Indian and World Geography Notes | EduRev

: Indian and World Geography Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ 
Indian and World Geography 
[A complete book for competitors] 
 
Prepared by – http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ 
By – D.S. Rajput  
 
 
 
{This book is very usefull for those competitors who appearing in 
the Civil Services, State PSCs, Bank PO, SSC Exams, NDA, CDS, 
Railway, and others oneday exams.} 
 
http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ 
 
2 Indian and World Geography |  http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ 
Indian Geography 
Geographical Location of India 
Indian Geographical Location 
• Lying between latitude 4' N to 37° 6' N and from longitude 68° 7' E to 97° 25' E, the country is divided into almost 
equal parts by the Tropic of Cancer (passes from Jabalpur in MP). 
• The southernmost point in Indian Territory, (in Great Nicobar Island) is the Indira Point (6° 45'), while 
Kanyakumari, also known as Cape Comorin, is the southernmost point of Indian mainland. The country thus lies 
wholly in the northern and eastern hemispheres. 
• The 82° 30' E longitude is taken as the Standard Time Meridian of India, as it passes through the middle of India 
(from Naini, near Allahabad). 
Area Geography & Boundaries Geography 
1. India stretches 3,214 km from North to South & 2,933 km from East to West. 
2. Geography Area of India : 32,87,263 sq. km. Accounts for 2.4% of the total world area and 
roughly 16% of the world population. 
3. Mainland India has a coastline of 6,100 km. Including the Lakshadweep and Andaman and Nicobar Islands, the 
coastline measures about 7516.6 km. 
4. In India, of the total land mass: 
• Plains Geography: 43.3% 
• Plateaus: 27.7% 
• Hills: 18.6% 
• Mountains Geography: 10.7% 
5. In the South, on the eastern side, the Gulf of Mannar & the Palk Strait separate India from Sri Lanka. 
6. Total land neighbours: 7 (Pakistan, Afghanistan, China, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Myanmar). 
7. India’s Islands include the Andaman & Nicobar Islands in Bay of Bengal and Lakshadweep, Minicoy & Amindive 
Islands in the Arabian Sea. 
Physiography of India 
Indian Physiography 
Physiographically, India can be divided into 3 units: 
1. Mountains in the North 
2. Plains in the Northern India & the Coast 
3. Plateau region of the South 
To these can be added the fourth, namely, the coasts and islands 
Mountains in North India 
The Himalayas in India 
Page 2


http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ 
Indian and World Geography 
[A complete book for competitors] 
 
Prepared by – http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ 
By – D.S. Rajput  
 
 
 
{This book is very usefull for those competitors who appearing in 
the Civil Services, State PSCs, Bank PO, SSC Exams, NDA, CDS, 
Railway, and others oneday exams.} 
 
http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ 
 
2 Indian and World Geography |  http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ 
Indian Geography 
Geographical Location of India 
Indian Geographical Location 
• Lying between latitude 4' N to 37° 6' N and from longitude 68° 7' E to 97° 25' E, the country is divided into almost 
equal parts by the Tropic of Cancer (passes from Jabalpur in MP). 
• The southernmost point in Indian Territory, (in Great Nicobar Island) is the Indira Point (6° 45'), while 
Kanyakumari, also known as Cape Comorin, is the southernmost point of Indian mainland. The country thus lies 
wholly in the northern and eastern hemispheres. 
• The 82° 30' E longitude is taken as the Standard Time Meridian of India, as it passes through the middle of India 
(from Naini, near Allahabad). 
Area Geography & Boundaries Geography 
1. India stretches 3,214 km from North to South & 2,933 km from East to West. 
2. Geography Area of India : 32,87,263 sq. km. Accounts for 2.4% of the total world area and 
roughly 16% of the world population. 
3. Mainland India has a coastline of 6,100 km. Including the Lakshadweep and Andaman and Nicobar Islands, the 
coastline measures about 7516.6 km. 
4. In India, of the total land mass: 
• Plains Geography: 43.3% 
• Plateaus: 27.7% 
• Hills: 18.6% 
• Mountains Geography: 10.7% 
5. In the South, on the eastern side, the Gulf of Mannar & the Palk Strait separate India from Sri Lanka. 
6. Total land neighbours: 7 (Pakistan, Afghanistan, China, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Myanmar). 
7. India’s Islands include the Andaman & Nicobar Islands in Bay of Bengal and Lakshadweep, Minicoy & Amindive 
Islands in the Arabian Sea. 
Physiography of India 
Indian Physiography 
Physiographically, India can be divided into 3 units: 
1. Mountains in the North 
2. Plains in the Northern India & the Coast 
3. Plateau region of the South 
To these can be added the fourth, namely, the coasts and islands 
Mountains in North India 
The Himalayas in India 
 
http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ 
 
3 Indian and World Geography |  http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ 
Means ‘Abode of Snow’. They are one of the youngest fold mountain ranges in the world and comprise mainly 
sedimentary rocks. 
They stretch from the Indus River in the west to the Brahmaputra River in the east. Total length is about 5000 km. The 
width of the Himalayas varies from 500 km in Kashmir to 200 km in Arunachal Pradesh. Their average height is 2000m. 
The Eastern Himalayas-made up of Patkai Hills, Naga Hills, Mizo Hills and the Garo, Khasi and Jaintia Hills-are also 
known as Purvanchal. 
The Pamir, popularly known as the Roof of the World, is the connecting link between the Himalayas and the high ranges 
of Central Asia. 
Can be divided into 3 parallel or longitudinal zones, each with separate features. 
The Great Himalayas or The Himadri 
• Average elevation extends upto 6000m & some of the world’s highest peaks are here : 
Mt Everest (or Sagarmatha or Chomo Langma) 8850 m (in Nepal) 
Mt Kanchenjunqa 8598 m (in India) 
Mt Makalu 8481 m (in Nepal) 
Mt Dhaulaqiri 81 72 m (in Nepal) 
Mt Cho Oyu 8153m (in Nepal) 
Mt Nanga Parbat 8126m (in India) 
Mt Annapurna 8078 m (in Nepal) 
Mt Nando Devi 7817 m (in India) 
• There are few passes and almost all of them have a height above 4,500 m. they include Shipki La and Bara 
Lapcha La in Himachal Pradesh, Burzil and Zozi La in Kashmir, Niti, Lipulekh and Thag La in Uttarankhand, and 
Jelep La and Nathu La in Sikkim. 
Lesser Himalayas or The Himachal 
• Average height of mountains is 3700 – 4500 m. 
• Mountains and valleys are disposed in all direction (mountains rising to 5000 m and the valleys touching 1000 m). 
• Its important ranges are : Dhauladhar, Pir Panjal, Nag Tibba, Mussoorie. 
• Important hill resorts are : Shimla, Chhail, Ranikhet, Chakrata, Mussoorie, Nainital, Almora, Darjeeling. 
Outer Himalayas or The Shiwaliks 
• Lowest range (average elevation is 900-1200 m). 
• Forms the foothills and lies between the Lesser Himalayas and the plains. It is the newest range. 
 
