Determiners are the words used before nouns to determine or modify them.
KINDS OF DETERMINERS:
1. Articles: A, An, The
1. ‘A’ is used when the sound following it is a consonant sound.
A book, a car, a useful thing. (useful- use of ‘a’ based on sound)
2. 'An' is used when the sound following it is a vowel sound.
an umbrella, an orange, an egg, an hour (‘h’ sound silent)
3. Countable singular nouns take ‘a’ or ‘an’, e.g., a candle, a horse, an American.
4. Uncountable nouns, do not take ‘a’ or ‘an’, e.g., milk, sugar, iron, etc.
5. The definite article 'the' has the following uses:
(a) used with singular noun when it refers to a particular class or group.
The dog is a faithful animal.
(b) The names of rivers, ranges of mountains, gulf, seas, oceans, groups of islands, name of ships, etc.
The Nile, the Alps, the Black Sea
(c) The names of religious books:
the Bible, the Bhagwad Gita
(d) The names of races and communities:
the Blacks, the Moghuls
(e) The names of newspapers:
the Tribune, the Hindustan Times
(f) To make superlatives of adjectives:
the best boy, the most beautiful girl
2. Demonstrative: This, These, That, Those
The demonstrative determiners are used to talk about persons or things that have already been mentioned.
This and these refer to the things that are near and can be seen. ‘That’ and ‘those’ are used to refer to the things that are at a distance but can be seen.
‘This’ and ‘that’ are used for singular nouns and ‘these’ and ‘those’ for plural nouns.
This is my pen.
These boys belong to rich families.
That is Karan’s house.
Those are my friends.
3. Possessives: My, Our, Your, His, Her, Its, Their
The possessives are used to show possession.
This is my book.
She is his best friend.
What is your name?
Her brother is a famous singer.
4. Ordinals: First, Second, Next, Last, etc.
Sit in the first chair.
My uncle will come the next Sunday.
This is not the last opportunity.
5. Cardinals: One, Two, Three, Hundred, etc.
Cardinals are ordinary numbers like one, two, three, etc. They show how many of something there are:
There are thirty students in our classroom.
There are four members in my family.
6. Quantities: Much, Some, Several, A lot of, Both, All, etc.
The quantifiers refer to the quantity of things or amount of something.
I saw some foreigners at the Red Fort.
We have much time to read this story.
7. Distributive: Each, Every, Either, Neither
Distributive determiners refer to each single member of a group.
Each student is advised to bring an extra pen and pencil to the exams.
Either of the two boys has helped her.
8. Interrogative: What, Which, Whose, etc.
The interrogative determiners are used for asking questions:
Which ho use is yours?
What time will you reach there?
Whose pet dog is it?
Look at the uses of some determiners:
Some- In Affirmative and Negative sentences.
There are some children outside.
Didn't he give you some money?
Any- In Negative and Interrogative sentences.
I didn't buy any bread.
Are there any stamps in the drawer?
In Affirmative sentences 'any’ is used with the following words:
Prevent (verb), without (preposition), hardly/scarcely (adverb).
We did the work without any difficulty.
I have hardly any leisure time nowadays.
Please try to prevent any loss of goods on the way.
In the sense of 'no matter which' like: At any rate, at any day, at any hour.
Come any day you like.
You can come to me at any hour of the day.
In case of condition: You can come to me in case you have any difficulty. No is never used with any.
I bought no apples. or I did't buy any apple.
Few- It is a Negative Adjective. It is used in the sense of ‘not many/hardly any’.
There are few students in the class.
A Few- It is an Affirmative Adjective. It is used in the sense of ‘some’.
A few students are absent from the class.
The Few- It indicates the whole of any particular number but small in number.
The few teachers were disappointed with the House Examination.
Fewer- It is used to indicate very small number.
Fewer students passed the Talent Search Examination this year.
Much- It is an Adjective of Quantity. It emphasizes a big quantity.
He was not left with much choice.
Many- It is an Adjective of Number. It is used before plural countable nouns.
Many people have seen this movie.
Little- It is used to emphasize a small amount of something.
We have made little progress in the matter.
Less- It is used to refer to an amount which is smaller than another amount. It is used as comparative.
He spends less money on luxuries.
All- It includes every person or thing of a particular kind.
All present applauded after the speech had ended.
All that glitters is not gold.
Both- It is used to talk about two persons or things of the same kind.
Both of them are good players of lawn-tennis.
Either- It refers to one of the two things.
On either side there is a narrow lane.
You can give me either of the two pens.
Neither- It refers to none of the two things. It is used with a singular noun.
Neither statement is true.
We have got two TV's but neither works properly.
Each- It refers to everyone of two or more persons, things, etc.
Each boy was given a chocolate.
Every- It is used with singular nouns and refers to all the members of a group.
Every dog has its day.
The boss expects every employee to fulfill his duties.
Most - Most indicates nearly all of a group or amount.
Most of the farmers still depend on rain.
Several- It indicates more than two but not very many.
I have seen her wearing this dress several times.