Kurukshetra Magazine May 2021 - 2 UPSC Notes | EduRev

Monthly Yojana Magazine (English)

UPSC : Kurukshetra Magazine May 2021 - 2 UPSC Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Kurukshetra      May  2021
25
ealthy lifestyle should be an integral part 
of everyone’s daily routine particularly 
in the wake of current pandemic. 
Coronavirus disease or COVID-19 
caused by the Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is 
highly transmissible. Although identified during 
December 2019, the World Health Organisation 
(WHO) declared it as a pandemic in March 2020. 
During the early phase, dietary patterns of the 
masses underwent drastic adverse changes leading 
to deterioration of their nutrition and health status 
- both at the individual, state and the national/
international levels. 
With a greater reliance on the processed/
convenience/junk foods, snacks and other ready-
to-eat food items, their diet quality was gravely 
compromised. As a result, there was an increased 
H
Dr. Santosh Jain Passi and Akanksha Jain
innovating Healthy lifestyle
prevalence of all forms of malnutrition - be it 
under-nutrition, micronutrient malnutrition or 
over-nutrition.  It is envisaged that the closure 
of schools/online classes, greater confinement 
to home and lack of outdoor physical activity will 
aggravate childhood obesity or increase the risk. 
Further, the drastically changed lifestyles caused 
by lockdowns, quarantining and unexpected crisis, 
in many cases, have caused negative emotions such 
as boredom, depression, stress and fear; which in 
turn, have led to overeating/emotional eating, 
especially that of the ready-to-eat/convenience 
foods laden with salt, sugar and fat. On the other 
hand, prolonged lockdowns changed people’s 
psyche, particularly the younger generations, 
who refined their cooking skills for taking charge 
of their own meals. Electronic media and social 
There is a need for innovating strategies to minimise disruption of food supplies so that people, particularly the needy , have 
an easy year round access to healthy diets. Policy measures need to be put in place for improving food environments in the 
country , particularly in the context of current pandemic. Health-care systems need to be revamped and the health programmes 
reprioritised– both at the national and the sub-national levels. 
Page 2


Kurukshetra      May  2021
25
ealthy lifestyle should be an integral part 
of everyone’s daily routine particularly 
in the wake of current pandemic. 
Coronavirus disease or COVID-19 
caused by the Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is 
highly transmissible. Although identified during 
December 2019, the World Health Organisation 
(WHO) declared it as a pandemic in March 2020. 
During the early phase, dietary patterns of the 
masses underwent drastic adverse changes leading 
to deterioration of their nutrition and health status 
- both at the individual, state and the national/
international levels. 
With a greater reliance on the processed/
convenience/junk foods, snacks and other ready-
to-eat food items, their diet quality was gravely 
compromised. As a result, there was an increased 
H
Dr. Santosh Jain Passi and Akanksha Jain
innovating Healthy lifestyle
prevalence of all forms of malnutrition - be it 
under-nutrition, micronutrient malnutrition or 
over-nutrition.  It is envisaged that the closure 
of schools/online classes, greater confinement 
to home and lack of outdoor physical activity will 
aggravate childhood obesity or increase the risk. 
Further, the drastically changed lifestyles caused 
by lockdowns, quarantining and unexpected crisis, 
in many cases, have caused negative emotions such 
as boredom, depression, stress and fear; which in 
turn, have led to overeating/emotional eating, 
especially that of the ready-to-eat/convenience 
foods laden with salt, sugar and fat. On the other 
hand, prolonged lockdowns changed people’s 
psyche, particularly the younger generations, 
who refined their cooking skills for taking charge 
of their own meals. Electronic media and social 
There is a need for innovating strategies to minimise disruption of food supplies so that people, particularly the needy , have 
an easy year round access to healthy diets. Policy measures need to be put in place for improving food environments in the 
country , particularly in the context of current pandemic. Health-care systems need to be revamped and the health programmes 
reprioritised– both at the national and the sub-national levels. 
Kurukshetra      May  2021
26
networks played an important role in promoting 
home-cooked food as well as in establishing 
healthy eating practices.  
Due to unhealthy diets, people are already 
facing high rates of morbidity, mortality and 
disability including double/triple burden of 
malnutrition. COVID-19 and malnutrition being 
inter-linked; malnourished individuals are at a 
greater risk of infection while COVID-19 increases 
the risk of malnutrition - both biologically and 
socio-economically.