http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ 
 
4 Indian and World Geography |  http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ 
Trans – Himalayan Zone 
• This range lies to the north of the Great Himalayas. It has some important ranges like Karakoram, Laddakh, 
Zanskar, etc. the highest peak in this region is K2 or Godwin Austin (8611m, in Pak occupied Kashmir). Other 
high peaks are Hidden Peak (8068 m), Broad Peak (8047 m) and Gasherbrum II (8035 m). 
• The longest glacier is Siachin in the Nubra valley, which is more than 72 km long (biggest glacier in the world). 
Biafo, Baltaro, Batura, Hispar are the other important glaciers in this region. 
• This area is the largest snow-field outside the Polar Regions. 
Peninsular Mountains 
• While the Himalayas are Fold Mountains, they are not. 
• The Aravalli Mountains (Rajasthan) : World’s oldest. Guru Shikhar is the highest peak on which Mount Abu 
(1,722 m) is situated. 
• The Vindhya Mountains 
• The Satpura Mountains (highest point at Dhupgarh [1,350 m] near Pachmarhi) 
• The Western Ghats or Sahyadris : Average height 1200mtrs, 1600km long. Its southern part is separated from 
the main Sahyadri range by Palghat Gap (link between Tamil Nadu & Kerala). Other passes are Thalghat 
(connects Nasik to Mumbai) and Bhorghat (connects Pune to Mumbai). 
• The Eastern Ghats (Highest peak : Mahendra Giri (1501 m)). 
• The Nilgiris or The Blue Mountains : Meeting place of the Western and the Eastern Ghats. Two highest peaks 
are Dodda Betta and Makurti. 
• The highest peak of Peninsular India is Anaimudi (2695 m) in Anaimalai Hills. 
• Cardamom hills or Ealaimalai is the southernmost mountain range of India. 
Facts about position of states 
• UP borders the maximum number of States-8 (Uttarakhand, HP, Haryana, Rajasthan, MP, 
Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Bihar). After UP is Assam, which touches the border of 7 States. 
• Tropic of Cancer passes through 8 States : Gujarat, Rajasthan, MP, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, WB, Tripuro, 
Mizoram. 
• Indian Standard Meridian passes through 5 States : UP, MP, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, AP. 
• 9 States form the coast of India. They are : Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu. Andhra 
Pradesh, Orissa and West Bengal. 
Page 3


http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ 
Indian and World Geography 
[A complete book for competitors] 
 
Prepared by – http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ 
By – D.S. Rajput  
 
 
 
{This book is very usefull for those competitors who appearing in 
the Civil Services, State PSCs, Bank PO, SSC Exams, NDA, CDS, 
Railway, and others oneday exams.} 
 
http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ 
 
2 Indian and World Geography |  http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ 
Indian Geography 
Geographical Location of India 
Indian Geographical Location 
• Lying between latitude 4' N to 37° 6' N and from longitude 68° 7' E to 97° 25' E, the country is divided into almost 
equal parts by the Tropic of Cancer (passes from Jabalpur in MP). 
• The southernmost point in Indian Territory, (in Great Nicobar Island) is the Indira Point (6° 45'), while 
Kanyakumari, also known as Cape Comorin, is the southernmost point of Indian mainland. The country thus lies 
wholly in the northern and eastern hemispheres. 
• The 82° 30' E longitude is taken as the Standard Time Meridian of India, as it passes through the middle of India 
(from Naini, near Allahabad). 
Area Geography & Boundaries Geography 
1. India stretches 3,214 km from North to South & 2,933 km from East to West. 
2. Geography Area of India : 32,87,263 sq. km. Accounts for 2.4% of the total world area and 
roughly 16% of the world population. 
3. Mainland India has a coastline of 6,100 km. Including the Lakshadweep and Andaman and Nicobar Islands, the 
coastline measures about 7516.6 km. 
4. In India, of the total land mass: 
• Plains Geography: 43.3% 
• Plateaus: 27.7% 
• Hills: 18.6% 
• Mountains Geography: 10.7% 
5. In the South, on the eastern side, the Gulf of Mannar & the Palk Strait separate India from Sri Lanka. 
6. Total land neighbours: 7 (Pakistan, Afghanistan, China, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Myanmar). 
7. India’s Islands include the Andaman & Nicobar Islands in Bay of Bengal and Lakshadweep, Minicoy & Amindive 
Islands in the Arabian Sea. 
Physiography of India 
Indian Physiography 
Physiographically, India can be divided into 3 units: 
1. Mountains in the North 
2. Plains in the Northern India & the Coast 
3. Plateau region of the South 
To these can be added the fourth, namely, the coasts and islands 
Mountains in North India 
The Himalayas in India 
 
http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ 
 
3 Indian and World Geography |  http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ 
Means ‘Abode of Snow’. They are one of the youngest fold mountain ranges in the world and comprise mainly 
sedimentary rocks. 
They stretch from the Indus River in the west to the Brahmaputra River in the east. Total length is about 5000 km. The 
width of the Himalayas varies from 500 km in Kashmir to 200 km in Arunachal Pradesh. Their average height is 2000m. 
The Eastern Himalayas-made up of Patkai Hills, Naga Hills, Mizo Hills and the Garo, Khasi and Jaintia Hills-are also 
known as Purvanchal. 
The Pamir, popularly known as the Roof of the World, is the connecting link between the Himalayas and the high ranges 
of Central Asia. 
Can be divided into 3 parallel or longitudinal zones, each with separate features. 
The Great Himalayas or The Himadri 
• Average elevation extends upto 6000m & some of the world’s highest peaks are here : 
Mt Everest (or Sagarmatha or Chomo Langma) 8850 m (in Nepal) 
Mt Kanchenjunqa 8598 m (in India) 
Mt Makalu 8481 m (in Nepal) 
Mt Dhaulaqiri 81 72 m (in Nepal) 
Mt Cho Oyu 8153m (in Nepal) 
Mt Nanga Parbat 8126m (in India) 
Mt Annapurna 8078 m (in Nepal) 
Mt Nando Devi 7817 m (in India) 
• There are few passes and almost all of them have a height above 4,500 m. they include Shipki La and Bara 
Lapcha La in Himachal Pradesh, Burzil and Zozi La in Kashmir, Niti, Lipulekh and Thag La in Uttarankhand, and 
Jelep La and Nathu La in Sikkim. 
Lesser Himalayas or The Himachal 
• Average height of mountains is 3700 – 4500 m. 
• Mountains and valleys are disposed in all direction (mountains rising to 5000 m and the valleys touching 1000 m). 
• Its important ranges are : Dhauladhar, Pir Panjal, Nag Tibba, Mussoorie. 
• Important hill resorts are : Shimla, Chhail, Ranikhet, Chakrata, Mussoorie, Nainital, Almora, Darjeeling. 
Outer Himalayas or The Shiwaliks 
• Lowest range (average elevation is 900-1200 m). 
• Forms the foothills and lies between the Lesser Himalayas and the plains. It is the newest range. 
 
