiatives in the Rajiv Gandhi Era
Rajiv Gandhi began a peace initiative in Punjab, Assam and Mizoram and also in the neighbouring country of Sri Lanka. India sent its army to maintain peace between the warring parties  but this turned out to be a misadventure as it was not accepted by either the Tamils or the Sri Lankan government. The fact that most people who had been poor and marginalised including, women, dalits and tribals were not getting access to the fruits of development. Rajiv Gandhi felt that the best way to do this was to ensure the participation of the mass of the people in governance by activating the Panchayati Raj Institutions. Rajiv Gandhi's  governments first budget in 1985 moved towards a more liberalised system by removing some of the checks and controls that were in place.  He initiated what is called the telecom revolution in India which speeded up and spread the network of telephonic communication in the country using satellite technology. 
08
 
SHORTCUT
Rise of Communalism and Corruption in High places
A Large number of popular movements were emerging over a number of issues under non-political leaderships. Farmers of Maharashtra were fighting under the leadership of Sharad Joshi. The observers felt that this decline in popularity led the national political parties to pander to religious feelings in both Hindu and Muslim communities so as to retain their support in elections. However, it weakened the secular fabric of Indian polity and made way for the rise of communal politics in the following decade. Around the same time charges began to be levied against several leaders that they had directly or indirectly received bribes from the Swedish manufacturers of guns being supplied to the Indian army. The issue of corruption in administration and in political circles became the main plank of the election campaign for non-congress political forces in the next elections held in 1989. 
09
 
SHORTCUT
The ‘Left Front Government’ in West Bengal
The Left wing political parties like the Communist Party of India  (CPI), Forward Block, Revolutionary Socialist Party, Communist Party of India-Marxist (CPM) won the elections in the State of West Bengal in 1977 and formed the Left Front Government led by Jyoti Basu of CPM. In June 1978, the West Bengal government launched Operation Barga to record the names of the sharecroppers who formed a major part of the agrarian population in West Bengal and to secure their rights. As a result of Operation Barga, the landlords were largely prevented from forcibly throwing the sharecroppers off the land.  Secondly, the State guaranteed that the sharecroppers would receive a fair share of the crop. In all, approximately half of rural households in West Bengal have received land reform benefits. As a result of these measures, agricultural production in West Bengal increased almost by 30% and rural poverty declined significantly.
10
 
SHORTCUT
Political concerns in the last decade of 20th century
On the one hand India was forced to open up and liberalise its economy by allowing free flow of foreign capital and goods into India; on the other hand, new social groups asserted themselves politically for the first time, and finally religious nationalism and communal political mobilisation became important features of our political life. All this put the Indian society into great turmoil. 
11
 
SHORTCUT
Towards United Kerala
Malayalees were divided by three different administrative organisations though they spoke the same language. The Payyannur Congress Conference chaired by Jawaharlal Nehru conceded a resolution demanding the reorganization of Kerala as a distinctive state after the independence. The United Kerala Resolution was passed in both the United Kerala Convention and in the United Kerala Conference. Consequently, the state of Thiru-Kochi was formed on 1 July 1949 by joining Travancore and Kochi. The state Kerala came into existence on 1 November 1956 unifying Malabar, Kochi and Thriuvithamkur. 
12
 
DEFINITION
Discuss the contribution of Lord Mountbatten
The political condition in India had become worse when Lord Mountbatten arrived in March 1947 as Viceroy. He handled the situation with great skill. He held a discussion with the Indian leaders and came to the conclusion that partition alone could solve the Indian problem. He announced his plan on June 3, 1947 to divide the nation into two parts - India and Pakistan.
13
 
DEFINITION
Discuss about the Mountbatten Plan
Lord Mountbatten announced his plan for the partition of India on June 3, 1947. The main points of the plan include partition of India into India and Pakistan, relations of the two Dominions, a Boundary Commission, Princely States, Bengal and Punjab, Sindh and North-West Frontier Province, Constituent Assembly and the transfer of power.
14
 
DEFINITION
Discuss about the two new dominions of Indian Independence Act
India would be partitioned and two independent Dominions -- India and Pakistan -- would be created from August 15, 1947. The Act provided the legislative supremacy of both the Dominions. Pakistan would comprise Sindh, British Baluchistan, North West Frontier Province, the West Punjab and East Bengal. India was to comprise all the remaining territories included in British India.
15
 
SHORTCUT
Provision of Partition
Both Bengal and Punjab would be divided if so desired by the people. A plebiscite would be held in North West Frontier Province (NWFP) as well as Sylhet district (Muslim majority area) in East Bengal to determine whether they would like to join Pakistan or India.
16
 
SHORTCUT
Governor-General for each dominion
As per the Indian Independence Act 1947, there would be a Governor-General who would be appointed by the British King on the advice of the Cabinet of the concerned Dominion. This arrangement would work till the framing of the Constitutions.
17
 
SHORTCUT
Constituent Assemblies to serve as Central Legislatures
The Indian Independence Act of 1947 stated that the Constituent Assemblies of both the dominions were to act as the Central Legislatures and would have full powers to make the laws for their respective Dominion. They would act as sovereign bodies for legislative purposes.
18
 
SHORTCUT
End of jurisdiction of the British Parliament
i) The legislative authority of the British Parliament would cease from August 15, 1947. 
ii) The title of the 'Emperor of India' and the 'King of England' were dropped from the royal style.
iii) Governor-General was given the powers to modify or adopt the Government of India Act 1935 by March 31, 1948.
iv) The right to veto laws was given to the Governor-General.
19
 
DEFINITION
Princely states
As per the Indian Independence Act of 1947, the Princely States would become independent and all the powers exercised by the British authority were to be terminated. All treaties and agreements made by the British with reference to States would lapse from August 15, 1947. They would be free to associate themselves with either Dominion or to remain independent.
20
 
SHORTCUT
Treaties and Agreements
With effect from August 15, 1947, His Majesty's government would cease to have any responsibility for the Government of India. All treaties and agreements between the British government and the rulers of the Indian States or any authority in tribal areas would lapse. 
21
 
SHORTCUT
Division of the army and the assets
Under the Indian Independence Act of 1947, provisions were made for the division of the Indian army between the two Dominions and steps were to be taken to share the assets and liabilities between the two Dominions.
22
 
SHORTCUT
Bringing the Act into Operation
The Governor-General was vested with necessary powers for bringing the Indian independence into effective operation.
23
 
SHORTCUT
Office of Secretary of State and Interest of Existing Officers
Provisions were made for safeguarding the interests of the existing officers appointed by the Secretary of State. The office of the Secretary of State for India was abolished.
24
 
DEFINITION
Independence by an Act of Legislation
Referring to the Indian Independence Act (1947), the then Secretary of State for India remarked, "The bill is unique in the history of legislation of this country. Never before has such a large portion of the world population achieved complete independence through legislation." The Act marked the end of the British rule in India. The Dominions of India and Pakistan came into existence on August 15, 1947. India became a Republic on January 26, 1950.
The document Indian After Independence Notes - Class 8 is a part of Class 8 category.
All you need of Class 8 at this link: Class 8

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