Good nutrition is imperative before, during 
and after any infection - especially the febrile 
infections; and this is true even for COVID-19. 
Maintaining appropriate diet and healthy life style 
practices is important for supporting strong innate 
immunity. Components of a Healthy Life Style 
include:  
l Diet-related parameters 
l Physical activity and overall fitness
l Socio-psychological and mental wellbeing
l Adequate sleep
l Restricting alcohol intake (if any) and abstaining 
from smoking/drug abuse
Diet-related Parameters: In the case of 
diet, the most important aspect is eating a 
variety of foods–both within and across the 
food groups so as to ensure adequate intake of 
important nutrients. Simply by adding variety 
and bringing about dietary diversity, our diets 
tend to attain a nutrient balance. However, in 
view of our decreasing energy needs with no 
change in protein needs or increasing needs of 
various micronutrients (vitamins and minerals), 
antioxidants, phytochemicals and dietary fibre, 
it is a challenge to achieve the much needed 
nutrient balance in our diets. Therefore, we 
need to innovate our own ways to include plenty 
of fresh fruits and vegetables, whole cereals/
millets, pulses (preferably with husk), nuts, 
oil-seeds and healthy fats in our diets for not 
only supporting our immune system but also 
to reduce inflammation. On the contrary, foods 
high in fats, sugar and salt – though extremely 
palatable, should be avoided as these can lead 
to the occurrence of various non-communicable 
diseases (NCDs).
POSHAN Abhiyaan is a right step by our 
Government for improving food and nutrition 
security of the masses; however, for its success, 
the community needs to be empowered to reap 
the benefits. It is a Jan Andolan – by the people, 
for the people. Although the issue of food 
security is addressed under most of our public 
welfare schemes/policies, nutrition security is 
often overlooked. Interventions directed towards 
Information, Education and Communication (IEC)/
Behaviour Change Communication can be invaluable 
in creating awareness among the masses regarding 
various aspects of nutrition as well as the social 
safety net programmes like supplementary feeding 
programmes (ICDS/MDM) and Public Distribution 
System/PDS. Effective, customised, easy to 
comprehend messages are needed to convey the 
importance of eating right using locally available, 
seasonal and easily accessible nutrient-rich foods. 
Thus, there is an ample scope for innovating 
appropriate messages in local/regional languages 
as well as in developing effective communication 
techniques/technologies.
Fried foods are highly popular in India but the trans (TFA)
fat generated during frying poses numerous adverse health 
effects. With elevated temperatures and increasing number 
of frying cycles/increased duration of frying - viscosity, 
colour and TFA content of the oil increase. Thus, food products 
fried in such oils will have much higher total fat and many 
fold higher TFA content compared to the food items fried in 
early frying cycles.
Hence, innovative approaches are needed to generate 
awareness among the masses regarding the trans fat linked 
deleterious health effects along with the innovative strategies 
for curbing TFA formation during frying procedures - both at 
the household and the commercial levels. 
Cold pressed (kacchi-ghani), physically refined oils with higher 
smoking point (>200°C) are better suited for frying; the frying 
temperatures should be kept under check (preferably between 
160-180°C); the number of frying cycles in a particular lot of oil 
be limited and drain the finished fried food products properly 
to remove the excess oil/fat including the TFAs. Do not heat the 
oil for prolonged durations – both prior to and during frying. 
The used oils should be cooled, strained and temporarily stored 
in refrigerator (4ºC)/freezer (–20ºC) till finally utilized in the 
preparation of pulav/curries/dals or dough-making etc. Avoid 
reheating/reusing this oil for frying purposes; and reduce 
the frequency as well as restrict the quantity of fried food 
consumption.
Page 3


Kurukshetra      May  2021
25
ealthy lifestyle should be an integral part 
of everyone’s daily routine particularly 
in the wake of current pandemic. 
Coronavirus disease or COVID-19 
caused by the Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is 
highly transmissible. Although identified during 
December 2019, the World Health Organisation 
(WHO) declared it as a pandemic in March 2020. 
During the early phase, dietary patterns of the 
masses underwent drastic adverse changes leading 
to deterioration of their nutrition and health status 
- both at the individual, state and the national/
international levels. 
