Indian National Congress UPSC Notes | EduRev

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  • The first political association Bangabhasa Prakasika Sabha was formed in 1836. In July 1838 the Zamindari Association, more popularly known as the Landholders Society of Calcutta cooperated with the British India Society founded by Mrs. Adams in London in July 1939. In April 1839 the Bengal British India Society was founded. Landholders’ Society and Bengal British India Society were merged into a new one named the British India Association on 19 October 1851.
Non-Tribal movements
  Causes and Conseuences Movements, area affected & Leaders
1 Satara Disturbances (Satara, Maharashtra 1840). Led by Dhar Rao Pawar and Narsingh Dattareya Petkar. Deposal and banishment of Pratap Singh, the popular ruler of Satara by the British. Narsing was finally defeated and captured in 1841.
2 Bu.ndela Revolt (Bundelkhand 1842). Led by Madhukar Shah and Jawahar Singh. Resentment against British land revenue policy. Madhukar Shah and Jawahar Singh was finally captured and executed by the British
3 Gadkhari Rebellion (Kolhapur 1844-45). Assumption of direct administration of Kolhapur by British and resentment of Dadkharis against revenue policy. Final suppression of the movement by the British.
4 Satavandi Revolt (Satavandi Maharashtra 1839-45). Led by Phond Savant and Anna Sahib. Deposal of Khen Savant ruler of Satavandi and resentment of people against British system of administration.
5 Raju Rebellion (Visakhapatnam 1827-33). Led by Birabhadra Raju. Birabhadra was dispossessed of his estate by the British. Birabhadra defied the British authority till his capture.
6 Reddi Rebellion (Karnool 1846-47) Led by Narasimha Reddy. Narasimha Reddi, dispossessed poligar of Karnool broke into rebellion on government refusal to pay his lapsed pension. He was finally suppressed.
7 Pagal Panthis (Bengal 1830-40s) Led by Karan Shah and his son Tipu. A semi-religious sect the Pagal Panthis rose against the oppression of the Zamindars.
8 Farazi Movement (Faridpur East Bengal 1838 to 1857). Led by Haji Shariatullah and his son Didu Mian.

Degeneration of Islamic society and loss of power to the British. It supported the cause of tenants against the zamindars. Dadu Mian was finally arrested and confined to Alipore jail.

 

  • In September 1875 Shishir Kumar Ghose founded the India League. Within a year of its foundation, the India League was superseded by the Indian Association founded on 26 July, 1876 by Anand Bose and Surendranath Banerjee. The Indian Association organised an all India agitation against the lowering of I.C.S. examination age from 21 to 19.
  • The Bombay Association was founded on 26 August, 1852. The Bombay Presidency Association in 1883 was organised by the popularly called brothers-in-law—Mehta, Telang and Tyabji. At Poona, the Poona Sarvajanic Sabha was established in 1867. The Madras Mahajan Sabha was formed in 1884.

The following may be described as the causes of the formation of the Indian National Congress:

  • Vernacular Press Act imposed by Lord Lytton, which resulted in a widespread discontent in the country.
  • Second Afghan War. The Indians felt that the British by waging Second Afghan War (1878-80) had unnecessarily intruded into Afghan affairs.
  • Lord Ripon’s Liberal Policy engendered political awakening and thirst for sharing the local administration.
  • Ilbert Bill. The controversy that ensued between the Indians and the British Government over the Ilbert Bill made the former alive to the necessity of having an All India political organisation to forge a united opposition to anti-national measures of the Government.
  • In 1885 under the inspiration of Allan Octavian Hume (1829-1912) and the silent encouragement of Dufferin, the Viceroy, the Indian National Congress was established.
  • In March 1883, Hume had addressed a letter to the graduates of the Calcutta University advising them to conduct a firm struggle for securing freedom and affirming “they who would be freed themselves must strike the blow.”
  • After his retirement from the I.C.S., Hume organized an Indian National Union in 1884 which released a memorandum for the meeting of an Indian National Conference.
  • This proposed conference met on 28 December, 1885 at the Gokuldas Tejpal High School and this was the birth of the Indian National Congress.
  • Lord Dufferin who had inspired Hume with the vision of an All India Association wanted a body of person who could perform functions similar to those of Her majesty’s Opposition in England, that is, a body engaged in the interpretation of the public will before the Government.
Peasant movements
Peasant Movements & organisations Causes, Aims & Characteristic
Indigo Revolt (Bengal 1859-60) led by Bishnu Biswas and Digambar Biswas. It was the revolt of indigo peasants against the British planters due to oppressive  conditions, low payment, rack renting &  illegal eviction. The peasants refused to take advances and enter into contract and resented the brutality of European planters.
Pabna Movement (Bengal 1870-80) led by Ishwar Chandra Roy, Shambhu Pal and Khoodi Mollah The movement rose as a result of high increase in zamindari rent. The peasant demanded changes in measurement standard, abolition of abwabs and reduction in rent.
Deccan Roits (Maharashtra 1875) Six taluks of Poona & Ahmednagar district, led by traditional headmen (Patel) The fall in the prices of cotton and a hike in land revenue forced the peasants to take loans on high rates from Gujarati and Marwari money lenders. The movement took the form of foreceful seizure & burning of debt bonds by peasants.
Romasi movement (Maharashtra 1879) led by Vasudev Balwant Phadke Due to hardships caused to the peasant by the Deccan famine of 1876-77. Phadke organised the Romasi peasants & revolted against the British and thought of establishing a Hindu Raj.
Moplah Uprising (Malabar 1836-54, 1882-85, 1896, 1921) leaders-Sayyed AlaScouts Associationwi & Sayyid Fazl The movement arose against the vastly enhanced right of Hindu Namboodri & Nair Jenmis which had worsened the condition of Muslim lease holders and cultivators, the Moplahs. The Moplahs attacked the Jenmis property & temples but was purely agrarian in nature.
Bijolia Movement (Rajasthan 1905, 1913, 1916, 1927) Leaders-Sitaram Das, Vijay Pathak Singh Manik Lal Verma & Haribabu Upadhaa The movement arose due to the imposition of 86 different types of cesses on the Kisans. The peasant refused to pay cesses, and cultivate their land and tried to migrate to neighbouring areas. In 1927, peasant adopted Satyagrah methods to fight fresh cesses & begar.
Champaran Satyagraha (Bihar 1917) It was the movement of Indigo peasants 