http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ 
 
4 Indian and World Geography |  http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ 
Trans – Himalayan Zone 
• This range lies to the north of the Great Himalayas. It has some important ranges like Karakoram, Laddakh, 
Zanskar, etc. the highest peak in this region is K2 or Godwin Austin (8611m, in Pak occupied Kashmir). Other 
high peaks are Hidden Peak (8068 m), Broad Peak (8047 m) and Gasherbrum II (8035 m). 
• The longest glacier is Siachin in the Nubra valley, which is more than 72 km long (biggest glacier in the world). 
Biafo, Baltaro, Batura, Hispar are the other important glaciers in this region. 
• This area is the largest snow-field outside the Polar Regions. 
Peninsular Mountains 
• While the Himalayas are Fold Mountains, they are not. 
• The Aravalli Mountains (Rajasthan) : World’s oldest. Guru Shikhar is the highest peak on which Mount Abu 
(1,722 m) is situated. 
• The Vindhya Mountains 
• The Satpura Mountains (highest point at Dhupgarh [1,350 m] near Pachmarhi) 
• The Western Ghats or Sahyadris : Average height 1200mtrs, 1600km long. Its southern part is separated from 
the main Sahyadri range by Palghat Gap (link between Tamil Nadu & Kerala). Other passes are Thalghat 
(connects Nasik to Mumbai) and Bhorghat (connects Pune to Mumbai). 
• The Eastern Ghats (Highest peak : Mahendra Giri (1501 m)). 
• The Nilgiris or The Blue Mountains : Meeting place of the Western and the Eastern Ghats. Two highest peaks 
are Dodda Betta and Makurti. 
• The highest peak of Peninsular India is Anaimudi (2695 m) in Anaimalai Hills. 
• Cardamom hills or Ealaimalai is the southernmost mountain range of India. 
Facts about position of states 
• UP borders the maximum number of States-8 (Uttarakhand, HP, Haryana, Rajasthan, MP, 
Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Bihar). After UP is Assam, which touches the border of 7 States. 
• Tropic of Cancer passes through 8 States : Gujarat, Rajasthan, MP, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, WB, Tripuro, 
Mizoram. 
• Indian Standard Meridian passes through 5 States : UP, MP, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, AP. 
• 9 States form the coast of India. They are : Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu. Andhra 
Pradesh, Orissa and West Bengal. 
 
http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ 
 
5 Indian and World Geography |  http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ 
• 2 Union Territories, viz. Daman & Diu and Pondicherry are also on the coast. 
• The Union Territories of Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Lakshadweep are made up of islands only. 
The Plains of India 
• To the south of the Himalayas and to the north of the Peninsula lies the great plains of North India. They are 
formed by the depositional works of three major river systems, Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra. The vast plains of 
north India are alluvial in nature and the westernmost portion is occupied by the Thar Desert. 
• The thickness of the alluvium is maximum in the Ganga plains and minimum in the Western Plains. 
• In the Kerala plains are the backwaters or ‘Kayak’, which are the shallow lagoons or inlets of the sea, lying 
parallel to the coastline. The largest among these is the Vembanad Lake. 
• The plains consist of four divisions: 
• Bhabar : Along the foothills of Shiwaliks. Highly porous 
• Tarai : Re-emergence of streams. Zone of excessive dampness 
• Bhangar : Older alluvium of the plains. Studded with calcareous formations called ‘kankar’ 
• Khadar : New alluvium and forms the flood plains along the river banks. 
Peninsular Plateau of India 
• Spreads south of the Indo-Gangetic plains flanked by sea on three sides. This plateau is shaped like a triangle 
with its base in the north. The Eastern Ghats and the Western Ghats constitute its eastern and western 
boundaries, respectively. 
• Narmada, which flows through a rift valley, divides the region into two parts: The Malwa Plateau in the north & the 
Deccan Plateau in the south. 
• Most of the rocks are of the igneous type. 
• Vindhya Plateau is situated south of Malwa plateau. 
• Chhota Nagpur Plateau lies to the west of Bengal basin, the largest and most typical part of which is the Ranchi 
plateau. 
• The Deccan Plateau is the largest plateau in India. It is made up of lava flows in the Cretaceous-Eocene era 
through the fissure eruptions. 
Islands of India 
• Total coastline of India : 7516 km. Longest coastline: Gujarat (Second longest is of Andhra Pradesh). 
• Indian territorial limits include 248 islands: 
 
 
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6 Indian and World Geography |  http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ 
The Andaman and Nicobar Group 
• Andamans is a group of 204 islands of which the largest is Middle Andaman. 
• The Andamans are believed to be extensions of mountains system in the N.E. part of the country. 
• Saddle Peak (737 m) in N.Andaman is the highest peak. 
• The Nicobars is a group of 19 islands of which the largest is Great Nicobar. Most of them are volcanic in nature. 
• Great Nicobar is the southernmost island and is only 147 km away from Sumatra island of Indonesia. 
• Volcanic Islands: Barren and Narcondam Islands. Barren is in the process of eruption these days after lying 
dormant for 200 years. 
The Arabian Sea Group 
• All the islands in the Arabian Sea (Total 25) are coral islands and are surrounded by Fringing Reefs (North : 
Lakshadweep, South: Minicoy). 
Note : 
• Ten Degree Channel separates Andamans from Nicobars (Little Andaman from Car Nicobar) 
• Duncan Passage lies between South Andaman and Little Andaman. 
• Nine Degree Channel separates Kavaratti from Minicoy Island. 
• Eight Degree Channel separates Minicoy Island (India) from Maldives. 
 
Rivers of India 
In India, the rivers can be divided into two main groups: 
1. Himalayan Rivers 
2. Peninsular Rivers 
Himalayan Rivers of India 
In this three major river systems are there: 
The Indus System 
• It has a total length of 2880 km (709 km in India). Rises in Tibet (China) near Mansarovar Lake. 
• In Jammu and Kashmir, its Himalayan tributaries are: Zanskar, Dras, Gartang, Shyok, Shigar, Nubra, Gilgit, etc. 
Page 4


http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ 
Indian and World Geography 
[A complete book for competitors] 
 
Prepared by – http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ 
By – D.S. Rajput  
 
 
 
{This book is very usefull for those competitors who appearing in 
the Civil Services, State PSCs, Bank PO, SSC Exams, NDA, CDS, 
Railway, and others oneday exams.} 
 
http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ 
 
2 Indian and World Geography |  http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ 
Indian Geography 
Geographical Location of India 
Indian Geographical Location 
• Lying between latitude 4' N to 37° 6' N and from longitude 68° 7' E to 97° 25' E, the country is divided into almost 
equal parts by the Tropic of Cancer (passes from Jabalpur in MP). 
• The southernmost point in Indian Territory, (in Great Nicobar Island) is the Indira Point (6° 45'), while 
Kanyakumari, also known as Cape Comorin, is the southernmost point of Indian mainland. The country thus lies 
wholly in the northern and eastern hemispheres. 
• The 82° 30' E longitude is taken as the Standard Time Meridian of India, as it passes through the middle of India 
(from Naini, near Allahabad). 
Area Geography & Boundaries Geography 
1. India stretches 3,214 km from North to South & 2,933 km from East to West. 
2. Geography Area of India : 32,87,263 sq. km. Accounts for 2.4% of the total world area and 
roughly 16% of the world population. 
3. Mainland India has a coastline of 6,100 km. Including the Lakshadweep and Andaman and Nicobar Islands, the 
coastline measures about 7516.6 km. 
4. In India, of the total land mass: 
• Plains Geography: 43.3% 
• Plateaus: 27.7% 
• Hills: 18.6% 
• Mountains Geography: 10.7% 
5. In the South, on the eastern side, the Gulf of Mannar & the Palk Strait separate India from Sri Lanka. 
6. Total land neighbours: 7 (Pakistan, Afghanistan, China, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Myanmar). 
7. India’s Islands include the Andaman & Nicobar Islands in Bay of Bengal and Lakshadweep, Minicoy & Amindive 
Islands in the Arabian Sea. 
Physiography of India 
Indian Physiography 
Physiographically, India can be divided into 3 units: 
1. Mountains in the North 
2. Plains in the Northern India & the Coast 
3. Plateau region of the South 
To these can be added the fourth, namely, the coasts and islands 
Mountains in North India 
The Himalayas in India 
 
