Industrial Revolution, The Second Phase of Industrial revolution - Technical Revolution Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

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Humanities/Arts : Industrial Revolution, The Second Phase of Industrial revolution - Technical Revolution Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Objectives_template
 Module 8 : The Renaissance Period & Industrial Design in Europe 
 Lecture 21 : Industrial Revolution, The Second Phase of Industrial revolution: Technical Revolution, Conclusion
 
 
The Lecture Contains: 
Industrial Revolution
The Second Phase of Industrial revolution: Technical Revolution
Conclusion
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
file:///D|/Dr.%20Amit%20Ray/Philosophy_&_History_of_Design/lecture21/21_1.htm [9/26/2013 3:45:30 PM]
Page 2


Objectives_template
 Module 8 : The Renaissance Period & Industrial Design in Europe 
 Lecture 21 : Industrial Revolution, The Second Phase of Industrial revolution: Technical Revolution, Conclusion
 
 
The Lecture Contains: 
Industrial Revolution
The Second Phase of Industrial revolution: Technical Revolution
Conclusion
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
file:///D|/Dr.%20Amit%20Ray/Philosophy_&_History_of_Design/lecture21/21_1.htm [9/26/2013 3:45:30 PM]
Objectives_template
 Module 8 : The Renaissance Period & Industrial Design in Europe 
 Lecture 21 : Industrial Revolution, The Second Phase of Industrial revolution: Technical Revolution, Conclusion
 
Industrial Revolution  
 
Industrial Revolution in Europe namely took place in two phases. 1760-1840 AD saw the first phase of Industrial Revolution 
that introduced better efficient mechanism in the field of- Major technological developments, textile manufacture, Mining, 
Steam power, Chemicals,  Machine tools, Gas lighting, Glass making Agriculture and other significant technological 
developments. Along with various machine designs for the mass production the need for efficient transportation through land 
and water surface became crucial. The Mass Products are needed to be distributed at distance places in less time. Therefore 
Canals,Roads and Railways got priority for modern transportation system. British Empire realized the need of steam engine 
and rail track to carry equipment to distances places. The movement of arms and ammunitions along with the soldiers is critical 
for the control of the colonial countries including Indian subcontinent.  
 
Plate 9A Steam Engine
 
 
9B Textile Machine
 
 
9C Schematic drawing of a 
Puddling furnace
(Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_Revolution ; February 11, 2013)   
The Industrial Revolution made a major approach in the manufacturing process. The mechanized production methods rapidly 
replaced the craft culture of working by hands. Introduction of steam powered engine (plate 9A) and development of machine 
tools laid the foundation for true Industrial Revolution. A major modernization in textile machine (plate 9B) created market and 
revenue. Along with the machine application the introduction of coal for fuel instead of traditional bio-fuels made the changes 
much rapidly. The Revolution marked the major turning point in the history. It changed the common men’s daily life forever.  
The average income of population could display their purchasing power significantly through rapid economic growth. 
Production of iron bar is major revolution that changed the course of industrialization.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
file:///D|/Dr.%20Amit%20Ray/Philosophy_&_History_of_Design/lecture21/21_2.htm [9/26/2013 3:45:30 PM]
Page 3


Objectives_template
 Module 8 : The Renaissance Period & Industrial Design in Europe 
 Lecture 21 : Industrial Revolution, The Second Phase of Industrial revolution: Technical Revolution, Conclusion
 
 
The Lecture Contains: 
Industrial Revolution
The Second Phase of Industrial revolution: Technical Revolution
Conclusion
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
file:///D|/Dr.%20Amit%20Ray/Philosophy_&_History_of_Design/lecture21/21_1.htm [9/26/2013 3:45:30 PM]
Objectives_template
 Module 8 : The Renaissance Period & Industrial Design in Europe 
 Lecture 21 : Industrial Revolution, The Second Phase of Industrial revolution: Technical Revolution, Conclusion
 
