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Introduction to Combustion: Fuels Mechanical Engineering Notes | EduRev

Mechanical Engineering : Introduction to Combustion: Fuels Mechanical Engineering Notes | EduRev

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Objectives_template
file:///D|/Web%20Course/Dr.%20D.P.%20Mishra/Local%20Server/FOC/lecture3/3_1.htm[10/5/2012 11:12:20 AM]
Module 1: Introduction to Combustion
Lecture 3: Fuels

The Lecture Contains:
Bomb Calorimeter
Properties of Liquid Fuels
Properties of Common Liquid Fuels
Solid Fuels and Oxidizers
Contd..

Page 2

Objectives_template
file:///D|/Web%20Course/Dr.%20D.P.%20Mishra/Local%20Server/FOC/lecture3/3_1.htm[10/5/2012 11:12:20 AM]
Module 1: Introduction to Combustion
Lecture 3: Fuels

The Lecture Contains:
Bomb Calorimeter
Properties of Liquid Fuels
Properties of Common Liquid Fuels
Solid Fuels and Oxidizers
Contd..

Objectives_template
file:///D|/Web%20Course/Dr.%20D.P.%20Mishra/Local%20Server/FOC/lecture3/3_2.htm[10/5/2012 11:12:20 AM]
Module 1: Introduction to Combustion
Lecture 3: Fuels

Bomb Calorimeter
Used to determine the calorific value of the liquid fuel.
Liquid is burnt in the bomb in the presence of oxygen at about 2.5 MPa .
The change in temperature in the water bath provides the calorific value of the fuel.
(Figure 3.2)

Page 3

Objectives_template
file:///D|/Web%20Course/Dr.%20D.P.%20Mishra/Local%20Server/FOC/lecture3/3_1.htm[10/5/2012 11:12:20 AM]
Module 1: Introduction to Combustion
Lecture 3: Fuels

The Lecture Contains:
Bomb Calorimeter
Properties of Liquid Fuels
Properties of Common Liquid Fuels
Solid Fuels and Oxidizers
Contd..

Objectives_template
file:///D|/Web%20Course/Dr.%20D.P.%20Mishra/Local%20Server/FOC/lecture3/3_2.htm[10/5/2012 11:12:20 AM]
Module 1: Introduction to Combustion
Lecture 3: Fuels

Bomb Calorimeter
Used to determine the calorific value of the liquid fuel.
Liquid is burnt in the bomb in the presence of oxygen at about 2.5 MPa .
The change in temperature in the water bath provides the calorific value of the fuel.
(Figure 3.2)

Objectives_template
file:///D|/Web%20Course/Dr.%20D.P.%20Mishra/Local%20Server/FOC/lecture3/3_3.htm[10/5/2012 11:12:20 AM]
Module 1: Introduction to Combustion
Lecture 3: Fuels

Properties of Liquid Fuels
Specific
Gravity
: Ratio of mass density of fuel to mass density of water at the same temperature

Reference temperature for fuel and water: 288.8 K
American Petroleum Institute (API) Scale:

Relation between APISG and HHV:
For
Gasoline
:
For
Kerosene
:
Auto Ignition
Temperature
: The lowest temperature required to make the combustion self sustained without
any external aid

Page 4

Objectives_template
file:///D|/Web%20Course/Dr.%20D.P.%20Mishra/Local%20Server/FOC/lecture3/3_1.htm[10/5/2012 11:12:20 AM]
Module 1: Introduction to Combustion
Lecture 3: Fuels

The Lecture Contains:
Bomb Calorimeter
Properties of Liquid Fuels
Properties of Common Liquid Fuels
Solid Fuels and Oxidizers
Contd..

Objectives_template
file:///D|/Web%20Course/Dr.%20D.P.%20Mishra/Local%20Server/FOC/lecture3/3_2.htm[10/5/2012 11:12:20 AM]
Module 1: Introduction to Combustion
Lecture 3: Fuels

Bomb Calorimeter
Used to determine the calorific value of the liquid fuel.
Liquid is burnt in the bomb in the presence of oxygen at about 2.5 MPa .
The change in temperature in the water bath provides the calorific value of the fuel.
(Figure 3.2)

Objectives_template
file:///D|/Web%20Course/Dr.%20D.P.%20Mishra/Local%20Server/FOC/lecture3/3_3.htm[10/5/2012 11:12:20 AM]
Module 1: Introduction to Combustion
Lecture 3: Fuels

Properties of Liquid Fuels
Specific
Gravity
: Ratio of mass density of fuel to mass density of water at the same temperature

Reference temperature for fuel and water: 288.8 K
American Petroleum Institute (API) Scale:

Relation between APISG and HHV:
For
Gasoline
:
For
Kerosene
:
Auto Ignition
Temperature
: The lowest temperature required to make the combustion self sustained without
any external aid

Objectives_template
file:///D|/Web%20Course/Dr.%20D.P.%20Mishra/Local%20Server/FOC/lecture3/3_4.htm[10/5/2012 11:12:21 AM]
Module 1: Introduction to Combustion
Lecture 3: Fuels