http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ 
 
3 Indian and World Geography |  http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ 
Means ‘Abode of Snow’. They are one of the youngest fold mountain ranges in the world and comprise mainly 
sedimentary rocks. 
They stretch from the Indus River in the west to the Brahmaputra River in the east. Total length is about 5000 km. The 
width of the Himalayas varies from 500 km in Kashmir to 200 km in Arunachal Pradesh. Their average height is 2000m. 
The Eastern Himalayas-made up of Patkai Hills, Naga Hills, Mizo Hills and the Garo, Khasi and Jaintia Hills-are also 
known as Purvanchal. 
The Pamir, popularly known as the Roof of the World, is the connecting link between the Himalayas and the high ranges 
of Central Asia. 
Can be divided into 3 parallel or longitudinal zones, each with separate features. 
The Great Himalayas or The Himadri 
• Average elevation extends upto 6000m & some of the world’s highest peaks are here : 
Mt Everest (or Sagarmatha or Chomo Langma) 8850 m (in Nepal) 
Mt Kanchenjunqa 8598 m (in India) 
Mt Makalu 8481 m (in Nepal) 
Mt Dhaulaqiri 81 72 m (in Nepal) 
Mt Cho Oyu 8153m (in Nepal) 
Mt Nanga Parbat 8126m (in India) 
Mt Annapurna 8078 m (in Nepal) 
Mt Nando Devi 7817 m (in India) 
• There are few passes and almost all of them have a height above 4,500 m. they include Shipki La and Bara 
Lapcha La in Himachal Pradesh, Burzil and Zozi La in Kashmir, Niti, Lipulekh and Thag La in Uttarankhand, and 
Jelep La and Nathu La in Sikkim. 
Lesser Himalayas or The Himachal 
• Average height of mountains is 3700 – 4500 m. 
• Mountains and valleys are disposed in all direction (mountains rising to 5000 m and the valleys touching 1000 m). 
• Its important ranges are : Dhauladhar, Pir Panjal, Nag Tibba, Mussoorie. 
• Important hill resorts are : Shimla, Chhail, Ranikhet, Chakrata, Mussoorie, Nainital, Almora, Darjeeling. 
Outer Himalayas or The Shiwaliks 
• Lowest range (average elevation is 900-1200 m). 
• Forms the foothills and lies between the Lesser Himalayas and the plains. It is the newest range. 
 
http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ 
 
4 Indian and World Geography |  http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ 
Trans – Himalayan Zone 
• This range lies to the north of the Great Himalayas. It has some important ranges like Karakoram, Laddakh, 
Zanskar, etc. the highest peak in this region is K2 or Godwin Austin (8611m, in Pak occupied Kashmir). Other 
high peaks are Hidden Peak (8068 m), Broad Peak (8047 m) and Gasherbrum II (8035 m). 
• The longest glacier is Siachin in the Nubra valley, which is more than 72 km long (biggest glacier in the world). 
Biafo, Baltaro, Batura, Hispar are the other important glaciers in this region. 
• This area is the largest snow-field outside the Polar Regions. 
Peninsular Mountains 
• While the Himalayas are Fold Mountains, they are not. 
• The Aravalli Mountains (Rajasthan) : World’s oldest. Guru Shikhar is the highest peak on which Mount Abu 
(1,722 m) is situated. 
• The Vindhya Mountains 
• The Satpura Mountains (highest point at Dhupgarh [1,350 m] near Pachmarhi) 
• The Western Ghats or Sahyadris : Average height 1200mtrs, 1600km long. Its southern part is separated from 
the main Sahyadri range by Palghat Gap (link between Tamil Nadu & Kerala). Other passes are Thalghat 
(connects Nasik to Mumbai) and Bhorghat (connects Pune to Mumbai). 
• The Eastern Ghats (Highest peak : Mahendra Giri (1501 m)). 
• The Nilgiris or The Blue Mountains : Meeting place of the Western and the Eastern Ghats. Two highest peaks 
are Dodda Betta and Makurti. 
• The highest peak of Peninsular India is Anaimudi (2695 m) in Anaimalai Hills. 
• Cardamom hills or Ealaimalai is the southernmost mountain range of India. 
Facts about position of states 
• UP borders the maximum number of States-8 (Uttarakhand, HP, Haryana, Rajasthan, MP, 
Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Bihar). After UP is Assam, which touches the border of 7 States. 
• Tropic of Cancer passes through 8 States : Gujarat, Rajasthan, MP, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, WB, Tripuro, 
Mizoram. 
• Indian Standard Meridian passes through 5 States : UP, MP, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, AP. 
• 9 States form the coast of India. They are : Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu. Andhra 
Pradesh, Orissa and West Bengal. 
 
http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ 
 
5 Indian and World Geography |  http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ 
• 2 Union Territories, viz. Daman & Diu and Pondicherry are also on the coast. 
• The Union Territories of Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Lakshadweep are made up of islands only. 
The Plains of India 
• To the south of the Himalayas and to the north of the Peninsula lies the great plains of North India. They are 
formed by the depositional works of three major river systems, Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra. The vast plains of 
north India are alluvial in nature and the westernmost portion is occupied by the Thar Desert. 
• The thickness of the alluvium is maximum in the Ganga plains and minimum in the Western Plains. 
• In the Kerala plains are the backwaters or ‘Kayak’, which are the shallow lagoons or inlets of the sea, lying 
parallel to the coastline. The largest among these is the Vembanad Lake. 
• The plains consist of four divisions: 
• Bhabar : Along the foothills of Shiwaliks. Highly porous 
• Tarai : Re-emergence of streams. Zone of excessive dampness 
• Bhangar : Older alluvium of the plains. Studded with calcareous formations called ‘kankar’ 
• Khadar : New alluvium and forms the flood plains along the river banks. 
Peninsular Plateau of India 
• Spreads south of the Indo-Gangetic plains flanked by sea on three sides. This plateau is shaped like a triangle 
with its base in the north. The Eastern Ghats and the Western Ghats constitute its eastern and western 
boundaries, respectively. 
• Narmada, which flows through a rift valley, divides the region into two parts: The Malwa Plateau in the north & the 
Deccan Plateau in the south. 
• Most of the rocks are of the igneous type. 
• Vindhya Plateau is situated south of Malwa plateau. 
• Chhota Nagpur Plateau lies to the west of Bengal basin, the largest and most typical part of which is the Ranchi 
plateau. 
• The Deccan Plateau is the largest plateau in India. It is made up of lava flows in the Cretaceous-Eocene era 
through the fissure eruptions. 
Islands of India 
• Total coastline of India : 7516 km. Longest coastline: Gujarat (Second longest is of Andhra Pradesh). 
• Indian territorial limits include 248 islands: 
 
 
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6 Indian and World Geography |  http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ 
The Andaman and Nicobar Group 
• Andamans is a group of 204 islands of which the largest is Middle Andaman. 
• The Andamans are believed to be extensions of mountains system in the N.E. part of the country. 
• Saddle Peak (737 m) in N.Andaman is the highest peak. 
• The Nicobars is a group of 19 islands of which the largest is Great Nicobar. Most of them are volcanic in nature. 
• Great Nicobar is the southernmost island and is only 147 km away from Sumatra island of Indonesia. 
• Volcanic Islands: Barren and Narcondam Islands. Barren is in the process of eruption these days after lying 
dormant for 200 years. 
The Arabian Sea Group 
• All the islands in the Arabian Sea (Total 25) are coral islands and are surrounded by Fringing Reefs (North : 
Lakshadweep, South: Minicoy). 
Note : 
• Ten Degree Channel separates Andamans from Nicobars (Little Andaman from Car Nicobar) 
• Duncan Passage lies between South Andaman and Little Andaman. 
• Nine Degree Channel separates Kavaratti from Minicoy Island. 
• Eight Degree Channel separates Minicoy Island (India) from Maldives. 
 