Industrial Revolution  
 
Industrial Revolution in Europe namely took place in two phases. 1760-1840 AD saw the first phase of Industrial Revolution 
that introduced better efficient mechanism in the field of- Major technological developments, textile manufacture, Mining, 
Steam power, Chemicals,  Machine tools, Gas lighting, Glass making Agriculture and other significant technological 
developments. Along with various machine designs for the mass production the need for efficient transportation through land 
and water surface became crucial. The Mass Products are needed to be distributed at distance places in less time. Therefore 
Canals,Roads and Railways got priority for modern transportation system. British Empire realized the need of steam engine 
and rail track to carry equipment to distances places. The movement of arms and ammunitions along with the soldiers is critical 
for the control of the colonial countries including Indian subcontinent.  
 
Plate 9A Steam Engine
 
 
9B Textile Machine
 
 
9C Schematic drawing of a 
Puddling furnace
(Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_Revolution ; February 11, 2013)   
The Industrial Revolution made a major approach in the manufacturing process. The mechanized production methods rapidly 
replaced the craft culture of working by hands. Introduction of steam powered engine (plate 9A) and development of machine 
tools laid the foundation for true Industrial Revolution. A major modernization in textile machine (plate 9B) created market and 
revenue. Along with the machine application the introduction of coal for fuel instead of traditional bio-fuels made the changes 
much rapidly. The Revolution marked the major turning point in the history. It changed the common men’s daily life forever.  
The average income of population could display their purchasing power significantly through rapid economic growth. 
Production of iron bar is major revolution that changed the course of industrialization.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
file:///D|/Dr.%20Amit%20Ray/Philosophy_&_History_of_Design/lecture21/21_2.htm [9/26/2013 3:45:30 PM]
Objectives_template
 Module 8 :The Renaissance Period & Industrial Design in Europe 
 Lecture 21 : Industrial Revolution, The Second Phase of Industrial revolution: Technical Revolution, Conclusion
 
Plate 10A Eiffel Tower    10B Statue of Liberty 10C Statue of Liberty
(Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Puddling_%28metallurgy%29 ; February 11, 2013)
The old charcoal based puddling technique is replaced by coal based process. This enabled a great expansion of iron 
production in Great Britain to take place. Many major structures of19th century such as, Eiffel Tower (plate 10A) and the 
original framework of the Stature of Liberty (plate plate10B & 10C) used the puddling technique. Puddling furnace (plate 9C) 
helped to construct Textile Machines (plate 9B & 9C) and other metal structure to strengthening the framework. 
 
 
 
 
Plate 11A British Sword Blade 11B Steel knife  11C Indian Weapon 
(Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Puddling_%28metallurgy%29 ; February 11, 2013)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
file:///D|/Dr.%20Amit%20Ray/Philosophy_&_History_of_Design/lecture21/21_3.htm [9/26/2013 3:45:31 PM]
Page 4


Objectives_template
 Module 8 : The Renaissance Period & Industrial Design in Europe 
 Lecture 21 : Industrial Revolution, The Second Phase of Industrial revolution: Technical Revolution, Conclusion
 
 
The Lecture Contains: 
Industrial Revolution
The Second Phase of Industrial revolution: Technical Revolution
Conclusion
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
file:///D|/Dr.%20Amit%20Ray/Philosophy_&_History_of_Design/lecture21/21_1.htm [9/26/2013 3:45:30 PM]
Objectives_template
 Module 8 : The Renaissance Period & Industrial Design in Europe 
 Lecture 21 : Industrial Revolution, The Second Phase of Industrial revolution: Technical Revolution, Conclusion
 
Industrial Revolution  
 
Industrial Revolution in Europe namely took place in two phases. 1760-1840 AD saw the first phase of Industrial Revolution 
that introduced better efficient mechanism in the field of- Major technological developments, textile manufacture, Mining, 
Steam power, Chemicals,  Machine tools, Gas lighting, Glass making Agriculture and other significant technological 
developments. Along with various machine designs for the mass production the need for efficient transportation through land 
and water surface became crucial. The Mass Products are needed to be distributed at distance places in less time. Therefore 
Canals,Roads and Railways got priority for modern transportation system. British Empire realized the need of steam engine 
and rail track to carry equipment to distances places. The movement of arms and ammunitions along with the soldiers is critical 
for the control of the colonial countries including Indian subcontinent.  
 
