Issue of Sweat Equity Shares
According to section 2(88), sweat equity shares mean equity shares issued by a company to its directors or employees at a discount or for consideration, other than cash for providing know-how or making available rights in the nature of intellectual property rights or value additions, by whatever name called.
According to Explanation to Rule 8(1) of Companies (Share Capital and Debentures) Rules, 2014.
(i) The expressions ‘‘Employee’’ means-
(a) a permanent employee of the company who has been working in India or outside India, for at least last one year; or
(b) a director of the company, whether a whole time director or not; or
(c) an employee or a director as defined in sub-clauses (a) or (b) above of a subsidiary, in India or outside India, or of a holding company of the company;
(ii) The expression ‘Value additions’ means actual or anticipated economic benefits derived or to be derived by the company from an expert or a professional for providing know-how or making available rights in the nature of intellectual property rights, by such person to whom sweat equity is being issued for which the consideration is not paid or included in the normal remuneration payable under the contract of employment, in the case of an employee
Section 54 permits issue of such equity shares to employees or directors in recognition of their contribution for providing know-how etc. as aforesaid. As the contribution made by employees/directors results in increased profits to the company for a number of years, sweat equity shares, provide a new form of adequate return.
Conditions for Issue of Sweat Equity Shares
Section 54(1) provides that notwithstanding anything contained in Section 53, a company can issue sweat equity shares, of a class of shares already issued, if the following conditions are satisfied:
(i) the issue has been authorised by a special resolution passed by the company in the general meeting.
(ii) the following are clearly specified in the resolution:
(a) number of shares;
(b) current market price;
(c) consideration, if any; and
(d) class or classes of directors or employees to whom such equity shares are to be issued.
(iii) as on the date of issue, at least one year should have elapsed from the date on which the company had commenced business.
(iv) a company whose shares are listed on a recognized stock exchange issuing sweat equity shares should comply with the regulations made in this behalf by SEBI.
(v) a company whose shares are not so listed should issue sweat equity shares in compliance with the rules made in this behalf by the Central Government (i.e., Companies (Share Capital and Debentures) Rules, 2014)
Holders of Sweat Equity Shares to be ranked pari passu with other Equity share holders
Section 54(2) provides that the rights, limitations, restrictions and provisions as are for the time being applicable to equity shares shall be applicable to the sweat equity shares issued under this section and the holders of such shares shall rank pari passu with other equity shareholders.
Companies (Share Capital and Debentures) Rules, 2014- Aspects Relating To Sweat Equity Shares
Explanatory statement to Special Resolution to contain certain particulars
Rule 8(2) states that the explanatory statement to be annexed to the notice of the general meeting pursuant to section 102 shall contain the following particulars, namely:-
(a) The date of the Board meeting at which the proposal for issue of sweat equity shares was approved;
(b) The reasons or justification for the issue;
(c) The class of shares under which sweat equity shares are intended to be issued;
(d) The total number of shares to be issued as sweat equity;
(e) The class or classes of directors or employees to whom such equity shares are to be issued;
(f) The principal terms and conditions on which sweat equity shares are to be issued, including basis of valuation ;
(g) The time period of association of such person with the company;
(h) The names of the directors or employees to whom the sweat equity shares will be issued and their relationship with the promoter or/and Key Managerial Personnel;
(i) The price at which the sweat equity shares are proposed to be issued;
(j) The consideration including consideration other than cash, if any to be received for the sweat equity;
(k) The ceiling on managerial remuneration, if any, be breached by issuance of such sweat equity and how it is proposed to be dealt with;
(l) A statement to the effect that the company shall conform to the applicable accounting standards; and
(m) Diluted Earning Per Share pursuant to the issue of sweat equity shares , calculated in accordance with the applicable accounting standards.
Validity of Special Resolution authorizing sweat equity shares
Rule 8(3) the special resolution authorising the issue of sweat equity shares shall be valid for making the allotment within a period of not more than twelve months from the date of passing of the special resolution.
Limits on issue of sweat equity shares
Rule 8(4) states that the company shall not issue sweat equity shares for more than fifteen percent of the existing paid up equity share capital in a year or shares of the issue value of rupees five crores, whichever is higher. The issuance of sweat equity shares in the Company shall not exceed twenty five percent, of the paid up equity capital of the Company at any time.
Sweat Equity Shares to be locked for three years
The sweat equity shares issued to directors or employees shall be locked in/non transferable for a period of three years from the date of allotment and the fact that the share certificates are under lock-in and the period of expiry of lock in shall be stamped in bold or mentioned in any other prominent manner on the share certificate.
Sweat equity shares for non-cash consideration
Rule (9) states that when sweat equity shares are issued for a non-cash consideration on the basis of a valuation report in respect thereof obtained from the registered valuer, such non-cash consideration shall be treated in the following manner in the books of account of the company-
(a) where the non-cash consideration takes the form of a depreciable or amortizable asset, it shall be carried to the balance sheet of the company in accordance with the accounting standards; or
(b) where clause (a) is not applicable, it shall be expensed as provided in the accounting standards.
Sweat equity shares forming part of managerial remuneration
Rule 8(10) states that the amount of sweat equity shares issued shall be treated as part of managerial remuneration for the purposes of sections 197 and 198 of the Act, if the following conditions are fulfilled, namely.-
(a) the sweat equity shares are issued to any director or manager; and
(b) they are issued for consideration other than cash, which does not take the form of an asset which can be carried to the balance sheet of the company in accordance with the applicable accounting standards.
Sweat equity shares and compensation aspects
Rule 8(11) states that in respect of sweat equity shares issued during an accounting period, the accounting value of sweat equity shares(i.e fair value by Registered valuer as mentioned in Rule 6) shall be treated as a form of compensation to the employee or the director in the financial statements of the company.
Rule 8(12) states that if the shares are issued pursuant to acquisition of an asset, the value of the asset, as determined by the valuation report, shall be carried in the balance sheet as per the Accounting Standards and such amount of the accounting value of the sweat equity shares that is in excess of the value of the asset acquired, as per the valuation report, shall be treated as a form of compensation to the employee or the director in the financial statements of the company.
Board’s Report to disclose the details of sweat equity shares
Rule 8(13) states that the Board of Directors shall, inter alia, disclose in the Directors’ Report for the year in which such shares are issued, the following details of issue of sweat equity shares namely:-
(a) the class of director or employee to whom sweat equity shares were issued;
(b) the class of shares issued as Sweat Equity Shares;
(c) the number of sweat equity shares issued to the directors, key managerial personnel or other employees showing separately the number of such shares issued to them , if any, for consideration other than cash and the individual names of allottees holding one percent or more of the issued share capital;
(d) the reasons or justification for the issue;
(e) the principal terms and conditions for issue of sweat equity shares, including pricing formula;
(f) the total number of shares arising as a result of issue of sweat equity shares;
(g) the percentage of the sweat equity shares of the total post issued and paid up share capital;
(h) the consideration (including consideration other than cash) received or benefit accrued to the company from the issue of sweat equity shares;
(i) the diluted Earnings Per Share (EPS) pursuant to issuance of sweat equity shares.
Maintenance of Register
Rule 8(14)(a) The company shall maintain a Register of Sweat Equity Shares in Form No. SH.3 and shall forthwith enter therein the particulars of Sweat Equity Shares issued under section 54. The Register of Sweat Equity Shares shall be maintained at the registered office of the company or such other place as the Board may decide. The entries in the register shall be authenticated by the Company Secretary of the company or by any other person authorized by the Board for the purpose.