Rivers of India 
In India, the rivers can be divided into two main groups: 
1. Himalayan Rivers 
2. Peninsular Rivers 
Himalayan Rivers of India 
In this three major river systems are there: 
The Indus System 
• It has a total length of 2880 km (709 km in India). Rises in Tibet (China) near Mansarovar Lake. 
• In Jammu and Kashmir, its Himalayan tributaries are: Zanskar, Dras, Gartang, Shyok, Shigar, Nubra, Gilgit, etc. 
 
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7 Indian and World Geography |  http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ 
• Its most important tributaries, which join Indus at various places, are: Jhelum (725 km), Chenab (1800 km), Ravi 
(720 km), Beas (470 km) & Sutlej (1050 km). 
• Sources: Jhelum from Verinag (SE Kashmir), Chenab from Bara Lacha Pass (Lahaul-Spiti, H.R), Ravi from Kullu 
Hills near Rohtang Pass in H. R, Beas from a place near Rohtang Pass in H.E and Satluj from Mansarovar – 
Rakas lakes in W. Tibet. 
• In Nari Khorsan province of Tibet, Satluj has created an extraordinary canyon, comparable to the Grand Canyon 
of Colorado (US). 
• According to the Indus Water Treaty signed between India and Pakistan in 1960, India can utilize only 20% of the 
total discharge of Indus, Jhelum and Chenab. 
The Ganga System 
• It is 2525 km long of which 1450 km is in Uttarakhand and UP, 445 km in Bihar and 520 km in West Bengal. 
• The Ganga, the head stream is constituted of two main rivers – Bhagirthi and Alaknanda, which combine at 
Devprayag to form Ganga. 
• Before Alaknanda meets Bhagirthi at Devprayag, Mandakini meets Alaknanda at Rudraprayag. 
• Sources: Bhagirthi from Gaumukh, Alaknanda from Badrinath, Mandakini from Kedarnath (all from Uttarakhand). 
• Yamuna (1375 km) is its most important tributary (on right bank). It rises at the Yamunotri glacier in Uttarakhand. 
It runs parallel to Ganga for 800km and joins it at Allahabad. Important tributaries of Yamuna are Chambal (1050 
km), Sind, Betwa (480 km) and Ken (all from south). 
• Apart from Yamuna, other tributaries of Ganga are Ghaghra (1080 km), Son (780 km), Gandak (425 km), Kosi 
(730 km), Gomti (805 km), Damodar (541 km). Kosi is infamous as ‘Sorrow of Bihar’, while Damodar gets the 
name ‘Sorrow of Bengal’ as these cause floods in these regions. 
• Hooghli is a distributory of Ganga flowing through Kolkata. 
The Brahmaputra system 
• It has a total length of 2900 km. It rises in Tibet (from Chemayungdung glacier), where it is called Tsangpo, and 
enters the Indian territory (in Arunachal Pradesh) under the name Dihang. 
• Important Tributaries: Subansiri, Kameng, Dhansiri, Manas, Teesta. 
• In Bangladesh, Brahmaputra is known by the name of Jamuna while Ganga gets the name Padma. Their 
combined stream is known as Padma only. Meghna is the most important distributory before it enters the Bay of 
Bengal. 
• The combined stream of Ganga and Brahmaputra forms the biggest delta in the world, the Sundarbans, covering 
an area of 58,752 sq. km. Its major part is in Bangladesh. 
• On Brahmaputra is the river island, Majuli in Assam, the biggest river island in the world. 
• Brahmaputra, or the Red River, is navigable for a distance of 1384 km up to Dibrugarh and serves as an excellent 
inland water transport route. 
Rivers of the Peninsula in India 
• Different from the Himalayan rivers because they are seasonable in their flow (while Himalayan rivers are 
perennial). 
• They can be divided into two groups: 
A. East Flowing Rivers of India (or Delta forming rivers) 
 
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8 Indian and World Geography |  http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ 
• Mahanadi River (858 km) : Rises in Raipur distt. in Chhatisgarh. Main tributaries: lb, Seonath, Hasdo, Mand, 
Jonk, Tel, etc. 
• Godavari River (1465 km) : Also called Vriddha Ganga or Dakshina Ganga. It is the longest peninsular river. 
Rises in Nasik. Main tributaries: Manjra, Penganga, Wardha, Indravati, Wainganga, Sabari, etc. 
• Krishna River (1327 km) : Rises in Western Ghats near Mahabaleshwar. Main tributaries: Koyna, Dudhganga, 
Panchganga, Malprabha, Ghatprabha, Bhima, Tungabhadra, Musi, etc. 
• Cauvery River (805 km) : It is the largest peninsular river (maximum amount of water). Infact, it is the only 
peninsular river which flows almost throughout the year. Known as the ‘Ganga of the South’. It rises from the 
Brahmagir range of Western Ghats. Main tributaries: Hemavati, Lokpawni, Shimsa. It is less seasonal than others 
as its upper catchment area receives rainfall during summer by the S.W monsoon and the lower catchment area 
during winter season by the retreating N.E. monsoon. Its 90% – 95% irrigation and power production potential is 
already being harnessed. 
• Swarnarekha River (395 km) and Brahmani (705 km) : Rises from Ranchi Plateau. 
B. West Flowing Rivers in India 
• Narmada River (1057 km) : Has only l/10th part in Gujarat. Rises in Amarkantak Plateau and flows into Gulf of 
Khambat. It forms the famous Dhuan Dhar Falls near Jabalpur. Main tributaries: Hiran, Burhner, Banjar, Shar, 
Shakkar, Tawa, etc. 
• Tapti River (724 km) : Rises from Betul distt in MR Also known as twin or handmaid of Narmada. Main 
tributaries: Purna, Betul, Arunavati, Ganjal, etc. 
• Sabarmati River (416 km) : Rises from Aravallis in Rajasthan. 
• Mahi River (560 km) : Rises from Vindhyas in MR 
• Luni River (450 km) : Rises from Aravallis. Also called Salt River. It is finally lost in the marshy grounds at the 
head of the Rann of Kuchchh. 
• Sharavati is a west flowing river of the Sahyadris. It forms the famous Jog or Gersoppa or Mahatma Gandhi Falls 
(289 m), which is the highest waterfall in India. 
Inland Drainage 
• Some rivers of India are not able to reach the sea and constitute inland drainage. Ghaggar (494 km) is the most 
important of such drainage. 
• It is a seasonal stream which rises on the lower slopes of the Himalayas and gets lost in the dry sands of 
Rajasthan near Hanumangarh. It is considered the old Saraswati of the Vedic times. 
Note: 
• The largest man-made lake in India is Indira Sagar Lake, which is the reservoir of Sardar Sarovar Project, 
Onkareshwar Project and Maheshwar Project in Gujarat-MP. 
Page 5


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Indian and World Geography 
[A complete book for competitors] 
 
Prepared by – http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ 
By – D.S. Rajput  
 
 
 
{This book is very usefull for those competitors who appearing in 
the Civil Services, State PSCs, Bank PO, SSC Exams, NDA, CDS, 
Railway, and others oneday exams.} 
 