Plate 9A Steam Engine
 
 
9B Textile Machine
 
 
9C Schematic drawing of a 
Puddling furnace
(Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_Revolution ; February 11, 2013)   
The Industrial Revolution made a major approach in the manufacturing process. The mechanized production methods rapidly 
replaced the craft culture of working by hands. Introduction of steam powered engine (plate 9A) and development of machine 
tools laid the foundation for true Industrial Revolution. A major modernization in textile machine (plate 9B) created market and 
revenue. Along with the machine application the introduction of coal for fuel instead of traditional bio-fuels made the changes 
much rapidly. The Revolution marked the major turning point in the history. It changed the common men’s daily life forever.  
The average income of population could display their purchasing power significantly through rapid economic growth. 
Production of iron bar is major revolution that changed the course of industrialization.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
file:///D|/Dr.%20Amit%20Ray/Philosophy_&_History_of_Design/lecture21/21_2.htm [9/26/2013 3:45:30 PM]
Objectives_template
 Module 8 :The Renaissance Period & Industrial Design in Europe 
 Lecture 21 : Industrial Revolution, The Second Phase of Industrial revolution: Technical Revolution, Conclusion
 
Plate 10A Eiffel Tower    10B Statue of Liberty 10C Statue of Liberty
(Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Puddling_%28metallurgy%29 ; February 11, 2013)
The old charcoal based puddling technique is replaced by coal based process. This enabled a great expansion of iron 
production in Great Britain to take place. Many major structures of19th century such as, Eiffel Tower (plate 10A) and the 
original framework of the Stature of Liberty (plate plate10B & 10C) used the puddling technique. Puddling furnace (plate 9C) 
helped to construct Textile Machines (plate 9B & 9C) and other metal structure to strengthening the framework. 
 
 
 
 
Plate 11A British Sword Blade 11B Steel knife  11C Indian Weapon 
(Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Puddling_%28metallurgy%29 ; February 11, 2013)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
file:///D|/Dr.%20Amit%20Ray/Philosophy_&_History_of_Design/lecture21/21_3.htm [9/26/2013 3:45:31 PM]
Objectives_template
 Module 8 : The Renaissance Period & Industrial Design in Europe 
 Lecture 21 : Industrial Revolution, The Second Phase of Industrial revolution: Technical Revolution, Conclusion
 
Development of ‘carbon steel’ with the required percentage produced successful products- Sword (plate 11A); Steel Knife 
(plate 11B) and other weaponry (plate 11C) introduced matured steel products. Numerous small steel products became quite 
matured in term of their strength and sharpness due to the Puddling technique. By this time, the major change in metal casting 
is replacing the old bio-fuel to coal and advanced steel processing technique. The advancement in metallurgical process gave 
enormous flip to the heavy industry. The earlier iron process was relatively brittle and lack of strength. Metallurgical technique 
naturally gave enormous strength to the Industrial Revolution. 
The Second Phase of Industrial revolution: Technical Revolution 
 
