Meaning of Job Analysis:
Job analysis is the process of studying and collecting information relating to the operations and responsibilities of a specific job. Mihael J. Jucius defined job analysis as “the process of studying the operations, duties and operational aspects of jobs in order to derive specifications or as they are called by some job descriptions.”
Sources of Information:
The need of relevant information as regards any job for the purpose of job analysis can be collected from the following sources:
1. Collection of Questionnaires should be completed by job holders.
2. Necessary diaries must be maintained by the job holders.
3. Interviews with job holders.
4. Personal observation.
Process of Job Analysis:
The job analysis consists of the following steps:
1. Identification and isolation of the component tasks in a job-nature of work.
2. Describing the sequence in which tasks are performed and the conditions under which these are performed— working conditions.
3. Identifying the duties, responsibilities and hazards involved in the job.
4. Determining the abilities and skills required personnel demands.
Importance of Job Analysis:
Job information gathered from job analysis process, job description and job specification may be used for the following purposes:
1. Manpower Planning:
Job analysis is the qualitative aspect of manpower requirements because it determines the demands of the job in terms of skills, qualities and other human attributes. It facilitates the division of work into different jobs.
2. Recruitment, Selection and Placement:
In order to hire a right person on the job, it is very essential to know the requirements of the job and the qualities of the individual who will perform the job.
The information regarding these two are procured from job description and job specification respectively and help the management in matching as closely as possible the job requirements with workers attitudes, abilities, interest etc. to facilitate the execution of employment programmes.
3. Training and Development:
Job analysis determines the levels of standard of job performance. It helps administering the training development programmes.
4. Job Evaluation:
Job analysis provides a basis for job evaluation. Job evaluation aims at determining the relative worth of the job which in turn helps in determining the compensation of job.
5. Performance Appraisal:
Job analysis data provide a clear-cut standard of performance for every job. The performance of employee can be assessed objectively with the standard of job performance.
6. Job Designing:
Industrial engineers may use the job analysis information in designing the job by making the comprehensive study of the job elements.
7. Safety and Health:
The management can take corrective measures to minimize the chance of various risks to ensure safety to workers and to a void unhealthy conditions.
8. Promotions, Transfers :
The job analysis is mainly based on the effective policies. Effective policies may be formulated in regard to promotions and transfers.
9. Employment Guidance:
Job description, which in basically carried out on the basis of Job analysis, helps the aspirates in ascertaining the job, for which they have the necessary ability and skills.
10. Labour Relations:
Job analysis serves as the basis for resolving disputes relating to standards of performance expected of workers.