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2 Indian and World Geography |  http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ 
Indian Geography 
Geographical Location of India 
Indian Geographical Location 
• Lying between latitude 4' N to 37° 6' N and from longitude 68° 7' E to 97° 25' E, the country is divided into almost 
equal parts by the Tropic of Cancer (passes from Jabalpur in MP). 
• The southernmost point in Indian Territory, (in Great Nicobar Island) is the Indira Point (6° 45'), while 
Kanyakumari, also known as Cape Comorin, is the southernmost point of Indian mainland. The country thus lies 
wholly in the northern and eastern hemispheres. 
• The 82° 30' E longitude is taken as the Standard Time Meridian of India, as it passes through the middle of India 
(from Naini, near Allahabad). 
Area Geography & Boundaries Geography 
1. India stretches 3,214 km from North to South & 2,933 km from East to West. 
2. Geography Area of India : 32,87,263 sq. km. Accounts for 2.4% of the total world area and 
roughly 16% of the world population. 
3. Mainland India has a coastline of 6,100 km. Including the Lakshadweep and Andaman and Nicobar Islands, the 
coastline measures about 7516.6 km. 
4. In India, of the total land mass: 
• Plains Geography: 43.3% 
• Plateaus: 27.7% 
• Hills: 18.6% 
• Mountains Geography: 10.7% 
5. In the South, on the eastern side, the Gulf of Mannar & the Palk Strait separate India from Sri Lanka. 
6. Total land neighbours: 7 (Pakistan, Afghanistan, China, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Myanmar). 
7. India’s Islands include the Andaman & Nicobar Islands in Bay of Bengal and Lakshadweep, Minicoy & Amindive 
Islands in the Arabian Sea. 
Physiography of India 
Indian Physiography 
Physiographically, India can be divided into 3 units: 
1. Mountains in the North 
2. Plains in the Northern India & the Coast 
3. Plateau region of the South 
To these can be added the fourth, namely, the coasts and islands 
Mountains in North India 
The Himalayas in India 
 
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3 Indian and World Geography |  http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ 
Means ‘Abode of Snow’. They are one of the youngest fold mountain ranges in the world and comprise mainly 
sedimentary rocks. 
They stretch from the Indus River in the west to the Brahmaputra River in the east. Total length is about 5000 km. The 
width of the Himalayas varies from 500 km in Kashmir to 200 km in Arunachal Pradesh. Their average height is 2000m. 
The Eastern Himalayas-made up of Patkai Hills, Naga Hills, Mizo Hills and the Garo, Khasi and Jaintia Hills-are also 
known as Purvanchal. 
The Pamir, popularly known as the Roof of the World, is the connecting link between the Himalayas and the high ranges 
of Central Asia. 
Can be divided into 3 parallel or longitudinal zones, each with separate features. 
The Great Himalayas or The Himadri 
• Average elevation extends upto 6000m & some of the world’s highest peaks are here : 
Mt Everest (or Sagarmatha or Chomo Langma) 8850 m (in Nepal) 
Mt Kanchenjunqa 8598 m (in India) 
Mt Makalu 8481 m (in Nepal) 
Mt Dhaulaqiri 81 72 m (in Nepal) 
Mt Cho Oyu 8153m (in Nepal) 
Mt Nanga Parbat 8126m (in India) 
Mt Annapurna 8078 m (in Nepal) 
Mt Nando Devi 7817 m (in India) 
• There are few passes and almost all of them have a height above 4,500 m. they include Shipki La and Bara 
Lapcha La in Himachal Pradesh, Burzil and Zozi La in Kashmir, Niti, Lipulekh and Thag La in Uttarankhand, and 
Jelep La and Nathu La in Sikkim. 
Lesser Himalayas or The Himachal 
• Average height of mountains is 3700 – 4500 m. 
• Mountains and valleys are disposed in all direction (mountains rising to 5000 m and the valleys touching 1000 m). 
• Its important ranges are : Dhauladhar, Pir Panjal, Nag Tibba, Mussoorie. 
• Important hill resorts are : Shimla, Chhail, Ranikhet, Chakrata, Mussoorie, Nainital, Almora, Darjeeling. 
Outer Himalayas or The Shiwaliks 
• Lowest range (average elevation is 900-1200 m). 
• Forms the foothills and lies between the Lesser Himalayas and the plains. It is the newest range. 
 
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4 Indian and World Geography |  http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ 
Trans – Himalayan Zone 
• This range lies to the north of the Great Himalayas. It has some important ranges like Karakoram, Laddakh, 
Zanskar, etc. the highest peak in this region is K2 or Godwin Austin (8611m, in Pak occupied Kashmir). Other 
high peaks are Hidden Peak (8068 m), Broad Peak (8047 m) and Gasherbrum II (8035 m). 
• The longest glacier is Siachin in the Nubra valley, which is more than 72 km long (biggest glacier in the world). 
Biafo, Baltaro, Batura, Hispar are the other important glaciers in this region. 
• This area is the largest snow-field outside the Polar Regions. 
Peninsular Mountains 
• While the Himalayas are Fold Mountains, they are not. 
• The Aravalli Mountains (Rajasthan) : World’s oldest. Guru Shikhar is the highest peak on which Mount Abu 
(1,722 m) is situated. 
• The Vindhya Mountains 
• The Satpura Mountains (highest point at Dhupgarh [1,350 m] near Pachmarhi) 
• The Western Ghats or Sahyadris : Average height 1200mtrs, 1600km long. Its southern part is separated from 
the main Sahyadri range by Palghat Gap (link between Tamil Nadu & Kerala). Other passes are Thalghat 
(connects Nasik to Mumbai) and Bhorghat (connects Pune to Mumbai). 
• The Eastern Ghats (Highest peak : Mahendra Giri (1501 m)). 
• The Nilgiris or The Blue Mountains : Meeting place of the Western and the Eastern Ghats. Two highest peaks 
are Dodda Betta and Makurti. 
• The highest peak of Peninsular India is Anaimudi (2695 m) in Anaimalai Hills. 
• Cardamom hills or Ealaimalai is the southernmost mountain range of India. 
Facts about position of states 
• UP borders the maximum number of States-8 (Uttarakhand, HP, Haryana, Rajasthan, MP, 
Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Bihar). After UP is Assam, which touches the border of 7 States. 
• Tropic of Cancer passes through 8 States : Gujarat, Rajasthan, MP, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, WB, Tripuro, 
Mizoram. 
• Indian Standard Meridian passes through 5 States : UP, MP, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, AP. 
• 9 States form the coast of India. They are : Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu. Andhra 
Pradesh, Orissa and West Bengal. 
 