 

  • The idea of an All India Congress came in the mind of many Indians but the conmcrete shape was given by A.O. Hume. There is great controversy about the object which prompted A.O. Hume to take this step. Recent researches have shown that this idea was the result of discussions between A.O Hume and Lord Dufferin. He suggested him to organise a political body which would act in much the same kind of way as the opposition party did in Britain. So their primary aim was to provide an outlet “a safety for the British rule in India”. Hume himself expressed, “A safety valve for the escape of great and growing forces generated by our own action was urgently needed.”
  • He was also genuinely interested in the welfare of Indian people. He possessed a sincere love for Indian and had a mythical faith in the destiny of the Indian race and of its future greatness. The leaders who started the congress were also patriots and men of high character.
  • In the first session, Congress discussed and passed nine resolutions. Important among them are:
    •  Appointment of commission to inuire into the working of Indian administration.
    •  Abolition of the Council of the Secretary of the State for India.
    • Creation of Legislative Councils of the north-west Provinces and Avadh and the Punjab.
    • Enhancement of the number of elected members in the central and provincial legislative councils.
    • Reduction of military expenditure.
    • Introduction of simultaneous Public Service Examination in England and India and raising the age limit.

Its aims, as stated by A.O Hume in 1889, were:

  • the fusion of different elements of the Indian population.
  • the mental, moral, social and political regeneration of the nation.
  • the consolidation of the union between England and India.
  • Really, Hume wanted a loyal substitute for the Indian National Conference held in Calcutta. But soon the attitude of the Government towards the Congress began to change.
  • In 1890, the Government debarred Government officials from attending the Congress sessions.
  • In the nineteenth century, the Congress had its social base in the Western educated Indians and commercial and industrial bourgeoisie.

Indian National Congress was a truly national organisation, for:

  • It represented all races, all creeds and all communities.
  • Its membership was open to persons of all communities.
  • All communities have worked for its development.
  • It approached the country’s problems from all-India point of view.

The fundamental Principles of the Congress were:

  • To blend the heterogeneous elements of the Indian population into a single national whole.
  • To reconstruct the Indian nation mentally, morally, socially and politically.
  • To cement the union between India and England and to secure modification of conditions detrimental to the interests of the former.
  • The violent propanganda of the Congress succeeded in having some reforms enacted. Conseuently the Indian Council Act was passed in 1892 which enlarged the various Legislative Councils and extended franchise to the Chambers of Commerce, Universities, Landlords and Municiplaities. But the Act could not satisfy the younger generation.
Peasant movements
Peasant Movements & organisations Causes, Aims & Characteristic
Kaira (Kheda) Movement (Gujarat 1918). Leaders-Gandhiji & Vallabhai Patel The peasants arose against the demand of land revenue inspite of crop failure. The peasant collectively refused to pay land  revenue. Government was forced to offer terms acceptable to the peasants.

