Indo-Islamic Culture UPSC Notes | EduRev

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UPSC : Indo-Islamic Culture UPSC Notes | EduRev

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  • India’s earliest contacts with Islam were through the Arab merchants on the Malabar coast.
  • The Mongol inroads into India created conditions for better cultural interaction between Islam and Hinduism on account of greatly reduced immigration from central and western Asia, leading to the dependence of Turks on Hindu converts.
  • A Muslim scholar who may be regarded as the first true representative of Indo-Islamic culture of the time was Amir Khusrau.
  • The Indian Muslim came to believe in castes based on occupational considerations.
  • The greatest contribution towards cultural fashion between Hindus and Muslims in India was made by the Saint reformers.
  • Hindustani music was largely influenced by Arbo-Persian music.
  • The Sultan who was a noted musician and is said to have invented the khayal was Husain Shah Sharqi of Jaunpur.
  • The Sultan who danced in the company of females imagining himself as Krishna dancing with the Gopis in the Vrindaban, was Baz Bahadur of Malwa.
  • The Indian decorative motifs, eschewed in the Indo-Islamic architecture for being un-Islamic, were human and animal figures.
  • The most magnificent building of the Ilbari period was the Qutb Minar, dedicated to the Sufi saint Qutbuddin Bakhtiyar Kaki.
  • The earliest example in India of a mosque built wholly in accordance with Muslim ideas was Jamaat Khana Masjid.
  • Alai Darwaza, built by Alauddin Khalji, is a gateway leading into the extension of Quwwatul Islam Mosque.
  • Indo-Islamic culture helped in the maximum popularisation of Unani system of medicine.
  • The decorative designs found in all the buildings of Firuz Shah Tughluare representation of Lotus.
  • The Lodis borrowed a new type of decoration, enamelled tiles, from Persia.
  • A new style of architecture developed in Jaunpur shows the indubitable influence of Hindu art. Absence of minarets was the peculiar feature of Jaunpur mosques.
  • Atala Masjid is a brilliant specimen of the Jaunpur style.
  • The basic reason for the growth of an exclusive style of Indo-Islamic architecture in Gujarat was presence of a splendid indigenous style before the coming of the Muslims.
  • A medieval Muslim poet of Hindi literature who extensively wrote on Hindu mythological hereoes was Qutban.
  • Arab traders were responsible for a changein Jain miniature paintings by the fifteenth century by introducing paper.
  • Most of the Muslim authors and poets who enriched Hindi literature through their writings were Sufi saints or followers of Sufism.
  • Amir Khusrau introduced Perso Arabic melodies (ragas) into Indian music.
  • The Sufi saint who was supposed to be the second great musician of the age was Pir Bodhan.
  • The Sultan of Delhi who did not contribute to the development of composite Hindustani music was Ghiyasuddin Tughluq.
  • A Muslim writer who was an accomplished Sanskrit scholar was Alberuni.
  • Udayaraja wrote Rajavinoda, a biography of Sultan Mahmud Begarha of Gujarat in Sanskrit.
  • The father of Khari Boli Hindi or modern Indian prose was Rasa Khan.
  • Amir Khusrau created a new style of Persian called the Sabaq-i-Hindi or the style of India.
  • The style of vocal Hindustani music which was non-Islamic in character was Dhrupad.
  • The Muslim rulers of Bengal got the Ramayana and Mahabharata translated into the local regional language time and again.

Religious Movements: 15th & 16th Centuries

  • The cult of Bhakti has been fully enunciated in the Bhagavata Purana.
  • The earliest Vaishnava Bhakti saints from the South were Alvars.
  • Kabir vehemently criticised the custom of offering shraddha (food to dead ancestors or parents) in the words: “Say how shall the poor parents obtain, what the ravens and the dogs have eaten”.
  • The Bhakti saints came from a diversity of background. By and large their adherents were Merchants.
  • One of the leaders of the Bhakti movement, who was greatly influenced by Islam, was Namdev.
  • The Bhakti saint who was not a worshipper of Krishna, was Ramananda.
  • The Bhakti saint who had twelve disciples including a butcher, a barber, a cobbler and a Muslim weaver, was Ramananda.
  • The monism preached by Vallabhacharya of the Bhakti movement is known as suddha-advaita or ‘Pure Non-Duality’.
  • The reason for the sharp antagonism of the Brahmins and ulema against Kabir and Nanak was that they saw them as propagators of new religions.
  • One of the Bhakti saints who first joined the Sufis but later left them, was Nanak.
  • Namdev said, “One stone is adored, Another is trodden under foot, If one is God, the other is also a God”.
  • Nanak said: “Abide pure amidst the impurities of the world; thus shalt thou find the way of religion”.
  • The use of Assamese language was popularised by the Bhakti leader Shankaradeva.
  • Poet Chandidas contributed to the popularisation of Bengali.
  • Brijbhasha was employed by Surdas for his devotional songs.
  • The Quran was vital for Sufi mysticism because The Sufis believed that knowledge of God could be gained by revelation and not by reason.
  • The historical reason for the Sufi saints isolating themselves from society was that their mystical doctrine of union with God through love was regarded as heretical and attached by orthodox Islam.
  • In Bihar the Firdausi order was popular.
  • Wali was the term used by the Sufis for the successor nominated by the teacher of a particular order or silsilah.
  • The Sufi saints made themselves popular by adopting musical recitations called sama.
  • The greatest social impact of the Bhakti movement on medieval Hindu society was removal of distinctions between the higher and lower castes.
  • Guru Nanak’s most important approach for uniting the Hindus and Muslims was to use both Hindu and Muslim nomenclatures for God e.g. Ram, Hari, Rab and Rahim.
  • Guru Nanak said: “God knows man’s virtues and inquires not his caste; in the next world there is no caste”.
  • The first Bhakti saint to use Hindi, the language of the masses, for the propagation of his doctrines, was Ramananda.
     
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