|Table of contents|
|What is an Integrated Circuit (IC)?|
|Definition of Integrated Chip|
|Integrated Circuit Design|
|Integrated Circuit Construction|
|Integrated Circuit Features|
|Commonly Used Integrated Circuits|
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The circuits that were made previously were large and bulky, consisting of circuit components like resistor, capacitor, inductor, transistor, diodes, etc., which were connected with copper wires. This factor limited the use of the circuits to big machines. It was not possible to create small and compact appliances with these big circuits. Moreover, they were not entirely shockproof and reliable.
As it is said, necessity is the mother of all inventions. So there was a need to develop smaller size circuits with more power and safety to incorporate them into devices. Three American scientists invented transistors that simplified things to quite an extent, but the development of integrated circuits changed electronics technology’s face.
An integrated circuit or an IC is a small chip of a semiconductor material that mounts an entire circuit on itself. It is very small when compared to the standard circuits, which are made of independent circuit components. The most commonly used IC is the monolithic integrated circuit.
Integrated circuits can function as an oscillator, amplifier, microprocessor or even as a computer memory.
Integrated Circuits or an IC is defined as a microchip on which thousands and hundreds of electrical components, such as resistors, capacitors and transistors, are fabricated. An IC functions as an oscillator, amplifier, microprocessor, timer or as computer memory.
Certain logic techniques and circuit designs are used to design an integrated circuit. Following are the two categories of IC design:
When ICs are used as oscillators, filters and regulators, analog design method is employed to design the integrated chip. This design method is used when the power dissipation, gain and resistance are required to be perfect.
ICs, when used as computer memories (such as RAM and ROM), microprocessors are designed by the digital design method. This design method ensures that the circuit density is maximum and the overall efficiency is maximum. The ICs designed using this method work with binary input data such as 0 and 1. The figure below shows the steps involved in designing digital integrated circuits.
The mixed design integrates the analogue and digital design principles. The mixed ICs function as Digital to Analog converters, Analog to Digital converters (D/A and A/D converters) and clock/timing ICs.