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5 Indian and World Geography |  http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ 
• 2 Union Territories, viz. Daman & Diu and Pondicherry are also on the coast. 
• The Union Territories of Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Lakshadweep are made up of islands only. 
The Plains of India 
• To the south of the Himalayas and to the north of the Peninsula lies the great plains of North India. They are 
formed by the depositional works of three major river systems, Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra. The vast plains of 
north India are alluvial in nature and the westernmost portion is occupied by the Thar Desert. 
• The thickness of the alluvium is maximum in the Ganga plains and minimum in the Western Plains. 
• In the Kerala plains are the backwaters or ‘Kayak’, which are the shallow lagoons or inlets of the sea, lying 
parallel to the coastline. The largest among these is the Vembanad Lake. 
• The plains consist of four divisions: 
• Bhabar : Along the foothills of Shiwaliks. Highly porous 
• Tarai : Re-emergence of streams. Zone of excessive dampness 
• Bhangar : Older alluvium of the plains. Studded with calcareous formations called ‘kankar’ 
• Khadar : New alluvium and forms the flood plains along the river banks. 
Peninsular Plateau of India 
• Spreads south of the Indo-Gangetic plains flanked by sea on three sides. This plateau is shaped like a triangle 
with its base in the north. The Eastern Ghats and the Western Ghats constitute its eastern and western 
boundaries, respectively. 
• Narmada, which flows through a rift valley, divides the region into two parts: The Malwa Plateau in the north & the 
Deccan Plateau in the south. 
• Most of the rocks are of the igneous type. 
• Vindhya Plateau is situated south of Malwa plateau. 
• Chhota Nagpur Plateau lies to the west of Bengal basin, the largest and most typical part of which is the Ranchi 
plateau. 
• The Deccan Plateau is the largest plateau in India. It is made up of lava flows in the Cretaceous-Eocene era 
through the fissure eruptions. 
Islands of India 
• Total coastline of India : 7516 km. Longest coastline: Gujarat (Second longest is of Andhra Pradesh). 
• Indian territorial limits include 248 islands: 
 
 
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6 Indian and World Geography |  http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ 
The Andaman and Nicobar Group 
• Andamans is a group of 204 islands of which the largest is Middle Andaman. 
• The Andamans are believed to be extensions of mountains system in the N.E. part of the country. 
• Saddle Peak (737 m) in N.Andaman is the highest peak. 
• The Nicobars is a group of 19 islands of which the largest is Great Nicobar. Most of them are volcanic in nature. 
• Great Nicobar is the southernmost island and is only 147 km away from Sumatra island of Indonesia. 
• Volcanic Islands: Barren and Narcondam Islands. Barren is in the process of eruption these days after lying 
dormant for 200 years. 
The Arabian Sea Group 
• All the islands in the Arabian Sea (Total 25) are coral islands and are surrounded by Fringing Reefs (North : 
Lakshadweep, South: Minicoy). 
Note : 
• Ten Degree Channel separates Andamans from Nicobars (Little Andaman from Car Nicobar) 
• Duncan Passage lies between South Andaman and Little Andaman. 
• Nine Degree Channel separates Kavaratti from Minicoy Island. 
• Eight Degree Channel separates Minicoy Island (India) from Maldives. 
 
Rivers of India 
In India, the rivers can be divided into two main groups: 
1. Himalayan Rivers 
2. Peninsular Rivers 
Himalayan Rivers of India 
In this three major river systems are there: 
The Indus System 
• It has a total length of 2880 km (709 km in India). Rises in Tibet (China) near Mansarovar Lake. 
• In Jammu and Kashmir, its Himalayan tributaries are: Zanskar, Dras, Gartang, Shyok, Shigar, Nubra, Gilgit, etc. 
 
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7 Indian and World Geography |  http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ 
• Its most important tributaries, which join Indus at various places, are: Jhelum (725 km), Chenab (1800 km), Ravi 
(720 km), Beas (470 km) & Sutlej (1050 km). 
• Sources: Jhelum from Verinag (SE Kashmir), Chenab from Bara Lacha Pass (Lahaul-Spiti, H.R), Ravi from Kullu 
Hills near Rohtang Pass in H. R, Beas from a place near Rohtang Pass in H.E and Satluj from Mansarovar – 
Rakas lakes in W. Tibet. 
• In Nari Khorsan province of Tibet, Satluj has created an extraordinary canyon, comparable to the Grand Canyon 
of Colorado (US). 
• According to the Indus Water Treaty signed between India and Pakistan in 1960, India can utilize only 20% of the 
total discharge of Indus, Jhelum and Chenab. 
The Ganga System 
• It is 2525 km long of which 1450 km is in Uttarakhand and UP, 445 km in Bihar and 520 km in West Bengal. 
• The Ganga, the head stream is constituted of two main rivers – Bhagirthi and Alaknanda, which combine at 
Devprayag to form Ganga. 
• Before Alaknanda meets Bhagirthi at Devprayag, Mandakini meets Alaknanda at Rudraprayag. 
• Sources: Bhagirthi from Gaumukh, Alaknanda from Badrinath, Mandakini from Kedarnath (all from Uttarakhand). 
• Yamuna (1375 km) is its most important tributary (on right bank). It rises at the Yamunotri glacier in Uttarakhand. 
It runs parallel to Ganga for 800km and joins it at Allahabad. Important tributaries of Yamuna are Chambal (1050 
km), Sind, Betwa (480 km) and Ken (all from south). 
• Apart from Yamuna, other tributaries of Ganga are Ghaghra (1080 km), Son (780 km), Gandak (425 km), Kosi 
(730 km), Gomti (805 km), Damodar (541 km). Kosi is infamous as ‘Sorrow of Bihar’, while Damodar gets the 
name ‘Sorrow of Bengal’ as these cause floods in these regions. 
• Hooghli is a distributory of Ganga flowing through Kolkata. 
The Brahmaputra system 
• It has a total length of 2900 km. It rises in Tibet (from Chemayungdung glacier), where it is called Tsangpo, and 
enters the Indian territory (in Arunachal Pradesh) under the name Dihang. 
• Important Tributaries: Subansiri, Kameng, Dhansiri, Manas, Teesta. 
• In Bangladesh, Brahmaputra is known by the name of Jamuna while Ganga gets the name Padma. Their 
combined stream is known as Padma only. Meghna is the most important distributory before it enters the Bay of 
Bengal. 
• The combined stream of Ganga and Brahmaputra forms the biggest delta in the world, the Sundarbans, covering 
an area of 58,752 sq. km. Its major part is in Bangladesh. 
• On Brahmaputra is the river island, Majuli in Assam, the biggest river island in the world. 
• Brahmaputra, or the Red River, is navigable for a distance of 1384 km up to Dibrugarh and serves as an excellent 
inland water transport route. 
Rivers of the Peninsula in India 
• Different from the Himalayan rivers because they are seasonable in their flow (while Himalayan rivers are 
perennial). 
• They can be divided into two groups: 
A. East Flowing Rivers of India (or Delta forming rivers) 
 