With a greater reliance on the processed/
convenience/junk foods, snacks and other ready-
to-eat food items, their diet quality was gravely 
compromised. As a result, there was an increased 
H
Dr. Santosh Jain Passi and Akanksha Jain
innovating Healthy lifestyle
prevalence of all forms of malnutrition - be it 
under-nutrition, micronutrient malnutrition or 
over-nutrition.  It is envisaged that the closure 
of schools/online classes, greater confinement 
to home and lack of outdoor physical activity will 
aggravate childhood obesity or increase the risk. 
Further, the drastically changed lifestyles caused 
by lockdowns, quarantining and unexpected crisis, 
in many cases, have caused negative emotions such 
as boredom, depression, stress and fear; which in 
turn, have led to overeating/emotional eating, 
especially that of the ready-to-eat/convenience 
foods laden with salt, sugar and fat. On the other 
hand, prolonged lockdowns changed people’s 
psyche, particularly the younger generations, 
who refined their cooking skills for taking charge 
of their own meals. Electronic media and social 
There is a need for innovating strategies to minimise disruption of food supplies so that people, particularly the needy , have 
an easy year round access to healthy diets. Policy measures need to be put in place for improving food environments in the 
country , particularly in the context of current pandemic. Health-care systems need to be revamped and the health programmes 
reprioritised– both at the national and the sub-national levels. 
Kurukshetra      May  2021
26
networks played an important role in promoting 
home-cooked food as well as in establishing 
healthy eating practices.  
Due to unhealthy diets, people are already 
facing high rates of morbidity, mortality and 
disability including double/triple burden of 
malnutrition. COVID-19 and malnutrition being 
inter-linked; malnourished individuals are at a 
greater risk of infection while COVID-19 increases 
the risk of malnutrition - both biologically and 
socio-economically.
Good nutrition is imperative before, during 
and after any infection - especially the febrile 
infections; and this is true even for COVID-19. 
Maintaining appropriate diet and healthy life style 
practices is important for supporting strong innate 
immunity. Components of a Healthy Life Style 
include:  
l Diet-related parameters 
l Physical activity and overall fitness
l Socio-psychological and mental wellbeing
l Adequate sleep
l Restricting alcohol intake (if any) and abstaining 
from smoking/drug abuse
Diet-related Parameters: In the case of 
diet, the most important aspect is eating a 
variety of foods–both within and across the 
food groups so as to ensure adequate intake of 
important nutrients. Simply by adding variety 
and bringing about dietary diversity, our diets 
tend to attain a nutrient balance. However, in 
view of our decreasing energy needs with no 
change in protein needs or increasing needs of 
various micronutrients (vitamins and minerals), 
antioxidants, phytochemicals and dietary fibre, 
it is a challenge to achieve the much needed 
nutrient balance in our diets. Therefore, we 
need to innovate our own ways to include plenty 
of fresh fruits and vegetables, whole cereals/
millets, pulses (preferably with husk), nuts, 
oil-seeds and healthy fats in our diets for not 
only supporting our immune system but also 
to reduce inflammation. On the contrary, foods 
high in fats, sugar and salt – though extremely 
palatable, should be avoided as these can lead 
to the occurrence of various non-communicable 
diseases (NCDs).
POSHAN Abhiyaan is a right step by our 
Government for improving food and nutrition 
security of the masses; however, for its success, 
the community needs to be empowered to reap 
the benefits. It is a Jan Andolan – by the people, 
for the people. Although the issue of food 
security is addressed under most of our public 
welfare schemes/policies, nutrition security is 
often overlooked. Interventions directed towards 
Information, Education and Communication (IEC)/
Behaviour Change Communication can be invaluable 
in creating awareness among the masses regarding 
various aspects of nutrition as well as the social 
safety net programmes like supplementary feeding 
programmes (ICDS/MDM) and Public Distribution 
System/PDS. Effective, customised, easy to 
comprehend messages are needed to convey the 
importance of eating right using locally available, 
seasonal and easily accessible nutrient-rich foods. 
Thus, there is an ample scope for innovating 
appropriate messages in local/regional languages 
as well as in developing effective communication 
techniques/technologies.
Fried foods are highly popular in India but the trans (TFA)
fat generated during frying poses numerous adverse health 
effects. With elevated temperatures and increasing number 
of frying cycles/increased duration of frying - viscosity, 
colour and TFA content of the oil increase. Thus, food products 
fried in such oils will have much higher total fat and many 
fold higher TFA content compared to the food items fried in 
early frying cycles.
