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Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha
Slide 1/17 Chapter 1: Introduction to Computers Ref Page 
Page 2


Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha
Slide 1/17 Chapter 1: Introduction to Computers Ref Page 
Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha
Slide 2/17 Chapter 1: Introduction to Computers Ref Page 
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
In this chapter you will learn about:
§ Computer
§ Data processing
§ Characteristic features of computers
§ Computers’ evolution to their present form
§ Computer generations
§ Characteristic features of each computer generation
01
Page 3


Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha
Slide 1/17 Chapter 1: Introduction to Computers Ref Page 
Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha
Slide 2/17 Chapter 1: Introduction to Computers Ref Page 
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
In this chapter you will learn about:
§ Computer
§ Data processing
§ Characteristic features of computers
§ Computers’ evolution to their present form
§ Computer generations
§ Characteristic features of each computer generation
01
Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha
Slide 3/17 Chapter 1: Introduction to Computers Ref Page 
§ The word computer comes from the word “compute”, 
which means, “to calculate”
§ Thereby, a computer is an electronic device that can 
perform arithmetic operations at high speed
§ A computer is also called a data processor because it can 
store, process, and retrieve data whenever desired
Computer
Computer
01
Page 4


Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha
Slide 1/17 Chapter 1: Introduction to Computers Ref Page 
Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha
Slide 2/17 Chapter 1: Introduction to Computers Ref Page 
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
In this chapter you will learn about:
§ Computer
§ Data processing
§ Characteristic features of computers
§ Computers’ evolution to their present form
§ Computer generations
§ Characteristic features of each computer generation
01
Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha
Slide 3/17 Chapter 1: Introduction to Computers Ref Page 
§ The word computer comes from the word “compute”, 
which means, “to calculate”
§ Thereby, a computer is an electronic device that can 
perform arithmetic operations at high speed
§ A computer is also called a data processor because it can 
store, process, and retrieve data whenever desired
Computer
Computer
01
Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha
Slide 4/17 Chapter 1: Introduction to Computers Ref Page 
Data Processing
Data Processing
The activity of processing data using a computer is called 
data processing
Data
Capture Data
Manipulate Data
Output Results
Information
Data is raw material used as input and information is 
processed data obtained as output of data processing
01
Page 5


Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha
Slide 1/17 Chapter 1: Introduction to Computers Ref Page 
Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha
Slide 2/17 Chapter 1: Introduction to Computers Ref Page 
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
In this chapter you will learn about:
§ Computer
§ Data processing
§ Characteristic features of computers
§ Computers’ evolution to their present form
§ Computer generations
§ Characteristic features of each computer generation
01
Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha
Slide 3/17 Chapter 1: Introduction to Computers Ref Page 
§ The word computer comes from the word “compute”, 
which means, “to calculate”
§ Thereby, a computer is an electronic device that can 
perform arithmetic operations at high speed
§ A computer is also called a data processor because it can 
store, process, and retrieve data whenever desired
Computer
Computer
01
Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha
Slide 4/17 Chapter 1: Introduction to Computers Ref Page 
Data Processing
Data Processing
The activity of processing data using a computer is called 
data processing
Data
Capture Data
Manipulate Data
Output Results
Information
Data is raw material used as input and information is 
processed data obtained as output of data processing
01
Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha Computer Fundamentals: Pradeep K. Sinha & Priti Sinha
Slide 5/17 Chapter 1: Introduction to Computers Ref Page 
1) Automatic: Given a job, computer can work on it 
automatically without human interventions
2) Speed: Computer can perform data processing jobs 
very fast, usually measured in microseconds (10
-6
), 
nanoseconds (10
-9
), and picoseconds (10
-12
)
3) Accuracy: Accuracy of a computer is consistently high 
and the degree of its accuracy depends upon its design. 
Computer errors caused due to incorrect input data or 
unreliable programs are often referred to as Garbage-
In-Garbage-Out (GIGO)
(Continued on next slide)
Characteristics of Computers
Characteristics of Computers
02
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FAQs on Introduction to Computers - IT & Software

1. What is the definition of a computer?
Ans. A computer is an electronic device that can perform various tasks by executing a set of instructions or programs. It can store, retrieve, and process data, making it a versatile tool for a wide range of applications.
2. How does a computer work?
Ans. A computer works by using its central processing unit (CPU) to execute instructions stored in its memory. It receives input through input devices, such as a keyboard or mouse, processes the data using software, and produces output through output devices, such as a monitor or printer.
3. What are the different types of computers?
Ans. There are several types of computers, including desktop computers, laptops, tablets, and smartphones. Additionally, there are specialized computers such as servers used to manage networks, supercomputers used for complex calculations, and embedded computers used in specific devices like cars or appliances.
4. What is the importance of computers in today's world?
Ans. Computers play a crucial role in today's world. They have revolutionized various industries, including communication, education, healthcare, and business. Computers enable faster processing and analysis of data, improved communication and collaboration, and automation of tasks, leading to increased productivity and efficiency.
5. How do I protect my computer from viruses and malware?
Ans. To protect your computer from viruses and malware, it is important to have reliable antivirus software installed and regularly updated. Additionally, you should avoid downloading files or clicking on suspicious links from unknown sources. Regularly backing up your data and keeping your operating system and applications up to date with the latest security patches can also help enhance your computer's security.
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