Properties of Liquid Fuels
Flash
Point
: Minimum temperature at which liquid fuel will produce sufficient vapors to form a
flammable mixture with air. Indicates maximum temperature at which liquid fuel can be
stored without any fire hazard.
Fire
Point
: Minimum temperature at which liquid fuel produces sufficient vapors to form a flammable
mixture with air that continuously supports combustion establishing flame instead of just
flashing.
Smoke
Point
: Measure of the tendency of a liquid fuel to produce soot.
Properties of Common Liquid Fuels
Fuel Type
Automotive
Gasoline
Diesel Fuel Methanol Kerosene
ATF
(JP8)
Specific gravity 0.72 - 0.78 0.85 0.796 0.82 0.71
Kinematics viscosity @ 293 K
(m
2
/s)
0.8 X 10
-6
2.5 X 10
-6
0.75 X 10
-6
3.626 X
10
-6
--
Boiling point range (K) @ STP 303 - 576 483 - 508 338 423-473 442
Flash point (K) 230 325 284 311 325
Auto ignition temperature (K) 643 527 737 483 --
Stoichiometric air/fuel by weight 14.7 14.7 6.45 15 15.1
Heat of Vaporization (kJ/kg) 380 375 1185 298.5 --
Lower heating value (MJ/kg) 43.5 45 20.1 45.2 43.3

Page 5

Objectives_template
file:///D|/Web%20Course/Dr.%20D.P.%20Mishra/Local%20Server/FOC/lecture3/3_1.htm[10/5/2012 11:12:20 AM]
Module 1: Introduction to Combustion
Lecture 3: Fuels

The Lecture Contains:
Bomb Calorimeter
Properties of Liquid Fuels
Properties of Common Liquid Fuels
Solid Fuels and Oxidizers
Contd..

Objectives_template
file:///D|/Web%20Course/Dr.%20D.P.%20Mishra/Local%20Server/FOC/lecture3/3_2.htm[10/5/2012 11:12:20 AM]
Module 1: Introduction to Combustion
Lecture 3: Fuels

Bomb Calorimeter
Used to determine the calorific value of the liquid fuel.
Liquid is burnt in the bomb in the presence of oxygen at about 2.5 MPa .
The change in temperature in the water bath provides the calorific value of the fuel.
(Figure 3.2)

Objectives_template
file:///D|/Web%20Course/Dr.%20D.P.%20Mishra/Local%20Server/FOC/lecture3/3_3.htm[10/5/2012 11:12:20 AM]
Module 1: Introduction to Combustion
Lecture 3: Fuels

Properties of Liquid Fuels
Specific
Gravity
: Ratio of mass density of fuel to mass density of water at the same temperature

Reference temperature for fuel and water: 288.8 K
American Petroleum Institute (API) Scale:

Relation between APISG and HHV:
For
Gasoline
:
For
Kerosene
:
Auto Ignition
Temperature
: The lowest temperature required to make the combustion self sustained without
any external aid

Objectives_template
file:///D|/Web%20Course/Dr.%20D.P.%20Mishra/Local%20Server/FOC/lecture3/3_4.htm[10/5/2012 11:12:21 AM]
Module 1: Introduction to Combustion
Lecture 3: Fuels

Properties of Liquid Fuels
Flash
Point
: Minimum temperature at which liquid fuel will produce sufficient vapors to form a
flammable mixture with air. Indicates maximum temperature at which liquid fuel can be
stored without any fire hazard.
Fire
Point
: Minimum temperature at which liquid fuel produces sufficient vapors to form a flammable
mixture with air that continuously supports combustion establishing flame instead of just
flashing.
Smoke
Point
: Measure of the tendency of a liquid fuel to produce soot.
Properties of Common Liquid Fuels
Fuel Type
Automotive
Gasoline
Diesel Fuel Methanol Kerosene
ATF
(JP8)
Specific gravity 0.72 - 0.78 0.85 0.796 0.82 0.71
Kinematics viscosity @ 293 K
(m
2
/s)
0.8 X 10
-6
2.5 X 10
-6
0.75 X 10
-6
3.626 X
10
-6
--
Boiling point range (K) @ STP 303 - 576 483 - 508 338 423-473 442
Flash point (K) 230 325 284 311 325
Auto ignition temperature (K) 643 527 737 483 --
Stoichiometric air/fuel by weight 14.7 14.7 6.45 15 15.1
Heat of Vaporization (kJ/kg) 380 375 1185 298.5 --
Lower heating value (MJ/kg) 43.5 45 20.1 45.2 43.3

Objectives_template
file:///D|/Web%20Course/Dr.%20D.P.%20Mishra/Local%20Server/FOC/lecture3/3_5.htm[10/5/2012 11:12:21 AM]
Module 1: Introduction to Combustion
Lecture 3: Fuels

Solid Fuels and Oxidizers

Solid Fuels:

(Figure 3.2)

Constituents of Solid Fuel:

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