The First Phase of Industrial Revolution in Europe converted craft oriented mechanism to machine oriented production. The 
limited production of craft is replacing the mass production with the help of new technology and process. In the process higher 
quality of steel production created the required foundation for the next phase of revolution. The second phase of Industrial 
Revolution is popularly known as Technological Revolution is corresponding to the latter half of the 19th century 
and continued till World War II. 
Great Britain, Germany, France, United States and Japan rapidly industrialized their development. The Revolution had spread 
throughout Europe and North America that harvested faster development. It followed on from the First Industrial Revolution 
that began in Britain in the late 18th century that then spread throughout Western Europe and North America. “Landes (2003) 
stresses the importance of new technologies, especially electricity, the internal combustion engine, new materials and 
substances, including alloys and chemicals, and communication technologies such as the telegraph and radio. While the first 
industrial revolution was centered on iron, steam technologies and textile production, the second industrial revolution revolved 
around steel, railroads, electricity, and chemicals.” 
(Ref. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Industrial_Revolution ; February 12, 2013)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
file:///D|/Dr.%20Amit%20Ray/Philosophy_&_History_of_Design/lecture21/21_4.htm [9/26/2013 3:45:31 PM]
Page 5


Objectives_template
 Module 8 : The Renaissance Period & Industrial Design in Europe 
 Lecture 21 : Industrial Revolution, The Second Phase of Industrial revolution: Technical Revolution, Conclusion
 
 
The Lecture Contains: 
Industrial Revolution
The Second Phase of Industrial revolution: Technical Revolution
Conclusion
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
file:///D|/Dr.%20Amit%20Ray/Philosophy_&_History_of_Design/lecture21/21_1.htm [9/26/2013 3:45:30 PM]
Objectives_template
 Module 8 : The Renaissance Period & Industrial Design in Europe 
 Lecture 21 : Industrial Revolution, The Second Phase of Industrial revolution: Technical Revolution, Conclusion
 
Industrial Revolution  
 
Industrial Revolution in Europe namely took place in two phases. 1760-1840 AD saw the first phase of Industrial Revolution 
that introduced better efficient mechanism in the field of- Major technological developments, textile manufacture, Mining, 
Steam power, Chemicals,  Machine tools, Gas lighting, Glass making Agriculture and other significant technological 
developments. Along with various machine designs for the mass production the need for efficient transportation through land 
and water surface became crucial. The Mass Products are needed to be distributed at distance places in less time. Therefore 
Canals,Roads and Railways got priority for modern transportation system. British Empire realized the need of steam engine 
and rail track to carry equipment to distances places. The movement of arms and ammunitions along with the soldiers is critical 
for the control of the colonial countries including Indian subcontinent.  
 
Plate 9A Steam Engine
 
 
9B Textile Machine
 
 
9C Schematic drawing of a 
Puddling furnace
(Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_Revolution ; February 11, 2013)   
The Industrial Revolution made a major approach in the manufacturing process. The mechanized production methods rapidly 
replaced the craft culture of working by hands. Introduction of steam powered engine (plate 9A) and development of machine 
tools laid the foundation for true Industrial Revolution. A major modernization in textile machine (plate 9B) created market and 
revenue. Along with the machine application the introduction of coal for fuel instead of traditional bio-fuels made the changes 
much rapidly. The Revolution marked the major turning point in the history. It changed the common men’s daily life forever.  
The average income of population could display their purchasing power significantly through rapid economic growth. 
Production of iron bar is major revolution that changed the course of industrialization.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
file:///D|/Dr.%20Amit%20Ray/Philosophy_&_History_of_Design/lecture21/21_2.htm [9/26/2013 3:45:30 PM]
Objectives_template
 Module 8 :The Renaissance Period & Industrial Design in Europe 
 Lecture 21 : Industrial Revolution, The Second Phase of Industrial revolution: Technical Revolution, Conclusion
 
Plate 10A Eiffel Tower    10B Statue of Liberty 10C Statue of Liberty
(Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Puddling_%28metallurgy%29 ; February 11, 2013)
The old charcoal based puddling technique is replaced by coal based process. This enabled a great expansion of iron 
production in Great Britain to take place. Many major structures of19th century such as, Eiffel Tower (plate 10A) and the 
original framework of the Stature of Liberty (plate plate10B & 10C) used the puddling technique. Puddling furnace (plate 9C) 
helped to construct Textile Machines (plate 9B & 9C) and other metal structure to strengthening the framework. 
 