Hence, innovative approaches are needed to generate 
awareness among the masses regarding the trans fat linked 
deleterious health effects along with the innovative strategies 
for curbing TFA formation during frying procedures - both at 
the household and the commercial levels. 
Cold pressed (kacchi-ghani), physically refined oils with higher 
smoking point (>200°C) are better suited for frying; the frying 
temperatures should be kept under check (preferably between 
160-180°C); the number of frying cycles in a particular lot of oil 
be limited and drain the finished fried food products properly 
to remove the excess oil/fat including the TFAs. Do not heat the 
oil for prolonged durations – both prior to and during frying. 
The used oils should be cooled, strained and temporarily stored 
in refrigerator (4ºC)/freezer (–20ºC) till finally utilized in the 
preparation of pulav/curries/dals or dough-making etc. Avoid 
reheating/reusing this oil for frying purposes; and reduce 
the frequency as well as restrict the quantity of fried food 
consumption.
Kurukshetra      May  2021
27
It is important that people remain hydrated 
and drink ample amounts of potable water or fresh 
fruit/vegetable juices (at least 6-8 glasses/day) 
Based on Ayurvedic principles, the Ministry 
of AYUSH released a set of immune boosting 
guidelines and recommended several Ayurvedic 
kadhas (herbal tea/decoctions) made using basil, 
cinnamon, black pepper, dry ginger, giloy etc. They 
promote golden (haldi) milk as well as the use of 
turmeric, cumin, coriander and garlic in cooking. 
In October 2020, our Health Ministry released the 
Protocol for the Management of COVID-19, which 
includes dietary measures, yoga and Ayurvedic 
herbs/formulations such as Ashwagandha and 
AYUSH-64 (polyherbal Ayurvedic formulation for 
treating Influenza-like illnesses) for preventing 
the coronavirus infection and treatment of mild/
asymptomatic cases; and Chyawanprash (under 
Registered Ayurveda physician’s guidance) which 
is believed to be effective in post-recovery phase. 
AYU SAMVAD - one of the largest public awareness 
campaigns in recent times taps Ayurveda for 
solutions to fight COVID-19 pandemic; and is 
operationalised by the All India Institute of 
Ayurveda, Ministry of AYUSH.           
COVID-19 pandemic has led to increased 
food losses/wastage the world over putting 
people’s food and nutrition security at risk.  Food 
and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) has proposed 
several innovative technologies to improve food 
production, distribution and consumption; and 
thus, transforming our food systems for betterment. 
Popularity of various Apps for preventing food 
loss or reducing food waste or promoting food-
donation has been on a rise. Several nations 
started developing Apps to facilitate the logistics, 
transport and e-commerce of perishable foods. 
However, the ‘Feeding India App’ focuses on 
donation of food for the needy; and through this 
App, restaurants or even individuals can donate 
food which is collected and distributed by a 
Ayurveda - our ancient system of medicine, highlights the 
four pillars of life, namely - Aahar (diet), Vihar (lifestyle), 
Achhar  (conduct with the external world) and Vichhar  (mental 
health). According to this, like medicine, food can recuperate 
an individual by establishing the connection between elements 
of life, food and body. Individuals’ temperament and physical/
emotional state can be regulated by their food choices (quality 
and quantity) and lifestyle. Ayurveda recommends inculcation 
of healthy lifestyle, meditation, pranayama, adequate sleep 
and Satvik  food for leading a happy/peaceful life as well  
as for fighting various diseases, including COVID-19.
A Satvik diet includes foods and eating habits that are 
natural, vital, provide calmness/purity and promote longevity, 
intelligence, strength and good health. Satvik foods include:  
fruits, vegetables, sprouted whole grains, cereals, pulses, nuts 
and oil-seeds, low fat milk and milk products, pure fruit juices 
and the cooked food consumed within 3-4 hours of cooking.
for strengthening their immune system; however, 
sugar-sweetened beverages should be avoided. 
Access to safe drinking water provides protection 
against infectious diseases which in turn exacerbate 
under-nutrition. Here too, innovative technologies/
approaches are needed to improve potable water 
accessibility to ensure adequate fluid intake by the 
masses.
Novelty of Coronavirus disease with an 
absolute lack of curative measures or vaccination 
forced people to revisit the traditional remedies. 
Age-old preparations (Kadhas etc.) using immunity-
boosting herbs and spices have been/are being 
consumed by a large majority of our people for 
strengthening their immunity; a strong innate 
immunity is proven to prevent COVID-19. 
Read More
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