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8 Indian and World Geography |  http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ 
• Mahanadi River (858 km) : Rises in Raipur distt. in Chhatisgarh. Main tributaries: lb, Seonath, Hasdo, Mand, 
Jonk, Tel, etc. 
• Godavari River (1465 km) : Also called Vriddha Ganga or Dakshina Ganga. It is the longest peninsular river. 
Rises in Nasik. Main tributaries: Manjra, Penganga, Wardha, Indravati, Wainganga, Sabari, etc. 
• Krishna River (1327 km) : Rises in Western Ghats near Mahabaleshwar. Main tributaries: Koyna, Dudhganga, 
Panchganga, Malprabha, Ghatprabha, Bhima, Tungabhadra, Musi, etc. 
• Cauvery River (805 km) : It is the largest peninsular river (maximum amount of water). Infact, it is the only 
peninsular river which flows almost throughout the year. Known as the ‘Ganga of the South’. It rises from the 
Brahmagir range of Western Ghats. Main tributaries: Hemavati, Lokpawni, Shimsa. It is less seasonal than others 
as its upper catchment area receives rainfall during summer by the S.W monsoon and the lower catchment area 
during winter season by the retreating N.E. monsoon. Its 90% – 95% irrigation and power production potential is 
already being harnessed. 
• Swarnarekha River (395 km) and Brahmani (705 km) : Rises from Ranchi Plateau. 
B. West Flowing Rivers in India 
• Narmada River (1057 km) : Has only l/10th part in Gujarat. Rises in Amarkantak Plateau and flows into Gulf of 
Khambat. It forms the famous Dhuan Dhar Falls near Jabalpur. Main tributaries: Hiran, Burhner, Banjar, Shar, 
Shakkar, Tawa, etc. 
• Tapti River (724 km) : Rises from Betul distt in MR Also known as twin or handmaid of Narmada. Main 
tributaries: Purna, Betul, Arunavati, Ganjal, etc. 
• Sabarmati River (416 km) : Rises from Aravallis in Rajasthan. 
• Mahi River (560 km) : Rises from Vindhyas in MR 
• Luni River (450 km) : Rises from Aravallis. Also called Salt River. It is finally lost in the marshy grounds at the 
head of the Rann of Kuchchh. 
• Sharavati is a west flowing river of the Sahyadris. It forms the famous Jog or Gersoppa or Mahatma Gandhi Falls 
(289 m), which is the highest waterfall in India. 
Inland Drainage 
• Some rivers of India are not able to reach the sea and constitute inland drainage. Ghaggar (494 km) is the most 
important of such drainage. 
• It is a seasonal stream which rises on the lower slopes of the Himalayas and gets lost in the dry sands of 
Rajasthan near Hanumangarh. It is considered the old Saraswati of the Vedic times. 
Note: 
• The largest man-made lake in India is Indira Sagar Lake, which is the reservoir of Sardar Sarovar Project, 
Onkareshwar Project and Maheshwar Project in Gujarat-MP. 
 
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9 Indian and World Geography |  http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ 
• Chilka Lake (Orissa) is the largest brackish water lake of India. Otherwise also, it is the largest lake of India. 
• Wular Lake (J & K) is the largest fresh water lake of India. Dul Lake is also there in J & K. 
• From Sambhar and Didwana Lake (Rajasthan), salt is produced. 
• Other important lakes are Vembanad in Kerala and Kolleru & Pulicat in AP. 
• The three important Gulfs in the Indian Territory are: 
• Gulf of Kuchch (west of Gujarat) : Region with highest potential of tidal energy generation 
• Gulf of Cambay or Gulf of Khambat (Gujarat) : Narmada, Tapti, Mahi and Sabarmati drain into it. 
• Gulf of Mannar (south east of Tamil Nadu) : Asia’s first marine biosphere reserve. 
Important River Valley Projects of India 
 
Bhukra Nangal Project On Satluj in Punjab. Highest in India. Ht 226 m. Reservoir is called Gobind Sagar Lake 
Mandi Project On Beas in H.P 
Chambal Valley Project On Chambal in M.P & Rajasthan. 3 dams are there: Gandhi Sagar Dam, Rana Pratap sagar Dam and Jawahar Sagar dam 
Damodar Valley Project On Damodar in Bihar. Based on Tennessee Valley Project, USA 
Hirakud On Mahanadi in Orissa. World's longest dam: 4801 m 
Rihand On Son in Mirzapur. Reservoir is called Govind Vallabh Pant reservoir 
Kosi Project On Kosi in N. Bihar 
Mayurkashi Project On Mayurkashi in W.B 
Kakrapara Project On Tapi in Gujarat 
Nizamsagar Project On Manjra in A.P 
Nagarjuna Sagar Project On Krishna in A.P 
Tungabhadra On Tungabhadra in A.P & Karnataka 
 
Shivasamudram Project On Cauvery in Karnataka 
Tata Hydel Scheme On Bhima in Maharashtra 
Sharavathi Hydel Project On Jog Falls in Karnataka 
Kundah & Periyar Project In TN 
Farakka Project On Ganga in W.B. Apart from power and irrigation it helps to remove silt for easy navigation 
Ukai Project On Tapti in Gujarat 
Mahi Project On Mahi in Gujarat 
Salal Project On Chenab in J & K 
Mata Tila Multipurpose Project On Betwa in U.P & M.P 
Thein Project On Ravi, Punjab 
Pong Dam On Beos, Punjab 
 
 
http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ 
 
10 Indian and World Geography |  http://www.developindiagroup.co.in/ 
The Climate of India 
India has tropical monsoon type of climate. It is greatly influenced by the presence of the Himalayas in the north as 
they block the cold the cold air masses from Central Asia. It is because of them only that the monsoons have a 
watershed in India. 
• The Tropic of Cancer divides India into two almost equal climatic zones, namely, the northern zone and the 
southern zone. The warm temperate or the subtropical climate of the northern zone gives it cold winter seasons 
and the hot summer seasons. 
• The southern tropical climatic zone is warmer than the north and does not have a clear-cut winter season. 
• The northern zone does not have the midday sun vertically overhead during any part of the year; the southern 
zone has the midday sun almost vertically overhead at least twice every year. 
Climate Seasons in India 
• In India, the year can be divided into four seasons, resulting from the monsoons which occur mainly due to the 
differential heating of land and movement of the sun’s vertical rays. 
• The vertical rays of the sun advance towards Tropic of Cancer from mid-March, due to which hot and dry weather 
arrives. As temperatures rise over most of northern and Central India, a vast trough of low pressure is created. 
The highest temperature experienced in South is in April while in North it is in May and June. 
• This part of the year is marked by a dry spell and the north-western parts of the country experience hot, dry 
winds, called loo. In this period, the country also experience storms / dust storms at various places. 
1. Tornado like dust storms in Punjab and Haryana, called ‘Andhis’ in UP and ‘Kalbaisakhis’ in West Bengal. 
They involve strong convectional movements causing some precipitation. 
2. The ‘Norwesters’ originate over the Chhotanagpur Plateau and blow in the north-east direction which brings 
about 50 cm of rainfall in Assam and about 10 cm rainfall in West Bengal and Orissa. This rainfall is very 
useful for Assam tea and spring rice crops of West Bengal. 
3. Similarly, ‘Cherry Blossoms’ are there in Karnataka, beneficial to coffee plantation and 
‘Mango showers’ in elsewhere South India, which are beneficial to mango crops. 
• This weather is followed by hot, wet weather from June to September. In May, the south – west monsoon sets in. 
The normal dates of onset of the monsoon are May 20 in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, June 3 in the 
Konkan, June 15 in Kolkata and June 29 in Delhi. 
• The south – west monsoon enters the country in two currents, one blowing over the Bay of Bengal and the other 
over the Arabian Sea. This monsoon causes rainfall over most of the country (except Tamil Nadu and Thar Desert 
area). The S.W monsoon entering from Western Ghats causes heavy rainfall over Kerala coast, but Tamil Nadu 
falls on the leeward side. In the Thar area, the winds blow parallel to the Aravallis and do not cause rain. The Bay 
of Bengal current causes heavy rainfall in the north east parts of the country and a part of it turns west along the 
Himalayas over the Indo-Gangetic plains causing rainfall in this region. But the Bay of Bengal current, by the time 
it reaches W Rajasthan, runs out of moisture. 
• The Bay of Bengal branch after crossing the deltaic region enters the Khasi valley in Meghalaya and gets 
entrapped in it due to funnel shape of the region. It strikes Cherrapunji in a perpendicular direction causing 
heavies rainfall in Mawsinram (Approx. 1400 cm). 
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