 
 
 
Plate 11A British Sword Blade 11B Steel knife  11C Indian Weapon 
(Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Puddling_%28metallurgy%29 ; February 11, 2013)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
file:///D|/Dr.%20Amit%20Ray/Philosophy_&_History_of_Design/lecture21/21_3.htm [9/26/2013 3:45:31 PM]
Objectives_template
 Module 8 : The Renaissance Period & Industrial Design in Europe 
 Lecture 21 : Industrial Revolution, The Second Phase of Industrial revolution: Technical Revolution, Conclusion
 
Development of ‘carbon steel’ with the required percentage produced successful products- Sword (plate 11A); Steel Knife 
(plate 11B) and other weaponry (plate 11C) introduced matured steel products. Numerous small steel products became quite 
matured in term of their strength and sharpness due to the Puddling technique. By this time, the major change in metal casting 
is replacing the old bio-fuel to coal and advanced steel processing technique. The advancement in metallurgical process gave 
enormous flip to the heavy industry. The earlier iron process was relatively brittle and lack of strength. Metallurgical technique 
naturally gave enormous strength to the Industrial Revolution. 
The Second Phase of Industrial revolution: Technical Revolution 
 
The First Phase of Industrial Revolution in Europe converted craft oriented mechanism to machine oriented production. The 
limited production of craft is replacing the mass production with the help of new technology and process. In the process higher 
quality of steel production created the required foundation for the next phase of revolution. The second phase of Industrial 
Revolution is popularly known as Technological Revolution is corresponding to the latter half of the 19th century 
and continued till World War II. 
Great Britain, Germany, France, United States and Japan rapidly industrialized their development. The Revolution had spread 
throughout Europe and North America that harvested faster development. It followed on from the First Industrial Revolution 
that began in Britain in the late 18th century that then spread throughout Western Europe and North America. “Landes (2003) 
stresses the importance of new technologies, especially electricity, the internal combustion engine, new materials and 
substances, including alloys and chemicals, and communication technologies such as the telegraph and radio. While the first 
industrial revolution was centered on iron, steam technologies and textile production, the second industrial revolution revolved 
around steel, railroads, electricity, and chemicals.” 
(Ref. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Industrial_Revolution ; February 12, 2013)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
file:///D|/Dr.%20Amit%20Ray/Philosophy_&_History_of_Design/lecture21/21_4.htm [9/26/2013 3:45:31 PM]
Objectives_template
 Module 8 : The Renaissance Period & Industrial Design in Europe 
 Lecture 21 : Industrial Revolution, The Second Phase of Industrial revolution: Technical Revolution, Conclusion
 
 
Plate 10A Turbine Engine 
 
10B Nikola Tesla’s Electrical Lab
 
10C AC Induction Motor
(Source:http://www.pmpcafe.com/ps3/?document_srl=251728 ; February 12, 2013)
The second phase (1890-1930), dominated by electrical devices (plate 10A & 10B) and chemicals. The revolution 
introducedtelephones, electrical devices (plate 10C), the internal combustion engine, surface transport system (automobiles), sea 
(ocean-liners), and air (aircraft). The essential character of the second phase revolution is mass production of 
consumer goods and the mechanization of manufacturingto serve the increasing population around the globe.  
 
The process of interchangeable parts of mass products drastically reduced the cost of the products in term of manufacturing 
process, assembling and maintenance. The high quality steel products gave increased low cost high performance quality products 
to the mass. The Second Phase of Revolution witnessed increased quality steel, chemicals, and electrical energy and petroleum 
productions. 
 
11A Steam Engine 11B Printing Press 11C Motor Car
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
file:///D|/Dr.%20Amit%20Ray/Philosophy_&_History_of_Design/lecture21/21_5.htm [9/26/2013 3:45:31 PM]
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