 

Barsad Satyagraha (Gujarat 1923-24) Led by Vallabhai Patel

The movement was directed against the new poll tax imposed on every adult in Barsad to pay for, the police reuired to suppress wave of dacoities. The movement took the form of non payment of the new levy.
Bardoli Satyagaha (Gujarat 1928) Led by Vallabhai Patel Against the Bombay government decision to hike the revenue on cotton by 22 per cent while its prices declined in the international market. The peasant organised no revenue movement. Ultimately the government gave up their plans to revise the rate.
Tebhaga Movement (Bengal 1946-47) To implements the Flood Commission recommendations of Tebhaga that is 2/3 of crop to the bargadrars working on the land rented from the Jotadars. Repressed by the League government.
Telengana Movement (Andhra Pradesh 1946-48) Biggest peasant guerilla war in India history. It rose against the exploitation of peasant by desmukh and jagirdars. The movement retained dimensions of national liberation struggle against the Nizams.
U.P. Kisan Sabha (1918). Founded by Indra Narayan Dwivedi & Gowri Shankar Mishra. The organization was against the threat of bedakhli eviction and the Jajmani system.
Oudh Kisan Sabha (Uttar Pradesh 1920) Founded by Jawahar Lal Nehru, Gauri Shankar Mishra and Baba Ramachandra. The Organization demanded abolition of begar, reduction of rents and social boycott of oppressive zamindars Nai Dhobi Bundh.
Eka Movement (Avadh 1921 founded by Madari Pasi) The main demands of the movement was conversion of produce (batai) into cash
Forest Satyagrah (South India 1931) Led by N.V. Rama Naidu and N.G. Ranga. It was started against the oppressive zam-andars.
All India Kisan Sabha Founded at Lucknow in 1936 with Shajananda Saraswati as its first chairman Its main demands included 50% cut in revenue rents, full occupancy right to tenants, abolition of begar, and restoration of customary forest rights.

Here After

  • A very severe famine broke out in India in 1896 and the British Government failed to cope with the exigencies of the situation.
  • The famine exacted a heavy toll of lives due to the different attitude of the government towards the suffering Indian community.
  • B.G. Tilak organised a ‘no-tax’ campaign. His plea was that the Indians were incapacitated by the famine to meet the demand of taxes.
  • The murder of two British officials at Poona intensified the repressive measures of the government who arrested Tilak on the charge of having incited the Indian through speeches and writings, to perpetrate the murder.
  • The Congress had in its fold workers of extreme and liberal views, the former were called Extremists while the latter were styled as Moderates.
  • The Moderates stood for self-government euivalent to Dominion Home Rule achieved through constitutional measures.
  • Surender Nath Banerjee and Pheroz Shah Mehta belonged to this camp and Gokhale was their leader.
  • The Extremists did not advocate constitutional agitation. Many of them harboured separatist tendencies. They were led by B.G. Tilak who had Lajpat Rai and Bipin Chandra Pal as his close adherents.
  • The regime of Lord Curzon (1890-1905), instead of appeasing the Indians, embittered the relations between the rulers and the ruled.
  • Lord Curzon’s educational policy, lavishing of money on the darbar, his hatred of Indian culture and civilisation and bifurcation of Bengal exhausted the Indian patience and forced the Indians to resort to violent measures.
  • He made as extensive use of Sedition Act. Several Congrss leaders were arrested and deported. The reign of terror had set in.
Extremist & Revolutionary Organisations
  Organisation Founders & Leaders
1 Anushilan Samiti Promotha Mitra at Calcutta, Pulin Das at Dacca
2 Abinav Bharat V.D. Savarkar
3 Mitra Mela (1904) V.D. Savarkar
4 India Home Rule Society or India House (1905, London) Shyamji Krishnaverman
5 Gadhar Movement (1913, USA) Sohan Singh Bhakna & Hardyal Other leaders Rehmet Ali Shah, Bhai Premanand, Md. Barkatullah, 
6 Indian Independence Committee (1915 Berlin) Hardyal, Virendra Chattopadhaya & Bhupendra Dutta
7 India Independence Party (1922 Berlin) Barkhatullah
8 Indian National party (Berlin) Chaidambaram Pillai, Members-Hardyal, Tarakh Nath, Barkatullah, 
9 India Independence League (1909, USA) Tarakhnath Das
10 Provincial Government of Free india (1915 Kabul) Mahendra Pratap, Barkatullah, & Obeidullah Sindhi. Helped by Prince Amanullah
11 Hindustan Republican Associa- tion (1924 Kanpur) or Hindustan Socialist RepublicanAssociation(1928) Socialist RepublicanAssociation(1928) Chandra Shekhar Azad. Leaders - Bhagat Singh, Ram Prasad Bismil, Jogesh Chandra Chatterji & Sanyal
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